Gout (GOUT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Metabolic diseases, Nephrological diseases, Skin diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Gout

Summaries for Gout

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Gout is a type of arthritis, which is a group of related disorders caused by episodes of abnormal inflammation in the joints. People with gout have high levels of a substance called urate in the blood (hyperuricemia). Gout develops when hyperuricemia leads to the formation of urate crystals in joints, triggering an inflammatory response from the immune system.In people with gout, the first episode of inflammation (called a flare) usually affects the big toe or other joints in the foot or ankle. If urate levels remain high, flares can recur, affecting additional joints throughout the body. The time between flares varies among affected individuals; however, most people who experience multiple flares have their second one within a year of their first.Flares usually begin at night and can last several days. It is unclear what causes a flare to stop; the body likely turns off the inflammation response after a certain period of time. During a flare, individuals can experience throbbing or burning pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Fevers may occur, after which the skin over the affected joint can begin to peel. Without treatment, people with gout can experience frequent flares and joint pain and damage, which can limit mobility and decrease quality of life.In about 15 percent of people with gout, urate accumulates in the kidneys and forms kidney stones. As the condition worsens, urate crystals can also be deposited under the skin or in other soft tissue, forming a nodule called a tophus (plural: tophi). These tophi often form in the hands, elbows, or feet. Tophi do not typically cause pain, but they can become inflamed, infected, or ooze fluid. Depending on their location, tophi can interfere with movements such as walking or gripping objects.Many people with gout also have other health conditions. Most affected individuals have high blood pressure (hypertension), chronic kidney disease, or obesity. Some also have diabetes, heart disease, or a history of stroke. It is unclear whether gout is the cause of a person's increased risk for these conditions, or whether the conditions cause the development of gout, or whether both of these situations occur to influence disease.

MalaCards based summary: Gout, also known as gouty arthritis, is related to tubulointerstitial kidney disease, autosomal dominant, 1 and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity, and has symptoms including back pain, sciatica and muscle cramp. An important gene associated with Gout is DARS2 (Aspartyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Disease and Overview of interferons-mediated signaling pathway. The drugs Febuxostat and Prednisolone phosphate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include joint, kidney and skin, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and renal/urinary system

MedlinePlus: 41 Gout is a common, painful form of arthritis. It causes swollen, red, hot and stiff joints. Gout happens when uric acid builds up in your body. Uric acid comes from the breakdown of substances called purines. Purines are in your body's tissues and in foods, such as liver, dried beans and peas, and anchovies. Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood. It passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes uric acid can build up and form needle-like crystals. When they form in your joints, it is very painful. The crystals can also cause kidney stones. Often, gout first attacks your big toe. It can also attack ankles, heels, knees, wrists, fingers, and elbows. At first, gout attacks usually get better in days. Eventually, attacks last longer and happen more often. You are more likely to get gout if you: Are a man Have family member with gout Are overweight Drink alcohol Eat too many foods rich in purines Gout can be hard to diagnose. Your doctor may take a sample of fluid from an inflamed joint to look for crystals. You can treat gout with medicines. Pseudogout has similar symptoms and is sometimes confused with gout. However, it is caused by calcium phosphate, not uric acid. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

PubMed Health : 63 Gout: Gout is a metabolic disorder which causes inflammation of the joints. During acute episodes, certain joints swell up within just a few hours and become very sensitive to pain. The inflammation is triggered by tiny needle-shaped crystals of uric acid that mainly build up in the joints. These crystals may form if there is too much uric acid in the body. The inflammation normally goes away on its own within one to two weeks. The pain can be relieved with medication. Most people with gout experience acute attacks every now and then. Months or even years can pass between attacks, but they may be more frequent too. There are a number of options to prevent them. Some people already notice an improvement if they avoid certain foods and other possible triggers. Others may take medication to lower their uric acid levels over the long term. The medication is mostly considered for people who have frequent gout attacks or complications such as kidney stones or lumps called tophi. Many people have high levels of uric acid without it causing any noticeable problems. It's not clear whether this affects their health. It doesn't need to be treated.

CDC: 2 Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis that is very painful. It usually affects one joint at a time (often the big toe joint). There are times when symptoms get worse, known as flares, and times when there are no symptoms, known as remission. Repeated bouts of gout can lead to gouty arthritis, a worsening form of arthritis. There is no cure for gout, but you can effectively treat and manage the condition with medication and self-management strategies.

Disease Ontology: 11 An arthritis that has material basis in uric acid crystal deposits located in joint.

Wikipedia: 75 Gout (/ɡaʊt/ GOWT) is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red,... more...

Related Diseases for Gout

Diseases related to Gout via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1072)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 tubulointerstitial kidney disease, autosomal dominant, 1 33.0 UMOD SLC22A12 HPRT1
2 phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity 33.0 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
3 hyperuricemia, hprt-related 32.9 SLC22A12 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
4 lesch-nyhan syndrome 32.4 XDH UMOD SLC22A12 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
5 hyperuricemia 31.8 XDH UMOD SLC22A8 SLC22A12 PRPS1 HPRT1
6 arthritis 31.7 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18 HLA-B CXCL8
7 septic arthritis 31.3 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
8 nephrolithiasis 31.3 XDH UMOD SLC22A12 IL1B HPRT1 APRT
9 chronic kidney disease 31.2 UMOD IL6 IL1B APRT ALB
10 spondyloarthropathy 1 31.2 IL6 IL1B HLA-B
11 synovitis 31.2 IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8
12 spondylitis 31.2 IL6 IL1B HLA-B
13 back pain 31.1 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
14 nephrolithiasis, uric acid 31.0 XDH SLC22A12 PRPS1 HPRT1
15 urolithiasis 30.8 XDH UMOD PRPS1 IL6 IL1B HPRT1
16 disorder of purine metabolism 30.8 HPRT1 APRT
17 congestive heart failure 30.8 XDH IL6 IL1B ALB
18 alcohol use disorder 30.8 IL6 IL1B CYP2E1 ALB
19 amyloidosis 30.8 MEFV IL6 IL1B ALB
20 serum amyloid a amyloidosis 30.8 MEFV IL6 ALB
21 osteomyelitis 30.7 MEFV IL6 IL1B CXCL8
22 rheumatoid arthritis 30.7 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18 HLA-B CXCL8
23 sleep apnea 30.7 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
24 acute kidney failure 30.6 UMOD SLC22A12 IL6 IL18 ALB
25 peptic ulcer disease 30.6 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
26 diarrhea 30.6 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB ABCG2
27 exanthem 30.6 IL6 IL1B IL18 HLA-B CXCL8 ALB
28 atherosclerosis susceptibility 30.6 IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8 ALB
29 spondyloarthropathy 30.6 MEFV IL6 IL1B HLA-B CXCL8
30 apnea, obstructive sleep 30.6 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
31 xanthinuria 30.6 XDH SLC22A12 HPRT1 APRT
32 familial mediterranean fever 30.6 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8
33 cellulitis 30.6 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
34 uveitis 30.6 IL6 IL1B HLA-B CXCL8
35 deficiency anemia 30.5 XDH IL6 IL1B HPRT1 HLA-B ALB
36 fibromyalgia 30.5 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
37 peripheral vascular disease 30.5 IL6 IL1B ALB
38 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency 30.5 XDH UMOD HPRT1 APRT
39 sarcoidosis 1 30.5 P2RX7 IL6 IL1B IL18 ALB
40 kidney disease 30.5 XDH UMOD MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18
41 neutropenia 30.4 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB ABCG2
42 brucellosis 30.4 MEFV IL6 IL18 HLA-B CXCL8
43 stomatitis 30.4 MEFV IL6 IL1B CXCL8
44 pyelonephritis 30.4 UMOD IL6 IL1B CXCL8 ALB
45 peritonitis 30.4 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8 ALB
46 pain agnosia 30.4 IL6 IL1B ALB
47 glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 30.3 SLC22A7 IL6 ALB
48 hypouricemia, renal, 1 30.3 SLC22A12 HPRT1
49 common cold 30.3 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
50 vasculitis 30.3 MEFV IL6 IL1B HLA-B CXCL8

Comorbidity relations with Gout via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 25)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Aortic Valve Disease 1
Benign Essential Hypertension Bladder Neck Obstruction
Bronchitis Chronic Kidney Disease
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
First-Degree Atrioventricular Block Generalized Atherosclerosis
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Hypothyroidism Intermediate Coronary Syndrome
Iron Deficiency Anemia Kidney Disease
Mitral Valve Disease Osteoarthritis
Peripheral Vascular Disease Prostate Cancer
Prostatic Hypertrophy Sinoatrial Node Disease
Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gout:

Diseases related to Gout

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gout

UMLS symptoms related to Gout:

back pain; sciatica; muscle cramp

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.18 ABCG2 ALB CXCL8 CYP2C8 CYP2E1 DARS2
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.18 ABCG2 ALB APRT CYP2C8 CYP2E1 DARS2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gout:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.03 ABCG2 ALB APRT CYP2E1 DARS2 HPRT1
2 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.91 ABCG2 ALB APRT HPRT1 IL6 SLC22A12
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.73 ABCG2 ALB APRT HLA-B HPRT1 IL18
4 integument MP:0010771 9.28 ABCG2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gout

PubMed Health treatment related to Gout: 63

The treatment of gout has two aims: In the short term, it should provide pain relief during gout attacks. In the long term, it should prevent further attacks and lower the risk of chronic inflammations and joint damage. Gout attacks are treated with anti-inflammatory medications. These include anti-inflammatory painkillers, such as ibuprofen , indometacine or naproxen , steroid medicines (usually tablets with prednisolone ), as well as the gout medicine colchicine . Because colchicine is slow to start working and has certain possible side effects, it is no longer used very often. If a single drug can’t provide enough pain relief, the treatments can be combined. Cooling the affected joint probably also helps, and most people find it very soothing. The goal of long-term gout treatment is to prevent gout attacks and complications by lowering the level of uric acid . This can be done in two ways: Changing your diet: Especially eating less meat, fish and seafood, and drinking less alcohol. Taking medication to lower your uric acid levels, typically allopurinol . Not everyone who has gout needs to take medicine to lower their uric acid levels. In particular, people who have already had a gout attack usually don’t need to take it. This is because some people don't have any problems after that for years, and others only have them rarely. Medication is mainly used if the attacks become more frequent or are very distressing. It also makes sense to take it if complications such as tophi or kidney stones have already developed, or if the functioning of the kidney is affected. Medication might also be an option if changes to your diet aren’t enough to make a difference.

Drugs for Gout (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 190)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 4894 5755
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5 1875
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 4159 6741
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6, 119141-88-7 9568614 4594
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Hydrocortisone succinate Approved Phase 4 2203-97-6 3643
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 3640 5754
Fexofenadine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83799-24-0 3348
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Levoleucovorin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2, 58-05-9, 73951-54-9 149436 6006
Methotrexate Approved Phase 4 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 4112 126941
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4 16129878 16129778
Rasburicase Approved, Investigational Phase 4 134774-45-1
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
Canagliflozin Approved Phase 4 842133-18-0 74323022 24812758
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7 4897
Uric acid Investigational Phase 4 69-93-2 1175
26 Antimetabolites Phase 4
27 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
28 Antacids Phase 4
29 Proton Pump Inhibitors Phase 4
30 Antiemetics Phase 4
31 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4 584547
33 Diacetylrhein Phase 4
34 Vitamins Phase 4
35 Trace Elements Phase 4
36 Micronutrients Phase 4
37 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
38 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Phase 4
39 Hematinics Phase 4
40 Antipyretics Phase 4
41 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
42 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
Histamine phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 134614
44 Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating Phase 4
45 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
46 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
47 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
48 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
49 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
50 Anesthetics, General Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 297)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Prospective, Non-comparative, Single Centre Study to Determine the Performance & Survivorship of the SIGMA HP® PARTIAL KNEE SYSTEM. Completed NCT01529099 Phase 4
2 Therapy for Acute Gout: Does Initial Use of Allopurinol Effect Duration and/or Recurrence Rate of Acute Attacks Completed NCT01310673 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo
3 Does Allopurinol Prolong a Treated, Acute Gout Flare? Completed NCT01988402 Phase 4 allopurinol;Placebo (sugar pill)
4 Febuxostat (Zurig) Efficacy & Safety Trial in Comparison With Allopurinol in Hyperuricemic Subjects With or Without Gout Completed NCT02600780 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
5 A Multicenter, Open-Label, Efficacy and Safety Study of Pegloticase in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Who Have Undergone Kidney Transplantation Completed NCT04087720 Phase 4
6 CSP #594 - Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs. Febuxostat Completed NCT02579096 Phase 4 allopurinol capsule, 100-800 mg by mouth once daily;febuxostat tablet 40-120 mg by mouth once daily;Placebo, vehicle control (febuxostat-shaped);Placebo, vehicle control (allopurinol-shaped)
7 Diacerein Combined With Febuxostat Relieves Symptoms of Gout by Suppressing IL-1βinflammation Completed NCT02060552 Phase 4 Diacerein;Colchicine;Febuxostat
8 Multi-centre, Open-label, Active-comparator, Pragmatic Clinical Trial of Low-dose Colchicine Versus Naproxen in Patients With Acute Gout. Completed NCT01994226 Phase 4 Low-dose colchicine;Naproxen 750 mg/250 mg
9 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Comparator-Controlled 5-Day Trial of the Effect of Etoricoxib 120 mg Versus Indomethacin 150 mg in the Treatment of Acute Gout Completed NCT00142558 Phase 4 MK0663; etoricoxib / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days;Comparator: indomethacin 75 mg sustained release capsule / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days
10 A 1-Week, Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, Parallel Trial Comparing Lumiracoxib (400 mg Once Daily) in Patients With Acute Flares of Gout, Using Indomethacin (50 mg Three Times a Day) Completed NCT00170781 Phase 4 Lumiracoxib
11 The Effect of Intensive Urate Lowering Therapy (ULT) With Febuxostat in Comparison With Allopurinol on Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Gout Using Surrogate Markers: a Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT02500641 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80/120mg/day;Allopurinol 100 up to 600mg/day;Colchicine;Naproxen;Omeprazole
12 A Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Open-Label [OL]) Completed NCT03635957 Phase 4 Methotrexate (MTX);Standard Gout Flare Prophylaxis;Infusion Reaction (IR) Prophylaxis
13 Shifting the Paradigm of Gout: An Assessment of Chronic Synovial-Based Inflammation and Its Role With Serum Urate Levels. Completed NCT01112982 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Colchicine
14 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled GOut Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Randomized Controlled Trial [RCT]) Completed NCT03994731 Phase 4 methotrexate;placebo;gout flare prophylaxis regimen;fexofenadine;acetaminophen;methylprednisolone
15 Long-term Allopurinol Safety Study Evaluating Outcomes in Gout Patients (LASSO) Completed NCT01391325 Phase 4 Allopurinol
16 Efficacy and Safety of Colchicine for the Prevention of Gout Flares During the Initiation of Allopurinol Completed NCT01451645 Phase 4 Colchicine (Colcrys®);placebo;allopurinol
17 The Effects of BCRP Q141K on Allopurinol Pharmacokinetics and Dynamics Completed NCT02956278 Phase 4 Allopurinol
18 Effects of Pharmacological Reversal of Hyperuricemia on Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Completed NCT01654276 Phase 4 Febuxostat
19 Optimal Administration of Allopurinol in Dialysis Patients : A Chronotherapy Trial Completed NCT02477488 Phase 4 Allopurinol
20 Treatment of Uric Acid With the Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Febuxostat: Effects on Blood Pressure, Metabolic Markers, and Aortic Stiffness in Prehypertensive Completed NCT01472692 Phase 4 Febuxostat
21 A Phase 4, Multicenter, Open-Label, Infusion Duration Study To Assess Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Pegloticase Administered With a Shorter Infusion Duration in Subjects With Uncontrolled Gout Receiving Methotrexate Recruiting NCT04511702 Phase 4
22 A Phase 4, Open-Label, Multicenter, Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Trial of Intravenous KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) Administered Every 4 Weeks With Co-Administration of Weekly Doses of Methotrexate in Patients With Uncontrolled Refractory Gout (FORWARD Open-Label [OL] Trial) Recruiting NCT04762498 Phase 4
23 Comparison of Maximum Blood Concentrations of Colchicine Between Responders and Non-responders to Colchicine Treatment During Gout Flare Recruiting NCT03933007 Phase 4 Colchicine,;midazolam,;fexofenadine
24 A Phase 4, Multicenter, Open-label, Efficacy and Safety Trial of Pegloticase and Methotrexate Co-administered in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Who Have Previously Received Pegloticase Monotherapy But Did Not Maintain a Serum Uric Acid Response Active, not recruiting NCT04772313 Phase 4
25 The Impact of Urate-lowering Therapy on Kidney Function in Patients With/Without Gout Enrolling by invitation NCT03336203 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80 MG Oral Tablet or Allopurinol 300 MG Oral Tablet
26 Efficacy and Safety of Rasburicase in the Treatment of Chronic Gouty Arthritis: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study Not yet recruiting NCT05312268 Phase 4 Rasburicase
27 Investigator-Initiated, Pilot Study Evaluating The Efficacy Of Etanercept In Acute Gout Suspended NCT03636373 Phase 4 Etanercept;Triamcinolone Acetonide
28 A Phase 4, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lesinurad 200 mg in Combination With a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor (XOI), Compared With an XOI Alone, in Subjects With Gout and Estimated Creatinine Clearance (eCrCl) 30 to <60 mL/Min Who Have Not Achieved Target Serum Uric Acid Levels (sUA) on an XOI Alone Terminated NCT03226899 Phase 4 Lesinurad;XOI;Placebo;colchicine;corticosteroids
29 Pharmacogenetics of Sodium-dependent Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors Terminated NCT02462421 Phase 4 Canagliflozin
30 Mechanistic Effects of Colchicine in Patients With Myocardial Infarction A Single Center Phase 4 Single Arm Open-label Study Evaluating the FDA-approved Drug, Colchicine, at the FDA-approved Gout Dose in Patients With Myocardial Infarction Withdrawn NCT02995512 Phase 4 Colchicine 0.6 mg tablets
31 A Clinical Trial About the Efficacy and Safety of HuZhen Capsule in Treating Patients With Acute Gout: A 72 Hours, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel Placebo Compared Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02674776 Phase 3 HuZhen Capsule;Placebo Capsule
32 Multicenter, Open-Label, 24 Week Regimen of 8 mg Pegloticase i.v. in Symptomatic Gout Subjects Who Participated in Previous Studies of Pegloticase i.v. Completed NCT00675103 Phase 3 pegloticase 8 mg i.v.
33 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Rilonacept Administered Subcutaneously for the Treatment of an Acute Gout Flare Completed NCT00855920 Phase 3 Rilonacept;Indomethacin
34 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Rilonacept for the Prophylaxis of Gout Flares During the Initiation of Allopurinol Therapy Completed NCT00829829 Phase 3 Rilonacept 80 mg;Rilonacept 160 mg
35 Official Title: Safety and Efficacy Evaluation Study of FYU-981 Long-term Administration for Hyperuricemia With or Without Gout (Phase III Study) Completed NCT03006445 Phase 3 FYU-981
36 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Allopurinol-Controlled Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout. Completed NCT00430248 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
37 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Allopurinol-Controlled Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT02082769 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
38 Benzbromarone-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study of FYU-981 for Hyperuricemia With or Without Gout to Evaluate the Safety and Noninferiority of FYU-981 (Phase III Study) Completed NCT03100318 Phase 3 FYU-981;Benzbromarone
39 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group, 1 Week, Dose Comparison Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of MPC-004 in Patients With an Acute Gout Flare Completed NCT00506883 Phase 3 High Dose Colchicine (4.8 mg total dose);Low Dose Colchicine (1.8mg total dose)
40 A Feasibility Study to Undertake a Definitive Randomised Multi-centre, Double-blind, Double-dummy Controlled Study of a Novel Agent Anakinra vs. Depo-Medrone for Acute Gout Attacks in Patients With Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease Completed NCT02578394 Phase 2, Phase 3 Anakinra 100mg and Placebo Depo-Medrone;Depo-Medrone 120mg and Placebo (Anakinra)
41 A Randomized, Multi-Center, Double Blinded, Allopurinol-Controlled, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Group, 5-Arm, Dose-Response,Bridging Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Febuxostat in Subject With Gout Completed NCT00821392 Phase 3 Febuxostat
42 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of the Safety of Rilonacept for the Prophylaxis of Gout Flares in Patients on Urate- Lowering Therapy Completed NCT00856206 Phase 3
43 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double Blind, Multicenter, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Febuxostat 40 mg XR, 80 mg XR, 40 mg IR and 80 mg IR in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT02139046 Phase 3 Febuxostat IR;Febuxostat XR;Febuxostat placebo;Colchicine;Naproxen;Lansoprazole
44 A Phase3, Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Allopurinol and Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of SHR4640 Monotherapy in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT04052932 Phase 3 SHR4640 dose1;SHR4640 dose2;Placebo oral tablet;Allopurinol 300 MG
45 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Allopurinol and Placebo-Controlled Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout. Completed NCT00174915 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol;Placebo
46 A Multicenter, Randomized, Active-Control, Phase 3B Study to Evaluate the Cardiovascular Safety of Febuxostat and Allopurinol in Subjects With Gout and Cardiovascular Comorbidities Completed NCT01101035 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
47 A Randomized, Controlled Study of ACZ885 (Canakinumab) on the Treatment and Prevention of Gout Flares in Patients With Frequent Flares for Whom NSAIDs and/or Colchicine Are Contraindicated, Not Tolerated or Ineffective Including a 12 Weeks Extension Study and a 1 Year Open-label Extension Study Completed NCT01080131 Phase 3 Canakinumab 150 mg;Triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg;Placebo to canakinumab;Placebo to triamcinolone acetonide
48 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomized, Allopurinol-Controlled Study to Assess the Long-Term Safety of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT00175019 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
49 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT00102440 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
50 A Long-Term Open-Label Extension Study for Subjects Completing a Phase 3 Efficacy and Safety Study of Lesinurad Monotherapy in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT01650246 Phase 3 lesinurad

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gout

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Gout Suppressants
Naproxen sodium

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gout

Genetic Tests for Gout

Anatomical Context for Gout

Organs/tissues related to Gout:

FMA: Joint
MalaCards : Kidney, Skin, Liver, Bone, Heart, Spleen, Neutrophil

Publications for Gout

Articles related to Gout:

(show top 50) (show all 15808)
# Title Authors PMID Year
The combination of molecular docking and network pharmacology reveals the molecular mechanism of Danggui Niantong decoction in treating gout. 62 41
36451451 2022
Orthopaedic Management of Gout. 62 41
36346841 2022
Gout as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A Korean population-based study. 62 41
36397454 2022
Childhood course of renal insufficiency in a family with a uromodulin gene mutation. 53 62
20151160 2010
Four generations of transition-state analogues for human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 53 62
20212140 2010
Refractory polyarticular gouty arthritis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. 53 62
20051757 2010
The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? 53 62
20075245 2010
Allopurinol, xanthine oxidase, and cardiac ischemia. 53 62
19794315 2009
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout. 53 62
20109996 2009
The interleukin 1 inhibitor rilonacept in treatment of chronic gouty arthritis: results of a placebo-controlled, monosequence crossover, non-randomised, single-blind pilot study. 53 62
19635719 2009
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the fractions of Erythrina stricta Roxb. 53 62
19467311 2009
Severe gouty arthritis and mild neurologic symptoms due to F199C, a newly identified variant of the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. 53 62
19565499 2009
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in a Chinese man with early-onset gout. 53 62
19435978 2009
Febuxostat (Uloric) for chronic treatment of gout. 53 62
19448587 2009
Crystal ball gazing: new therapeutic targets for hyperuricaemia and gout. 53 62
19109320 2009
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy: report on a new mutation and a pregnancy. 53 62
19203555 2009
Role of urate, xanthine oxidase and the effects of allopurinol in vascular oxidative stress. 53 62
19436671 2009
The effect of age and gender on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of febuxostat, a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. 53 62
18635756 2008
Abnormal expression and processing of uromodulin in Fabry disease reflects tubular cell storage alteration and is reversible by enzyme replacement therapy. 53 62
18651238 2008
Normal HPRT coding region in complete and partial HPRT deficiency. 53 62
18316217 2008
[New antihyperuricemic medicine: febuxostat, Puricase, etc]. 53 62
18409528 2008
Synthesis of N-aryl-5-amino-4-cyanopyrazole derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors. 53 62
17692432 2008
[Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase]. 53 62
18409526 2008
The potential role for xanthine oxidase inhibition in major intra-abdominal surgery. 53 62
18074171 2008
The spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases: recent bench to bedside observations. 53 62
18281860 2008
Febuxostat. 53 62
18729537 2008
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors the unappreciated treatment for heart failure. 53 62
18220728 2007
Arts syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in PRPS1. 53 62
17701896 2007
HPRT deficiency in a two-month-old child presenting acute renal failure and gout with a new deletion of two bases in exon 3 of the HPRT gene. 53 62
17416296 2007
Identification of a new single-nucleotide mutation on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from 983 cases with gout in Taiwan. 53 62
17309125 2007
Genetics and experimental models of crystal-induced arthritis. Lessons learned from mice and men: is it crystal clear? 53 62
17278928 2007
Febuxostat: a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the treatment of hyperuricemia in gout. 53 62
19075968 2007
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. 53 62
17132810 2006
Pathogenesis, clinical findings and management of acute and chronic gout. 53 62
17213786 2006
Metabolic diseases: gout. 53 62
17113968 2006
Association between intronic SNP in urate-anion exchanger gene, SLC22A12, and serum uric acid levels in Japanese. 53 62
16920156 2006
Proteomic analysis of Down's syndrome patients with gout. 53 62
16500633 2006
Crystal-induced arthropathies: recent investigative advances. 53 62
16582687 2006
Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. 53 62
16507884 2006
Familial nephropathy associated with hyperuricemia in Spain: our experience with 3 families harbouring a UMOD mutation. 53 62
17065110 2006
Partial HPRT deficiency (Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome). 53 62
16649740 2006
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta and their related phenotypes. 53 62
15930087 2006
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of febuxostat, a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, in a dose escalation study in healthy subjects. 53 62
16884320 2006
HPRTSardinia: a new point mutation causing HPRT deficiency without Lesch-Nyhan disease. 53 62
16216473 2006
Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and partial hypoxanthine- phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: a follow-up study of 18 Spanish patients. 53 62
17065067 2006
Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. 53 62
16339094 2005
Association between cigarette smoking and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. 53 62
16358551 2005
Febuxostat (Teijin/Ipsen/TAP). 53 62
16312139 2005
Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation. 53 62
15965771 2005
Febuxostat: a non-purine, selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the management of hyperuricaemia in patients with gout. 53 62
16022578 2005

Variations for Gout

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gout:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.228-21_228-20delinsC INDEL Pathogenic
1057 rs1553201258 GRCh37: 1:173797450-173797451
GRCh38: 1:173828312-173828313
2 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.492+2T>C SNV Pathogenic
1062 rs142433332 GRCh37: 1:173800770-173800770
GRCh38: 1:173831632-173831632

Expression for Gout

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gout.

Pathways for Gout

Pathways related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 28)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
13.71 SLC22A12 P2RX7 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18
Show member pathways
12.54 IL6 IL1B IL18 HLA-B CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.33 P2RX7 IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.03 SLC22A8 SLC22A7 CYP2C8 ABCG2
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.81 IL6 IL1B IL18
7 11.81 IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8
Show member pathways
11.78 P2RX7 MEFV IL1B IL18
9 11.77 IL1B HLA-B CXCL8
10 11.66 CXCL8 IL1B IL6
Show member pathways
11.57 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
12 11.57 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
13 11.52 SLC22A8 SLC22A7 ABCG2
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.39 XDH CYP2E1 CYP2C8
16 11.33 MEFV IL1B IL18
17 11.29 IL6 IL1B IL18 CXCL8
18 11.21 IL18 IL1B IL6
19 11.16 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
20 11.12 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
22 10.7 IL6 IL1B
23 10.69 ABCG2 SLC22A7 SLC22A8
Show member pathways
10.66 ABCG2 SLC22A12 SLC22A8
25 10.61 IL6 CXCL8
26 10.56 SLC22A8 SLC22A7 CYP2E1 ABCG2
27 10.28 XDH SLC22A12 HPRT1
Show member pathways
10.27 IL6 CXCL8

GO Terms for Gout

Biological processes related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.1 UMOD P2RX7 MEFV IL6 IL1B IL18
2 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 10.03 P2RX7 IL6 IL1B IL18
3 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.91 IL6 IL1B IL18
4 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.85 IL6 IL1B
5 organic anion transport GO:0015711 9.85 ABCG2 SLC22A12 SLC22A7
6 purine ribonucleoside salvage GO:0006166 9.84 HPRT1 APRT
7 lipid hydroxylation GO:0002933 9.83 CYP2E1 CYP2C8
8 GMP salvage GO:0032263 9.8 APRT HPRT1
9 IMP salvage GO:0032264 9.78 APRT HPRT1
10 AMP salvage GO:0044209 9.76 APRT HPRT1
11 GMP catabolic process GO:0046038 9.71 XDH HPRT1
12 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.63 IL6 IL1B IL18
13 adenine metabolic process GO:0046083 9.5 HPRT1 APRT
14 urate transport GO:0015747 9.43 UMOD SLC22A12 ABCG2
15 renal urate salt excretion GO:0097744 9.1 UMOD SLC22A12 ABCG2

Molecular functions related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 urate transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015143 9.26 SLC22A12 ABCG2
2 organic anion transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008514 9.1 SLC22A8 SLC22A7 ABCG2

Sources for Gout

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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