Goodpasture Syndrome

Categories: Bone diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Immune diseases, Nephrological diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Goodpasture Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Goodpasture Syndrome:

Name: Goodpasture Syndrome 57 12 20 58 54 15 17
Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease 12 58 44 71
Pulmonary Renal Syndrome 20 71
Anti-Gbm Disease 12 54
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis with Pulmonary Hemorrhage 20
Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody Disease 20
Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease 36
Anti-Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis 71
Glomerulonephritis - Pulmonary Hemorrhage 20
Goodpasture's Syndrome 74
Anti-Gbm Syndrome 58


Orphanet epidemiological data:

anti-glomerular basement membrane disease
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: Adolescent,Adult;


57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
autosomal recessive


goodpasture syndrome:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Orphanet: 58  
Rare circulatory system diseases
Rare renal diseases
Rare respiratory diseases
Rare systemic and rhumatological diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9808
OMIM® 57 233450
KEGG 36 H01721
ICD9CM 34 446.21
MeSH 44 D019867
NCIt 50 C84566
SNOMED-CT 67 788613004
ICD10 32 M31.0
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 M31.0+ N08.5*
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0403529
Orphanet 58 ORPHA375
MedGen 41 C0403529
UMLS 71 C0403529 C0549143 C1332309

Summaries for Goodpasture Syndrome

GARD : 20 Goodpasture syndrome is an autoimmune disease that affects the lungs and kidneys and is characterized by pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage (bleeding in the lungs) and a kidney disease known as glomerulonephritis. Some use the term "Goodpasture syndrome" for the findings of glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage and the term "Goodpasture disease" for those patients with glomerulonephritis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and anti-GBM antibodies. Currently, the preferred term for both conditions is "anti-GBM antibody disease". Circulating antibodies are directed against the collagen of the part of the kidney known as the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), resulting in acute or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Antibodies also attack the collagen of the air sacs of the lung (alveoli) resulting in bleeding of the lung (pulmonary hemorrhage). Symptoms may include general body discomfort or pain, bleeding from the nose and/or blood in the urine, respiratory problems, anemia, chest pain, and kidney failure. Anti-GBM disease is thought to result from an environmental insult (smoking, infections, exposure to certain drugs) in a person with genetic susceptibility, such as a specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. Diagnosis is confirmed with the presence of anti-GBM antibody in the blood or in the kidney. The treatment of choice is plasmapheresis in conjunction with prednisone and cyclophosphamide.

MalaCards based summary : Goodpasture Syndrome, also known as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, is related to crescentic glomerulonephritis and x-linked alport syndrome. An important gene associated with Goodpasture Syndrome is COL4A3 (Collagen Type IV Alpha 3 Chain), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Degradation of the extracellular matrix and Tuberculosis. The drugs Immunologic Factors and Immunoglobulin G have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include kidney, lung and neutrophil, and related phenotypes are respiratory insufficiency and proteinuria

Disease Ontology : 12 An autoimmune disease that is characterized by antibody attack of the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure.

KEGG : 36 Goodpasture syndrome (GS), or anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease, is a rare and organ-specific autoimmune disease defined by anti-GBM antibody-mediated damage (mainly immunoglobulin G-1) resulting in progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis and, frequently, diffuse pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage. Clinically, GS is characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure, although the clinical spectrum may range from only mild symptoms to a relentless and finally lethal outcome. This disease accounts for 10-20% of the patients with acute renal failure following a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The disease is caused by an autoimmune response against the non-collagenase domain of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1], found in the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes. Without prompt diagnosis and treatment, the disease can lead to bleeding in the lungs, kidney failure, and even death. Early and intensive treatment with plasmapheresis and immunosuppression with systemic corticosteroids pending results of diagnostic testing, and later cyclophosphamide, is often beneficial, with 90% of patients surviving the acute presentation of GS.

Wikipedia : 74 Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), also known as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, is a rare... more...

More information from OMIM: 233450

Related Diseases for Goodpasture Syndrome

Diseases related to Goodpasture Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 436)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 crescentic glomerulonephritis 30.7 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO
2 x-linked alport syndrome 30.6 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
3 pulmonary hemosiderosis 30.5 PRTN3 MPO
4 diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis 30.3 HLA-DRB1 CCR6
5 autoimmune glomerulonephritis 30.3 FCGR2B COL4A3 CD4 CCR6
6 anca-associated vasculitis 30.3 PRTN3 MPO
7 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis 30.2 PRTN3 PLA2R1 NPHS1 MPO COL4A4 COL4A3
8 churg-strauss syndrome 30.2 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1
9 autoimmune vasculitis 30.2 PRTN3 MPO CD4 CCR6
10 meningoencephalitis 30.2 CD4 CCR6 ALB
11 alport syndrome 1, x-linked 30.2 COL4A5 COL4A4
12 bacterial pneumonia 30.1 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
13 polyarteritis nodosa 30.1 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1
14 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 30.0 MPO CCR6 ALB
15 drug-induced lupus erythematosus 30.0 H2AC18 CD4 ALB
16 inner ear disease 29.9 MPO COL4A5 COL4A4
17 respiratory failure 29.9 MPO H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
18 exanthem 29.9 PRTN3 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
19 endocarditis 29.9 VCAM1 FCGR2A ALB
20 anti-basement membrane glomerulonephritis 29.9 PRTN3 MPO FCGR2B COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
21 autoimmune disease 29.9 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
22 central nervous system vasculitis 29.8 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1 CD4 CCR6
23 henoch-schoenlein purpura 29.8 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO ALB
24 hematuria, benign familial 29.8 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 ALB
25 granulomatosis with polyangiitis 29.8 PRTN3 MPO CD4 CCR6
26 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 29.7 NPHS1 CFP ALB
27 primary biliary cholangitis 29.7 PRTN3 HLA-DRB1 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
28 takayasu arteritis 29.7 VCAM1 HLA-DRB1 FCGR2A
29 end stage renal disease 29.7 NPHS1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 ALB
30 chickenpox 29.7 CD4 CCR6 ALB
31 microscopic polyangiitis 29.7 MPO HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
32 nail-patella syndrome 29.6 NPHS1 COL4A4 COL4A3
33 multiple sclerosis 29.6 VCAM1 HLA-DRB1 CD52 CD4 CCR6 ALB
34 immune-complex glomerulonephritis 29.5 VCAM1 MPO H2AC18 CD4 ALB
35 membranous nephropathy 29.4 PLA2R1 NPHS1 MPO ALB
36 connective tissue disease 29.4 HLA-DRB1 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
37 eye disease 29.3 VCAM1 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ALB
38 glomerulonephritis 29.2 VCAM1 PRTN3 NPHS1 NID1 MPO COL4A5
39 proteinuria, chronic benign 29.2 NPHS1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 ALB
40 kidney disease 29.2 VCAM1 PRTN3 NPHS1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
41 iga glomerulonephritis 29.2 PRTN3 NPHS1 CFP CCR6 ALB
42 bacterial infectious disease 29.0 H2AC18 FCGR2A CFP CD4 CCR6
43 disease by infectious agent 28.8 PRTN3 H2AC18 FCGR2A CD4 CCR6 ALB
44 chronic kidney disease 28.8 VCAM1 NPHS1 MPO COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
45 alport syndrome 28.7 NPHS1 NID1 HLA-DRB1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
46 rheumatoid arthritis 28.6 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
47 systemic lupus erythematosus 28.5 VCAM1 PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1 H2AC18 FCGR2B
48 purulent acute otitis media 10.4 PRTN3 MPO
49 allergic cutaneous vasculitis 10.4 PRTN3 MPO
50 hypertensive encephalopathy 10.4

Comorbidity relations with Goodpasture Syndrome via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Kidney Failure Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Respiratory Failure

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Goodpasture Syndrome:

Diseases related to Goodpasture Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Goodpasture Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Goodpasture Syndrome:

58 31 (show all 24)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 respiratory insufficiency 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002093
2 proteinuria 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000093
3 anemia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001903
4 autoimmunity 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002960
5 glomerulopathy 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100820
6 hemoptysis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002105
7 cough 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012735
8 chest pain 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100749
9 vasculitis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002633
10 pulmonary infiltrates 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002113
11 persistence of primary teeth 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0006335
12 hematuria 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000790
13 arthritis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001369
14 renal insufficiency 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000083
15 fever 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001945
16 arthralgia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002829
17 myalgia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003326
18 retinal detachment 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000541
19 purpura 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000979
20 pulmonary hemorrhage 31 very rare (1%) HP:0040223
21 cytoplasmic antineutrophil antibody positivity 31 very rare (1%) HP:0032230
22 dyspnea 31 HP:0002094
23 glomerulonephritis 31 HP:0000099
24 anti-glomerular basement membrane-antibody positivity 31 HP:0033030

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
Laboratory Abnormalities:
circulating antibodies to alpha-3 chain of type iv collagen


autoimmune disease

Genitourinary Kidneys:
renal insufficiency

Respiratory Lung:
pulmonary infiltrates
pulmonary hemorrhage

Clinical features from OMIM®:

233450 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Goodpasture Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.17 ALB CCR6 CD52 COL4A5 FCGR2A PRTN3

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Goodpasture Syndrome:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.47 ALB CCR6 CD4 CFP COL4A3 COL4A4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Goodpasture Syndrome

Drugs for Goodpasture Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
2 Immunoglobulin G Phase 2
3 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 2
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational 68-04-2
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 77-92-9 311
6 Hemostatics
7 Pharmaceutical Solutions
8 Citrate
9 Immunoglobulins
10 Antibodies
11 Autoantibodies

Interventional clinical trials:

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 An Open-Label Phase II Study in Anti-GBM Disease (Goodpasture's Disease) With Adverse Renal Prognosis to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of IdeS --GOOD-IDES Completed NCT03157037 Phase 2
2 A Prospective Interventional Study to Investigate Changes in Haemostasis After Therapeutic Plasmapheresis With Citrate Anticoagulation With or Without Coagulation Factors Replacement Unknown status NCT03801135 Fibrinogen concentrate
3 Comparison of ANCA and Anti-GBM Auto-antibodies Removal Kinetics Between Plasma Exchanges and Immunoadsorption in Patients With ANCA-associated Vasculitis or Anti-GBM Disease Recruiting NCT03635385

Search NIH Clinical Center for Goodpasture Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

Genetic Tests for Goodpasture Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Goodpasture Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Goodpasture Syndrome:

Kidney, Lung, Neutrophil, T Cells, Bone Marrow, Bone, Endothelial

Publications for Goodpasture Syndrome

Articles related to Goodpasture Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 495)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Susceptibility to anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and Goodpasture syndrome is linked to MHC class II genes and the emergence of T cell-mediated immunity in mice. 57 61
9410904 1997
Molecular cloning of the human Goodpasture antigen demonstrates it to be the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen. 61 57
1737849 1992
Dominant protection from HLA-linked autoimmunity by antigen-specific regulatory T cells. 57
28467828 2017
Molecular architecture of the Goodpasture autoantigen in anti-GBM nephritis. 57
20660402 2010
Alport's syndrome, Goodpasture's syndrome, and type IV collagen. 57
12815141 2003
Goodpasture's syndrome in twins. 57
7158437 1982
Goodpasture's syndrome in identical twins. 57
563692 1978
Goodpasture's syndrome: a familial occurrence. 57
5017886 1972
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with myeloperoxidase specificity in a patient with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61 54
7651563 1995
Prognostic implication of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with myeloperoxidase specificity in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61 54
1657470 1991
Clinicopathological characteristics and predictors of poor outcome in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease - a fifteen year single center experience. 61
33334228 2021
The clinical and immunological features of the post-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
33435789 2021
Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with anti-GBM antibody negativity and ANCA positivity: a case report. 61
33546629 2021
Sequential occurrence of microscopic polyangiitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease in a patient with small cell lung cancer: a case report. 61
33517889 2021
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: A state of the art review. 61
33246295 2021
Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease complicated by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infection-related rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: a case report and literature review. 61
33460013 2021
The Challenging Management of Cancer: An Immunonephrologist's Perspective. 61
33326976 2021
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: What Have We Learned? 61
32991349 2021
Double filtration plasmapheresis - 10-year pediatric experience as an alternative to plasma exchange. 61
32919882 2020
Hypertensive emergency and seizures in a 30-year-old man with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
33363926 2020
Long-term outcomes in kidney transplant recipients with end-stage kidney disease due to anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
33259076 2020
Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease as a Potential Complication of COVID-19: A Case Report and Review of Literature. 61
33489507 2020
Imlifidase: First Approval. 61
33058042 2020
A patient with COVID-19 and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
33139077 2020
The prevalence and immunological features of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody in patients with HIV. 61
33032537 2020
Goodpasture syndrome manifesting as nephrotic-range proteinuria with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody seronegativity: A case report. 61
32991448 2020
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. 61
32599088 2020
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease complicated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and subcortical cerebral hemorrhage: a case report and review of the literature. 61
32277358 2020
Renal Survival in Children with Glomerulonephritis with Crescents: A Pediatric Nephrology Research Consortium Cohort Study. 61
32722612 2020
A rare case of Goodpasture syndrome concomitant with bleeding jejunal Dieulafoy's lesion. 61
31786734 2020
[Benefit of Howell-Jolly bodies detection: finding of an acquired hyposplenism in a patient with Goodpasture syndrome]. 61
32319948 2020
Human leucocyte antigen-associated anti-glomerular basement membrane disease in siblings. 61
32296530 2020
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: A clinicomorphological study of 16 cases. 61
32317520 2020
Glomerulonephritis With Positive Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies Following Alemtuzumab Treatment. 61
32815683 2020
Severe Infection in Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: A Retrospective Multicenter French Study. 61
32143501 2020
Atypical Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease With Diffuse Crescentic Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis: Case Report and Review of Literature. 61
32391252 2020
Clinical-Pathological Features and Outcome of Atypical Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease in a Large Single Cohort. 61
33013861 2020
An uncommon presentation of a rare disease: A case of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease without renal involvement. 61
33294356 2020
[Review on anti-glomerular basement membrane disease or Goodpasture's syndrome]. 61
31776042 2020
Goodpasture syndrome and hemorrhage after renal biopsy: A case report. 61
32047792 2020
A new mouse model of anti-GBM disease sheds light on maternal transfer of alloantibodies in glomerular disease. 61
31759484 2019
Maternal alloimmune IgG causes anti-glomerular basement membrane disease in perinatal transgenic mice that express human laminin α5. 61
31530475 2019
Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease presenting as macroscopic haematuria, loin pain and acute kidney injury after intensive exercise. 61
31807293 2019
Odd combinations-coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and Sjögren's syndrome. 61
31170292 2019
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: an update on subgroups, pathogenesis and therapies. 61
30371823 2019
The IgG-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes causes rapid clearance of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in patients with refractory anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
31563334 2019
IdeS in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Is this the new deal? 61
31648697 2019
Plasma exchange in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. 61
31703956 2019
Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of autoimmune diseases. 61
30692587 2019
Recurrent anti-GBM disease with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia: A case report. 61
31374037 2019

Variations for Goodpasture Syndrome

Expression for Goodpasture Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Goodpasture Syndrome.

Pathways for Goodpasture Syndrome

GO Terms for Goodpasture Syndrome

Cellular components related to Goodpasture Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 10.13 VCAM1 PXDN PRTN3 NPHS1 NID1 MPO
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.06 PXDN PRTN3 PLA2R1 NID1 MPO COL4A5
3 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.03 VCAM1 PLA2R1 NPHS1 HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.96 VCAM1 PXDN PRTN3 MPO HLA-DRB1 COL4A5
5 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.85 VCAM1 HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B CD4 CCR6
6 basement membrane GO:0005604 9.71 NID1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
7 collagen trimer GO:0005581 9.67 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 CERT1
8 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.63 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 CFP CD4 ALB
9 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 9.17 PXDN PRTN3 NID1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
10 collagen type IV trimer GO:0005587 9.13 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3

Biological processes related to Goodpasture Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.7 PXDN HLA-DRB1 FCGR2B CFP CERT1 CD4
2 cellular oxidant detoxification GO:0098869 9.5 PXDN MPO ALB
3 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.43 VCAM1 PXDN NID1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
4 positive regulation of viral entry into host cell GO:0046598 9.4 HLA-DRB1 CD4
5 collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway GO:0038063 9.37 COL4A5 COL4A3
6 positive regulation of monocyte differentiation GO:0045657 9.26 HLA-DRB1 CD4
7 glomerular basement membrane development GO:0032836 8.92 NPHS1 NID1 COL4A4 COL4A3

Molecular functions related to Goodpasture Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 IgG binding GO:0019864 9.16 FCGR2B FCGR2A
2 extracellular matrix structural constituent conferring tensile strength GO:0030020 9.13 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3
3 extracellular matrix structural constituent GO:0005201 9.1 PXDN NID1 COL4A5 COL4A4 COL4A3 CD4

Sources for Goodpasture Syndrome

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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