Gout (GOUT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gout

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gout:

Name: Gout 12 74 25 36 54 6 42 3 43 15 62 17 71 32
Arthritis, Gouty 25 43 71
Gouty Arthritis 12 25 15
Gouty Arthropathy 12 25
Articular Gout 12 25
Arthritis Gouty 54


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13189
KEGG 36 H01532
ICD9CM 34 274 274.0
NCIt 49 C34650
SNOMED-CT 67 48440001 90560007
UMLS 71 C0003868 C0018099

Summaries for Gout

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Gout is a type of arthritis, which is a group of related disorders caused by episodes of abnormal inflammation in the joints. People with gout have high levels of a substance called urate in the blood (hyperuricemia). Gout develops when hyperuricemia leads to the formation of urate crystals in joints, triggering an inflammatory response from the immune system. In people with gout, the first episode of inflammation (called a flare) usually affects the big toe or other joints in the foot or ankle. If urate levels remain high, flares can recur, affecting additional joints throughout the body. The time between flares varies among affected individuals; however, most people who experience multiple flares have their second one within a year of their first. Flares usually begin at night and can last several days. It is unclear what causes a flare to stop; the body likely turns off the inflammation response after a certain period of time. During a flare, individuals can experience throbbing or burning pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Fevers may occur, after which the skin over the affected joint can begin to peel. Without treatment, people with gout can experience frequent flares and joint pain and damage, which can limit mobility and decrease quality of life. In about 15 percent of people with gout, urate accumulates in the kidneys and forms kidney stones. As the condition worsens, urate crystals can also be deposited under the skin or in other soft tissue, forming a nodule called a tophus (plural: tophi). These tophi often form in the hands, elbows, or feet. Tophi do not typically cause pain, but they can become inflamed, infected, or ooze fluid. Depending on their location, tophi can interfere with movements such as walking or gripping objects. Many people with gout also have other health conditions. Most affected individuals have high blood pressure (hypertension), chronic kidney disease, or obesity. Some also have diabetes, heart disease, or a history of stroke. It is unclear whether gout is the cause of a person's increased risk for these conditions, or whether the conditions cause the development of gout, or whether both of these situations occur to influence disease.

MalaCards based summary : Gout, also known as arthritis, gouty, is related to phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity and kelley-seegmiller syndrome, and has symptoms including back pain, sciatica and muscle cramp. An important gene associated with Gout is DARS2 (Aspartyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Purine metabolism and Metabolism of nucleotides. The drugs Lumiracoxib and Indomethacin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include joint, kidney and heart, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and immune system

Disease Ontology : 12 An arthritis that has material basis in uric acid crystal deposits located in joint.

MedlinePlus : 42 Gout is a common, painful form of arthritis. It causes swollen, red, hot and stiff joints. Gout happens when uric acid builds up in your body. Uric acid comes from the breakdown of substances called purines. Purines are in your body's tissues and in foods, such as liver, dried beans and peas, and anchovies. Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood. It passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes uric acid can build up and form needle-like crystals. When they form in your joints, it is very painful. The crystals can also cause kidney stones. Often, gout first attacks your big toe. It can also attack ankles, heels, knees, wrists, fingers, and elbows. At first, gout attacks usually get better in days. Eventually, attacks last longer and happen more often. You are more likely to get gout if you Are a man Have family member with gout Are overweight Drink alcohol Eat too many foods rich in purines Gout can be hard to diagnose. Your doctor may take a sample of fluid from an inflamed joint to look for crystals. You can treat gout with medicines. Pseudogout has similar symptoms and is sometimes confused with gout. However, it is caused by calcium phosphate, not uric acid. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

CDC : 3 Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis that is very painful. It usually affects one joint at a time (often the big toe joint). There are times when symptoms get worse, known as flares, and times when there are no symptoms, known as remission. Repeated bouts of gout can lead to gouty arthritis, a worsening form of arthritis. There is no cure for gout, but you can effectively treat and manage the condition with medication and self-management strategies.

KEGG : 36 Gout is a kind of arthritis associated with hyperuricemia. It is triggered due to precipitation and deposition of inflammatory monosodium urate crystals in synovial and other tissues, accompanied by severe pain. The most common symptom include swelling, tenderness, warmth and redness. Mostly, the joint at the base of the big toe is affected, gout progresses with more frequent attacks that involve multiple joints. Joint pain that used to resolve in a week to 10 days could become a milder, but constant pain. Eventually, untreated gout can cause other comorbidities such as high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of the disease is more common in 40s men than women, but gout in women after menopause appears increased risk. Recently, the onset in 20s increases. The development of gout is not only associated with sex, age, race and genetics, but also diet and lifestyle are contributed to increasing prevalence of the disease. Epidemiology studies reported that the excessive intake of alcohol and purine rich food, which excessively produce uric acid, leads to accumulation of uric acid.

PubMed Health : 62 About gout: Gout is a metabolic disorder which causes inflammation of the joints. During acute episodes, certain joints swell up within just a few hours and become very sensitive to pain. The inflammation is triggered by tiny needle-shaped crystals of uric acid that mainly build up in the joints. These crystals may form if there is too much uric acid in the body. The inflammation normally goes away on its own within one to two weeks. The pain can be relieved with medication. Most people with gout experience acute attacks every now and then. Months or even years can pass between attacks, but they may be more frequent too. There are a number of options to prevent them. Some people already notice an improvement if they avoid certain foods and other possible triggers. Others may take medication to lower their uric acid levels over the long term. The medication is mostly considered for people who have frequent gout attacks or complications such as kidney stones or lumps called tophi. Many people have high levels of uric acid without it causing any noticeable problems. It's not clear whether this affects their health. It doesn't need to be treated.

Wikipedia : 74 Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and... more...

Related Diseases for Gout

Diseases related to Gout via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 665)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity 34.2 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
2 kelley-seegmiller syndrome 34.2 HPRT1 APRT
3 hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile, 1 33.9 UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 HPRT1
4 lesch-nyhan syndrome 33.2 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A1 PRPS1 HPRT1
5 hyperuricemia 31.8 XDH UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
6 nephrolithiasis 31.2 XDH UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 IL1B HPRT1
7 exanthem 31.1 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
8 urolithiasis 31.1 XDH UMOD PRPS1 IL1B HPRT1 APRT
9 acute kidney failure 31.1 UMOD SLC22A12 IL18
10 disorder of purine metabolism 31.1 HPRT1 APRT
11 osteomyelitis 31.0 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
12 peptic ulcer disease 30.9 XDH TNF IL1B
13 hereditary xanthinuria 30.9 XDH APRT
14 pyelonephritis 30.8 UMOD TNF IL1B
15 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency 30.8 XDH HPRT1 APRT
16 sarcoidosis 1 30.8 TNF S100A9 IL1B IL18
17 familial mediterranean fever 30.7 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
18 peritonitis 30.7 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
19 stomatitis 30.7 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
20 hypouricemia, renal, 1 30.7 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 HPRT1
21 hereditary periodic fever syndrome 30.6 TNF NLRP3
22 alcoholic hepatitis 30.6 TNF IL1B IL18 ALDH2
23 xanthinuria 30.6 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 HPRT1 APRT
24 nephrolithiasis, uric acid 30.5 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 PRPS1 HPRT1
25 arts syndrome 30.5 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
26 bone inflammation disease 30.4 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
27 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 30.4 TNF S100A9 IL1B IL18
28 keratitis, hereditary 30.3 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
29 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.3 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
30 gastroenteritis 30.3 TNF IL1B ABCG2
31 acute cystitis 30.2 UMOD TNF IL1B IL18 ADSL
32 pyoderma 30.2 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
33 chlamydia 30.1 TNF IL1B IL18
34 pulmonary tuberculosis 30.0 TNF IL1B IL18
35 aplastic anemia 29.9 TNF IL1B IL18 HPRT1 ALDH2
36 hypertension, essential 29.8 XDH UMOD TNF SLC2A9 SLC22A12 NLRP3
37 inflammatory bowel disease 29.8 XDH TNF S100A9 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
38 thrombocytopenia 29.6 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18 ABCG2
39 periodontitis 29.3 TNF IL1B IL18
40 d-lactic aciduria with gout 12.5
41 autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease, umod-related 12.2
42 uric acid concentration, serum, quantitative trait locus 1 12.1
43 chondrocalcinosis 2 11.8
44 uric acid concentration, serum, quantitative trait locus 4 11.6
45 arthritis 11.6
46 crystal arthropathies 11.5
47 autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease 11.5
48 polycythemia vera 11.5
49 glycogen storage disease ia 11.5
50 medullary cystic kidney disease 1 11.4

Comorbidity relations with Gout via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 24)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Aortic Valve Disease 1
Benign Essential Hypertension Bladder Neck Obstruction
Bronchitis Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
Generalized Atherosclerosis Heart Disease
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Intermediate Coronary Syndrome Iron Deficiency Anemia
Kidney Disease Mitral Valve Disease
Osteoarthritis Peripheral Vascular Disease
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Hypertrophy
Sinoatrial Node Disease Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gout:

Diseases related to Gout

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gout

UMLS symptoms related to Gout:

back pain, sciatica, muscle cramp

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gout:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.13 ABCG2 ALDH2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.03 ABCG2 ALDH2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B
3 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.91 ABCG2 IL18 NLRP3 SLC2A9 TNF UMOD
4 integument MP:0010771 9.81 ABCG2 ALDH2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.8 ADSL ALDH2 APRT DARS2 HPRT1 IL18
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.28 ABCG2 ALDH2 APRT HPRT1 NLRP3 SLC22A12

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gout

PubMed Health treatment related to Gout: 62

The treatment of gout has two aims: In the short term, it should provide pain relief during gout attacks. In the long term, it should prevent further attacks and lower the risk of chronic inflammations and joint damage. Gout attacks are treated with anti-inflammatory medications. These include anti-inflammatory painkillers, such as ibuprofen , indometacine or naproxen , steroid medicines (usually tablets with prednisolone ), as well as the gout medicine colchicine . Because colchicine is slow to start working and has certain possible side effects, it is no longer used very often. If a single drug can’t provide enough pain relief, the treatments can be combined. Cooling the affected joint probably also helps, and most people find it very soothing. The goal of long-term gout treatment is to prevent gout attacks and complications by lowering the level of uric acid . This can be done in two ways: Changing your diet: Especially eating less meat, fish and seafood, and drinking less alcohol. Taking medication to lower your uric acid levels, typically allopurinol . Not everyone who has gout needs to take medicine to lower their uric acid levels. In particular, people who have already had a gout attack usually don’t need to take it. This is because some people don't have any problems after that for years, and others only have them rarely. Medication is mainly used if the attacks become more frequent or are very distressing. It also makes sense to take it if complications such as tophi or kidney stones have already developed, or if the functioning of the kidney is affected. Medication might also be an option if changes to your diet aren’t enough to make a difference.

Drugs for Gout (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 288)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53-86-1 3715
Etoricoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 202409-33-4 123619
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 1302 156391
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6 4594
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144689-24-7, 144689-63-4 158781 130881
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4 10102-43-9 145068
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
Fexofenadine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83799-24-0 3348
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4 88150-42-9 2162
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7, 68521-88-0 172198
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
Hydrochlorothiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58-93-5 3639
Benazepril Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86541-75-5 5362124
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
Sotalol Approved Phase 4 3930-20-9, 959-24-0 5253
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Lesinurad Approved, Investigational Phase 4 878672-00-5 53465279
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
Inulin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 9005-80-5 24763
Uric acid Investigational Phase 4 69-93-2 1175
32 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 4
33 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
34 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
35 Analgesics Phase 4
36 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
37 Tocolytic Agents Phase 4
38 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
39 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
40 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
41 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
42 Diacetylrhein Phase 4
43 Antacids Phase 4
44 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
45 Proton Pump Inhibitors Phase 4
46 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
Olmesartan medoxomil Phase 4 144689-63-4 130881
48 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
49 Hormones Phase 4
50 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 342)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effects of BCRP Q141K on Allopurinol Pharmacokinetics and Dynamics Unknown status NCT02956278 Phase 4 Allopurinol
2 Efficacy and Safety of the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Etoricoxib in the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain in Sports: A Randomized Double-Blind Comparative Study Among 2 Treatments in the Acute Phase Unknown status NCT00525993 Phase 4 etoricoxib 90mg 14 days;etoricoxib 60mg daily for 14 days
3 A 1-Week, Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, Parallel Trial Comparing Lumiracoxib (400 mg Once Daily) in Patients With Acute Flares of Gout, Using Indomethacin (50 mg Three Times a Day) Completed NCT00170781 Phase 4 Lumiracoxib
4 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Comparator-Controlled 5-Day Trial of the Effect of Etoricoxib 120 mg Versus Indomethacin 150 mg in the Treatment of Acute Gout Completed NCT00142558 Phase 4 MK0663; etoricoxib / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days;Comparator: indomethacin 75 mg sustained release capsule / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days
5 Efficacy and Safety of Colchicine for the Prevention of Gout Flares During the Initiation of Allopurinol Completed NCT01451645 Phase 4 Colchicine (Colcrys®);placebo;allopurinol
6 Does Allopurinol Prolong a Treated, Acute Gout Flare? Completed NCT01988402 Phase 4 allopurinol;Placebo (sugar pill)
7 Long-term Allopurinol Safety Study Evaluating Outcomes in Gout Patients (LASSO) Completed NCT01391325 Phase 4 Allopurinol
8 Therapeutic Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Addition to Total Contact Insole in Treating Painful Hallux valgus-a Pilot Study Completed NCT01501500 Phase 4 BOTOX;Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
9 Shifting the Paradigm of Gout: An Assessment of Chronic Synovial-Based Inflammation and Its Role With Serum Urate Levels. Completed NCT01112982 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Colchicine
10 Therapy for Acute Gout: Does Initial Use of Allopurinol Effect Duration and/or Recurrence Rate of Acute Attacks Completed NCT01310673 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo
11 Diacerein Combined With Febuxostat Relieves Symptoms of Gout by Suppressing IL-1βinflammation Completed NCT02060552 Phase 4 Diacerein;Colchicine;Febuxostat
12 Multi-centre, Open-label, Active-comparator, Pragmatic Clinical Trial of Low-dose Colchicine Versus Naproxen in Patients With Acute Gout. Completed NCT01994226 Phase 4 Low-dose colchicine;Naproxen 750 mg/250 mg
13 A Prospective, Non-comparative, Single Centre Study to Determine the Performance & Survivorship of the SIGMA HP® PARTIAL KNEE SYSTEM. Completed NCT01529099 Phase 4
14 Optimal Administration of Allopurinol in Dialysis Patients : A Chronotherapy Trial Completed NCT02477488 Phase 4 Allopurinol
15 Treatment of Uric Acid With the Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Febuxostat: Effects on Blood Pressure, Metabolic Markers, and Aortic Stiffness in Prehypertensive Completed NCT01472692 Phase 4 Febuxostat
16 Febuxostat (Zurig) Efficacy & Safety Trial in Comparison With Allopurinol in Hyperuricemic Subjects With or Without Gout Completed NCT02600780 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
17 Do Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors Reduce Both Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Patients With Renal Dysfunction? Completed NCT00688480 Phase 4 Placebo;Allopurinol
18 The Effect of Intensive Urate Lowering Therapy (ULT) With Febuxostat in Comparison With Allopurinol on Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Gout Using Surrogate Markers: a Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT02500641 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80/120mg/day;Allopurinol 100 up to 600mg/day;Colchicine;Naproxen;Omeprazole
19 A Double Blind Cross-over Study of the Efficacy of a Proprietary Cherry Juice Blend in Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Completed NCT00443092 Phase 4
20 Effects of Pharmacological Reversal of Hyperuricemia on Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Completed NCT01654276 Phase 4 Febuxostat
21 Effect of Probenecid on Pharmacokinetics, and Tolerability of Olmesartan in Healthy Chinese Volunteers Completed NCT01907373 Phase 4 olmesartan medoxomil;olmesartan medoxomil+probenecid
22 A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Augmentation Study With Allopurinol for Treatment Resistant Mania Completed NCT00643123 Phase 4 Allopurinol
23 A Deep Phenotyping Approach to Assess the Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Patients With Uncomplicated Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT02344602 Phase 4 Febuxostat
24 Does Allopurinol Regress Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients With Treated Essential Hypertension? Completed NCT02237339 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo
25 Febuxostat, Blood Pressure and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Completed NCT01328769 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Placebo
26 Effectiveness of Subarachnoid Hyperbaric Bupivacaine on Mean Arterial Blood Pressure in Pregnant Patients With Obesity Operated by Cesarean Section Completed NCT04205344 Phase 4 Bupivacaine 5 mg;Bupivacaine 10 mg
27 Does ALlopurinol Regress lefT Ventricular Hypertrophy in End Stage REnal Disease: The ALTERED Study Completed NCT01951404 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo (for allopurinol)
28 Comparison of Maximum Blood Concentrations of Colchicine Between Responders and Non-responders to Colchicine Treatment During Gout Flare Recruiting NCT03933007 Phase 4 Colchicine,;midazolam,;fexofenadine
29 Investigator-Initiated, Pilot Study Evaluating The Efficacy Of Etanercept In Acute Gout Recruiting NCT03636373 Phase 4 Etanercept;Triamcinolone Acetonide
30 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled GOut Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Randomized Controlled Trial [RCT]) Recruiting NCT03994731 Phase 4
31 A Multicenter, Open-Label, Efficacy and Safety Study of Pegloticase in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Who Have Undergone Kidney Transplantation Recruiting NCT04087720 Phase 4
32 Efficacy and Safety of a Single-pill Fixed Combination of Sufficient Losartan/Hydrochlorothiazide in Chinese Hypertensive Patients (FOCUS) Recruiting NCT03946514 Phase 4 losartan/hydrochlorothiazide;amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide
33 ACEI/CCB Versus ACEI/DIU Combination Antihypertensive Therapy in Chinese Hypertensive Patients (ACvAD) Recruiting NCT03682692 Phase 4 ACEI/CCB;ACEI/DIU
34 A Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled GOut Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Open-Label [OL]) Active, not recruiting NCT03635957 Phase 4
35 CSP #594 - Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs. Febuxostat Active, not recruiting NCT02579096 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Febuxostat;Placebo, vehicle control (Febuxostat-shaped);Placebo, vehicle control (Allopurinol-shaped)
36 TRPV2 Agonists in Fontan Circulation Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03965351 Phase 4 Probenecid
37 Anti-inflammatory Effects of Colchicine in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Inflammatory Marker Substudy of the Colchicine-PCI Trial Active, not recruiting NCT01709981 Phase 4 Colchicine;Placebo
38 Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition for Improvement of Long-term Outcomes Following Ischaemic Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack Active, not recruiting NCT02122718 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo
39 The Impact of Urate-lowering Therapy on Kidney Function in Patients With/Without Gout Enrolling by invitation NCT03336203 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80 MG Oral Tablet or Allopurinol 300 MG Oral Tablet
40 Department of Urology, Shanghai Xu-hui Central Hospital Enrolling by invitation NCT04398251 Phase 4 Febuxostat 40mg Tab
41 A Single-center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial for the Effect of Allopurinol Sustained-release Capsules on the Stability of Coronary Plaques in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Not yet recruiting NCT03745729 Phase 4 allopurinol sustained-release capsules;placebo capsules
42 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized, Open Label Trial to Determine if a Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Locus Modulates Differential Response to Antiarrhythmic Drugs Not yet recruiting NCT02347111 Phase 4 Flecainide;Sotalol
43 A Phase 4, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lesinurad 200 mg in Combination With a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor (XOI), Compared With an XOI Alone, in Subjects With Gout and Estimated Creatinine Clearance (eCrCl) 30 to <60 mL/Min Who Have Not Achieved Target Serum Uric Acid Levels (sUA) on an XOI Alone Terminated NCT03226899 Phase 4 Lesinurad;XOI;Placebo
44 Allopurinol as a Possible New Therapy for Acute Coronary Syndromes:The Next Steps Terminated NCT01457820 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Allopurinol;Placebo
45 Evaluating Transporter Protein Inhibitors in Patients With Epilepsy Terminated NCT00610532 Phase 4 phenytoin;phenytoin and probenecid
46 Mechanistic Effects of Colchicine in Patients With Myocardial Infarction A Single Center Phase 4 Single Arm Open-label Study Evaluating the FDA-approved Drug, Colchicine, at the FDA-approved Gout Dose in Patients With Myocardial Infarction Withdrawn NCT02995512 Phase 4 Colchicine 0.6 mg tablets
47 A Clinical Trial About the Efficacy and Safety of HuZhen Capsule in Treating Patients With Acute Gout: A 72 Hours, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel Placebo Compared Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02674776 Phase 3 HuZhen Capsule;Placebo Capsule
48 A Feasibility Study to Undertake a Definitive Randomised Multi-centre, Double-blind, Double-dummy Controlled Study of a Novel Agent Anakinra vs. Depo-Medrone for Acute Gout Attacks in Patients With Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02578394 Phase 2, Phase 3 Anakinra 100mg and Placebo Depo-Medrone;Depo-Medrone 120mg and Placebo (Anakinra)
49 The Effects of Doxazosin and Nifedipine on Blood Pressure Variability and Uric Acid in Plasma in Hypertensive Patients Unknown status NCT02563405 Phase 2, Phase 3 Doxazosin;Nifedipine
50 A 36-week Open-label Extension Study of CACZ885H2361 on the Safety and Tolerability of Canakinumab 150 mg s.c. Pre-filled Syringe (PFS) in Treating Acute Gouty Arthritis Flares in Frequently Flaring Patients Completed NCT01431638 Phase 3 Canakinumab 150mg in prefilled syringe

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gout

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Gout Suppressants
Naproxen sodium

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gout

Genetic Tests for Gout

Anatomical Context for Gout

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Gout:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gout:

Kidney, Heart, Bone, Liver, Skin, Neutrophil, Testes

Publications for Gout

Articles related to Gout:

(show top 50) (show all 12914)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic decompression for the treatment of intraspinal tophaceous gout: A case report. 61 42
32481280 2020
Treatment for acute flares of gout: A protocol for systematic review. 61 42
32243400 2020
Disseminated cutaneous gout: a rare manifestation of a common disease. 42 61
32155023 2020
Childhood course of renal insufficiency in a family with a uromodulin gene mutation. 61 54
20151160 2010
Four generations of transition-state analogues for human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 54 61
20212140 2010
Refractory polyarticular gouty arthritis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. 54 61
20051757 2010
The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? 54 61
20075245 2010
Allopurinol, xanthine oxidase, and cardiac ischemia. 61 54
19794315 2009
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout. 54 61
20109996 2009
The interleukin 1 inhibitor rilonacept in treatment of chronic gouty arthritis: results of a placebo-controlled, monosequence crossover, non-randomised, single-blind pilot study. 61 54
19635719 2009
Severe gouty arthritis and mild neurologic symptoms due to F199C, a newly identified variant of the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. 61 54
19565499 2009
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the fractions of Erythrina stricta Roxb. 61 54
19467311 2009
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in a Chinese man with early-onset gout. 54 61
19435978 2009
Febuxostat (Uloric) for chronic treatment of gout. 61 54
19448587 2009
Crystal ball gazing: new therapeutic targets for hyperuricaemia and gout. 61 54
19109320 2009
Role of urate, xanthine oxidase and the effects of allopurinol in vascular oxidative stress. 54 61
19436671 2009
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy: report on a new mutation and a pregnancy. 54 61
19203555 2009
The effect of age and gender on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of febuxostat, a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. 61 54
18635756 2008
Abnormal expression and processing of uromodulin in Fabry disease reflects tubular cell storage alteration and is reversible by enzyme replacement therapy. 61 54
18651238 2008
Normal HPRT coding region in complete and partial HPRT deficiency. 61 54
18316217 2008
[New antihyperuricemic medicine: febuxostat, Puricase, etc]. 54 61
18409528 2008
[Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase]. 54 61
18409526 2008
Synthesis of N-aryl-5-amino-4-cyanopyrazole derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors. 54 61
17692432 2008
The potential role for xanthine oxidase inhibition in major intra-abdominal surgery. 54 61
18074171 2008
Febuxostat. 61 54
18729537 2008
The spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases: recent bench to bedside observations. 54 61
18281860 2008
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors the unappreciated treatment for heart failure. 54 61
18220728 2007
Arts syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in PRPS1. 61 54
17701896 2007
HPRT deficiency in a two-month-old child presenting acute renal failure and gout with a new deletion of two bases in exon 3 of the HPRT gene. 54 61
17416296 2007
Identification of a new single-nucleotide mutation on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from 983 cases with gout in Taiwan. 61 54
17309125 2007
Genetics and experimental models of crystal-induced arthritis. Lessons learned from mice and men: is it crystal clear? 61 54
17278928 2007
Febuxostat: a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the treatment of hyperuricemia in gout. 61 54
19075968 2007
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. 54 61
17132810 2006
Pathogenesis, clinical findings and management of acute and chronic gout. 61 54
17213786 2006
Metabolic diseases: gout. 61 54
17113968 2006
Association between intronic SNP in urate-anion exchanger gene, SLC22A12, and serum uric acid levels in Japanese. 54 61
16920156 2006
Proteomic analysis of Down's syndrome patients with gout. 61 54
16500633 2006
Crystal-induced arthropathies: recent investigative advances. 61 54
16582687 2006
Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. 61 54
16507884 2006
Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and partial hypoxanthine- phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: a follow-up study of 18 Spanish patients. 54 61
17065067 2006
HPRTSardinia: a new point mutation causing HPRT deficiency without Lesch-Nyhan disease. 61 54
16216473 2006
Partial HPRT deficiency (Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome). 61 54
16649740 2006
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of febuxostat, a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, in a dose escalation study in healthy subjects. 61 54
16884320 2006
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta and their related phenotypes. 54 61
15930087 2006
Familial nephropathy associated with hyperuricemia in Spain: our experience with 3 families harbouring a UMOD mutation. 61 54
17065110 2006
Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. 54 61
16339094 2005
Febuxostat (Teijin/Ipsen/TAP). 54 61
16312139 2005
Association between cigarette smoking and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. 54 61
16358551 2005
Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation. 61 54
15965771 2005
Febuxostat: a non-purine, selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the management of hyperuricaemia in patients with gout. 61 54
16022578 2005

Variations for Gout

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gout:

6 ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.228-21_228-20delinsCindel Pathogenic 1057 rs1553201258 1:173797450-173797451 1:173828312-173828313
2 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.492+2T>CSNV Pathogenic 1062 rs142433332 1:173800770-173800770 1:173831632-173831632

Expression for Gout

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gout.

Pathways for Gout

Pathways related to Gout according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Purine metabolism hsa00230

Pathways related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
2 12.28 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
3 12.19 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
4 12.14 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
5 12.1 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
6 11.78 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
7 11.76 TNF IL1B IL18
9 11.68 TNF IL1B IL18
10 11.65 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
11 11.48 TNF IL1B IL18
12 11.4 TNF IL1B IL18
13 11.38 TNF IL1B IL18
14 11.35 TNF IL1B IL18
15 11.27 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
16 11.2 TNF IL1B IL18
17 11.11 TNF IL1B IL18
18 11.04 TNF IL1B ABCG2
19 10.93 XDH PRPS1 HPRT1
20 10.78 TNF IL1B IL18
21 10.65 S100A9 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
22 10.61 PRPS1 HPRT1 ADSL
23 10.41 IL1B IL18
24 10.18 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 ABCG2

GO Terms for Gout

Cellular components related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 apical plasma membrane GO:0016324 9.17 UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
2 brush border membrane GO:0031526 9.13 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 ABCG2

Biological processes related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 34)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10 TNF S100A9 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
2 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 9.87 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 SLC16A9
3 regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050727 9.83 TNF S100A9 NLRP3
4 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.81 TNF IL1B IL18
5 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.8 TNF IL1B IL18
6 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.78 TNF S100A9 IL1B IL18
7 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919 9.76 XDH TNF S100A9 NLRP3
8 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.73 TNF IL1B IL18
9 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.71 TNF IL1B IL18
10 grooming behavior GO:0007625 9.66 HPRT1 APRT
11 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.65 TNF IL1B
12 purine-containing compound salvage GO:0043101 9.65 HPRT1 APRT
13 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production GO:0032725 9.65 IL1B IL18
14 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.65 TNF S100A9 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
15 phosphate ion transport GO:0006817 9.64 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
16 interleukin-6 production GO:0032635 9.64 IL1B IL18
17 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.63 TNF IL1B
18 positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation GO:0045630 9.62 NLRP3 IL18
19 interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032611 9.61 NLRP3 IL1B
20 ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process GO:0009156 9.61 PRPS1 ADSL
21 nucleoside metabolic process GO:0009116 9.61 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
22 positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell cytokine production GO:2000556 9.59 IL1B IL18
23 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.58 TNF IL1B
24 sialic acid transport GO:0015739 9.58 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
25 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process GO:0006164 9.58 PRPS1 HPRT1 ADSL
26 purine ribonucleoside salvage GO:0006166 9.57 HPRT1 APRT
27 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.55 TNF IL1B
28 organic anion transport GO:0015711 9.54 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3
29 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.52 TNF IL1B
30 adenine metabolic process GO:0046083 9.51 HPRT1 APRT
31 adenine salvage GO:0006168 9.49 HPRT1 APRT
32 urate transport GO:0015747 9.35 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 ABCG2
33 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.33 TNF IL1B IL18
34 urate metabolic process GO:0046415 9.17 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 SLC16A9

Molecular functions related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 xenobiotic transmembrane transporter activity GO:0042910 9.4 SLC17A3 ABCG2
2 organic anion transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008514 9.37 SLC22A11 SLC17A3
3 transmembrane transporter activity GO:0022857 9.35 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
4 efflux transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015562 9.32 SLC17A3 ABCG2
5 sodium:phosphate symporter activity GO:0005436 9.26 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
6 sialic acid transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015136 9.16 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
7 urate transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015143 8.92 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 ABCG2

Sources for Gout

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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