Gout (GOUT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Metabolic diseases, Nephrological diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gout

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gout:

Name: Gout 12 74 43 36 54 6 42 3 44 15 62 17 71 32
Arthritis, Gouty 43 44 71
Gouty Arthritis 12 43 15
Gouty Arthropathy 12 43
Articular Gout 12 43
Arthritis Gouty 54


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13189
KEGG 36 H01532
ICD9CM 34 274 274.0
NCIt 50 C34650
SNOMED-CT 67 201661008 90560007
UMLS 71 C0003868 C0018099

Summaries for Gout

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Gout is a type of arthritis, which is a group of related disorders caused by episodes of abnormal inflammation in the joints. People with gout have high levels of a substance called urate in the blood (hyperuricemia). Gout develops when hyperuricemia leads to the formation of urate crystals in joints, triggering an inflammatory response from the immune system.In people with gout, the first episode of inflammation (called a flare) usually affects the big toe or other joints in the foot or ankle. If urate levels remain high, flares can recur, affecting additional joints throughout the body. The time between flares varies among affected individuals; however, most people who experience multiple flares have their second one within a year of their first.Flares usually begin at night and can last several days. It is unclear what causes a flare to stop; the body likely turns off the inflammation response after a certain period of time. During a flare, individuals can experience throbbing or burning pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Fevers may occur, after which the skin over the affected joint can begin to peel. Without treatment, people with gout can experience frequent flares and joint pain and damage, which can limit mobility and decrease quality of life.In about 15 percent of people with gout, urate accumulates in the kidneys and forms kidney stones. As the condition worsens, urate crystals can also be deposited under the skin or in other soft tissue, forming a nodule called a tophus (plural: tophi). These tophi often form in the hands, elbows, or feet. Tophi do not typically cause pain, but they can become inflamed, infected, or ooze fluid. Depending on their location, tophi can interfere with movements such as walking or gripping objects.Many people with gout also have other health conditions. Most affected individuals have high blood pressure (hypertension), chronic kidney disease, or obesity. Some also have diabetes, heart disease, or a history of stroke. It is unclear whether gout is the cause of a person's increased risk for these conditions, or whether the conditions cause the development of gout, or whether both of these situations occur to influence disease.

MalaCards based summary : Gout, also known as arthritis, gouty, is related to hyperuricemia, hprt-related and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity, and has symptoms including back pain, sciatica and muscle cramp. An important gene associated with Gout is DARS2 (Aspartyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Purine metabolism and Metabolism of nucleotides. The drugs Allopurinol and Indomethacin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include joint, kidney and neutrophil, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Disease Ontology : 12 An arthritis that has material basis in uric acid crystal deposits located in joint.

MedlinePlus : 42 Gout is a common, painful form of arthritis. It causes swollen, red, hot and stiff joints. Gout happens when uric acid builds up in your body. Uric acid comes from the breakdown of substances called purines. Purines are in your body's tissues and in foods, such as liver, dried beans and peas, and anchovies. Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood. It passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes uric acid can build up and form needle-like crystals. When they form in your joints, it is very painful. The crystals can also cause kidney stones. Often, gout first attacks your big toe. It can also attack ankles, heels, knees, wrists, fingers, and elbows. At first, gout attacks usually get better in days. Eventually, attacks last longer and happen more often. You are more likely to get gout if you Are a man Have family member with gout Are overweight Drink alcohol Eat too many foods rich in purines Gout can be hard to diagnose. Your doctor may take a sample of fluid from an inflamed joint to look for crystals. You can treat gout with medicines. Pseudogout has similar symptoms and is sometimes confused with gout. However, it is caused by calcium phosphate, not uric acid. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

CDC : 3 Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis that is very painful. It usually affects one joint at a time (often the big toe joint). There are times when symptoms get worse, known as flares, and times when there are no symptoms, known as remission. Repeated bouts of gout can lead to gouty arthritis, a worsening form of arthritis. There is no cure for gout, but you can effectively treat and manage the condition with medication and self-management strategies.

KEGG : 36 Gout is a kind of arthritis associated with hyperuricemia. It is triggered due to precipitation and deposition of inflammatory monosodium urate crystals in synovial and other tissues, accompanied by severe pain. The most common symptom include swelling, tenderness, warmth and redness. Mostly, the joint at the base of the big toe is affected, gout progresses with more frequent attacks that involve multiple joints. Joint pain that used to resolve in a week to 10 days could become a milder, but constant pain. Eventually, untreated gout can cause other comorbidities such as high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of the disease is more common in 40s men than women, but gout in women after menopause appears increased risk. Recently, the onset in 20s increases. The development of gout is not only associated with sex, age, race and genetics, but also diet and lifestyle are contributed to increasing prevalence of the disease. Epidemiology studies reported that the excessive intake of alcohol and purine rich food, which excessively produce uric acid, leads to accumulation of uric acid.

PubMed Health : 62 About gout: Gout is a metabolic disorder which causes inflammation of the joints. During acute episodes, certain joints swell up within just a few hours and become very sensitive to pain. The inflammation is triggered by tiny needle-shaped crystals of uric acid that mainly build up in the joints. These crystals may form if there is too much uric acid in the body. The inflammation normally goes away on its own within one to two weeks. The pain can be relieved with medication. Most people with gout experience acute attacks every now and then. Months or even years can pass between attacks, but they may be more frequent too. There are a number of options to prevent them. Some people already notice an improvement if they avoid certain foods and other possible triggers. Others may take medication to lower their uric acid levels over the long term. The medication is mostly considered for people who have frequent gout attacks or complications such as kidney stones or lumps called tophi. Many people have high levels of uric acid without it causing any noticeable problems. It's not clear whether this affects their health. It doesn't need to be treated.

Wikipedia : 74 Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and... more...

Related Diseases for Gout

Diseases related to Gout via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 688)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hyperuricemia, hprt-related 32.8 HPRT1 APRT
2 phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity 32.6 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT ADSL
3 tubulointerstitial kidney disease, autosomal dominant, 1 32.4 UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 HPRT1
4 lesch-nyhan syndrome 31.7 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
5 hyperuricemia 31.7 XDH UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
6 nephrolithiasis 31.1 XDH UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 HPRT1 APRT
7 urolithiasis 31.0 XDH UMOD IL1B HPRT1 APRT
8 acute kidney failure 30.8 UMOD SLC22A12 IL18
9 disorder of purine metabolism 30.8 HPRT1 APRT
10 exanthem 30.8 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
11 peptic ulcer disease 30.7 XDH TNF IL1B
12 osteomyelitis 30.7 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
13 atherosclerosis susceptibility 30.7 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
14 synovitis 30.6 TNF IL1B IL18
15 pyelonephritis 30.6 UMOD TNF IL1B
16 familial mediterranean fever 30.5 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
17 hereditary xanthinuria 30.5 XDH APRT
18 peritonitis 30.5 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
19 stomatitis 30.4 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
20 xanthinuria 30.4 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 APRT
21 hereditary periodic fever syndrome 30.4 TNF NLRP3
22 alcoholic hepatitis 30.4 TNF IL1B IL18
23 hypouricemia, renal, 1 30.4 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 HPRT1
24 nephrolithiasis, uric acid 30.3 XDH SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 PRPS1 HPRT1
25 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency 30.3 XDH HPRT1 APRT ADSL
26 bone inflammation disease 30.2 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
27 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 30.2 TNF IL1B IL18
28 keratitis, hereditary 30.1 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
29 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.1 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
30 pyoderma 30.0 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
31 arts syndrome 30.0 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT ADSL
32 acute cystitis 29.9 UMOD TNF IL1B IL18
33 periodontitis 29.9 TNF IL1B IL18
34 chlamydia 29.9 TNF IL1B IL18
35 trypanosomiasis 29.8 TNF IL1B IL18
36 hypertension, essential 29.8 XDH UMOD TNF SLC2A9 SLC22A12 NLRP3
37 chagas disease 29.7 TNF IL1B IL18
38 inflammatory bowel disease 29.6 XDH TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18 HPRT1
39 autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease, umod-related 11.5
40 d-lactic aciduria with gout 11.4
41 uric acid concentration, serum, quantitative trait locus 1 11.4
42 chondrocalcinosis 2 11.2
43 autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease 11.2
44 uric acid concentration, serum, quantitative trait locus 4 11.1
45 arthritis 11.0
46 ren-related kidney disease 11.0
47 crystal arthropathies 10.9
48 polycythemia vera 10.9
49 glycogen storage disease ia 10.9
50 tubulointerstitial kidney disease, autosomal dominant, 2 10.9

Comorbidity relations with Gout via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 24)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Aortic Valve Disease 1
Benign Essential Hypertension Bladder Neck Obstruction
Bronchitis Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
Generalized Atherosclerosis Heart Disease
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Intermediate Coronary Syndrome Iron Deficiency Anemia
Kidney Disease Mitral Valve Disease
Osteoarthritis Peripheral Vascular Disease
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Hypertrophy
Sinoatrial Node Disease Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gout:

Diseases related to Gout

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gout

UMLS symptoms related to Gout:

back pain, sciatica, muscle cramp

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.83 PRPS1
2 Decreased viability GR00240-S-1 9.83 ABCG2 ADSL
3 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.83 APRT IL1B PDZK1 XDH
4 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.83 IL1B NLRP3 PDZK1 SLC16A9 SLC17A1 UMOD
5 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.83 SLC22A12 TNF
6 Increased the percentage of infected cells GR00402-S-1 8.32 APRT

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gout:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.07 ABCG2 APRT DARS2 HPRT1 IL18 IL1B
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.9 ABCG2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B NLRP3
3 integument MP:0010771 9.61 ABCG2 APRT HPRT1 IL18 IL1B NLRP3
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.23 ABCG2 APRT HPRT1 NLRP3 SLC22A12 SLC2A9

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gout

PubMed Health treatment related to Gout: 62

The treatment of gout has two aims: In the short term, it should provide pain relief during gout attacks. In the long term, it should prevent further attacks and lower the risk of chronic inflammations and joint damage. Gout attacks are treated with anti-inflammatory medications. These include anti-inflammatory painkillers, such as ibuprofen , indometacine or naproxen , steroid medicines (usually tablets with prednisolone ), as well as the gout medicine colchicine . Because colchicine is slow to start working and has certain possible side effects, it is no longer used very often. If a single drug can’t provide enough pain relief, the treatments can be combined. Cooling the affected joint probably also helps, and most people find it very soothing. The goal of long-term gout treatment is to prevent gout attacks and complications by lowering the level of uric acid . This can be done in two ways: Changing your diet: Especially eating less meat, fish and seafood, and drinking less alcohol. Taking medication to lower your uric acid levels, typically allopurinol . Not everyone who has gout needs to take medicine to lower their uric acid levels. In particular, people who have already had a gout attack usually don’t need to take it. This is because some people don't have any problems after that for years, and others only have them rarely. Medication is mainly used if the attacks become more frequent or are very distressing. It also makes sense to take it if complications such as tophi or kidney stones have already developed, or if the functioning of the kidney is affected. Medication might also be an option if changes to your diet aren’t enough to make a difference.

Drugs for Gout (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 150)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53-86-1 3715
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
Etoricoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 202409-33-4 123619
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 1302 156391
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6 4594
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Methotrexate Approved Phase 4 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 126941
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
Fexofenadine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83799-24-0 3348
12 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 5754
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
Lesinurad Approved, Investigational Phase 4 878672-00-5 53465279
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
26 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
27 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 4
28 Tocolytic Agents Phase 4
29 Diacetylrhein Phase 4
30 Antacids Phase 4
31 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
32 Proton Pump Inhibitors Phase 4
33 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
34 Anesthetics Phase 4
35 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
36 GABA Modulators Phase 4
37 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
38 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
40 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
41 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
42 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
43 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
44 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
45 Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating Phase 4
46 Nutrients Phase 4
47 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
48 Micronutrients Phase 4
49 Hematinics Phase 4
50 Trace Elements Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 223)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Does Allopurinol Prolong a Treated, Acute Gout Flare? Completed NCT01988402 Phase 4 allopurinol;Placebo (sugar pill)
2 A Double Blind Cross-over Study of the Efficacy of a Proprietary Cherry Juice Blend in Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Completed NCT00443092 Phase 4
3 A 1-Week, Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, Parallel Trial Comparing Lumiracoxib (400 mg Once Daily) in Patients With Acute Flares of Gout, Using Indomethacin (50 mg Three Times a Day) Completed NCT00170781 Phase 4 Lumiracoxib
4 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Comparator-Controlled 5-Day Trial of the Effect of Etoricoxib 120 mg Versus Indomethacin 150 mg in the Treatment of Acute Gout Completed NCT00142558 Phase 4 MK0663; etoricoxib / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days;Comparator: indomethacin 75 mg sustained release capsule / Duration of Treatment: 5 Days
5 Diacerein Combined With Febuxostat Relieves Symptoms of Gout by Suppressing IL-1βinflammation Completed NCT02060552 Phase 4 Diacerein;Colchicine;Febuxostat
6 Long-term Allopurinol Safety Study Evaluating Outcomes in Gout Patients (LASSO) Completed NCT01391325 Phase 4 Allopurinol
7 Multi-centre, Open-label, Active-comparator, Pragmatic Clinical Trial of Low-dose Colchicine Versus Naproxen in Patients With Acute Gout. Completed NCT01994226 Phase 4 Low-dose colchicine;Naproxen 750 mg/250 mg
8 The Effect of Intensive Urate Lowering Therapy (ULT) With Febuxostat in Comparison With Allopurinol on Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Gout Using Surrogate Markers: a Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT02500641 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80/120mg/day;Allopurinol 100 up to 600mg/day;Colchicine;Naproxen;Omeprazole
9 Shifting the Paradigm of Gout: An Assessment of Chronic Synovial-Based Inflammation and Its Role With Serum Urate Levels. Completed NCT01112982 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Colchicine
10 Febuxostat (Zurig) Efficacy & Safety Trial in Comparison With Allopurinol in Hyperuricemic Subjects With or Without Gout Completed NCT02600780 Phase 4 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
11 Therapy for Acute Gout: Does Initial Use of Allopurinol Effect Duration and/or Recurrence Rate of Acute Attacks Completed NCT01310673 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Placebo
12 Efficacy and Safety of Colchicine for the Prevention of Gout Flares During the Initiation of Allopurinol Completed NCT01451645 Phase 4 Colchicine (Colcrys®);placebo;allopurinol
13 A Prospective, Non-comparative, Single Centre Study to Determine the Performance & Survivorship of the SIGMA HP® PARTIAL KNEE SYSTEM. Completed NCT01529099 Phase 4
14 Effects of Pharmacological Reversal of Hyperuricemia on Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Completed NCT01654276 Phase 4 Febuxostat
15 The Effects of BCRP Q141K on Allopurinol Pharmacokinetics and Dynamics Completed NCT02956278 Phase 4 Allopurinol
16 Optimal Administration of Allopurinol in Dialysis Patients : A Chronotherapy Trial Completed NCT02477488 Phase 4 Allopurinol
17 A Phase 4, Multicenter, Open-Label, Infusion Duration Study To Assess Tolerability of Pegloticase Administered With a Shorter Infusion Duration in Subjects With Uncontrolled Gout Receiving Methotrexate Recruiting NCT04511702 Phase 4
18 Comparison of Maximum Blood Concentrations of Colchicine Between Responders and Non-responders to Colchicine Treatment During Gout Flare Recruiting NCT03933007 Phase 4 Colchicine,;midazolam,;fexofenadine
19 A Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Open-Label [OL]) Active, not recruiting NCT03635957 Phase 4 Methotrexate (MTX);Standard Gout Flare Prophylaxis;Infusion Reaction (IR) Prophylaxis
20 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Efficacy and Safety Study of Methotrexate to Increase Response Rates in Patients With Uncontrolled GOut Receiving KRYSTEXXA® (Pegloticase) (MIRROR Randomized Controlled Trial [RCT]) Active, not recruiting NCT03994731 Phase 4
21 CSP #594 - Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs. Febuxostat Active, not recruiting NCT02579096 Phase 4 Allopurinol;Febuxostat;Placebo, vehicle control (Febuxostat-shaped);Placebo, vehicle control (Allopurinol-shaped)
22 A Multicenter, Open-Label, Efficacy and Safety Study of Pegloticase in Patients With Uncontrolled Gout Who Have Undergone Kidney Transplantation Active, not recruiting NCT04087720 Phase 4
23 The Impact of Urate-lowering Therapy on Kidney Function in Patients With/Without Gout Enrolling by invitation NCT03336203 Phase 4 Febuxostat 80 MG Oral Tablet or Allopurinol 300 MG Oral Tablet
24 Investigator-Initiated, Pilot Study Evaluating The Efficacy Of Etanercept In Acute Gout Suspended NCT03636373 Phase 4 Etanercept;Triamcinolone Acetonide
25 A Phase 4, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lesinurad 200 mg in Combination With a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor (XOI), Compared With an XOI Alone, in Subjects With Gout and Estimated Creatinine Clearance (eCrCl) 30 to <60 mL/Min Who Have Not Achieved Target Serum Uric Acid Levels (sUA) on an XOI Alone Terminated NCT03226899 Phase 4 Lesinurad;XOI;Placebo
26 Mechanistic Effects of Colchicine in Patients With Myocardial Infarction A Single Center Phase 4 Single Arm Open-label Study Evaluating the FDA-approved Drug, Colchicine, at the FDA-approved Gout Dose in Patients With Myocardial Infarction Withdrawn NCT02995512 Phase 4 Colchicine 0.6 mg tablets
27 A Clinical Trial About the Efficacy and Safety of HuZhen Capsule in Treating Patients With Acute Gout: A 72 Hours, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel Placebo Compared Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02674776 Phase 3 HuZhen Capsule;Placebo Capsule
28 An Open-label Extension Study of CACZ885H2356E2 and CACZ885H2357E2 on the Treatment and Prevention of Gout Flares in Patients With Frequent Flares for Whom NSAIDs and/or Colchicine Are Contraindicated, Not Tolerated or Ineffective Completed NCT01470989 Phase 3 ACZ885
29 A 12 Weeks Randomized, Controlled Core Study of ACZ885 (Canakinumab) on the Treatment and Prevention of Gout Flares in Patients With Frequent Flares for Whom NSAIDs and/or Colchicine Are Contraindicated, Not Tolerated or Ineffective, Including a 12-week Double-blind Extension Study and an Open-label 48 Week Extension Study Completed NCT01029652 Phase 3 Canakinumab 150 mg;Triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg;Placebo to canakinumab;Placebo to triamcinolone acetonide
30 Multicenter, Open Label Extension Study of 8 mg PEG-uricase in Subjects Who Completed Protocols C0405 or C0406 for Symptomatic Gout Completed NCT01356498 Phase 3
31 A 36-week Open-label Extension Study of CACZ885H2361 on the Safety and Tolerability of Canakinumab 150 mg s.c. Pre-filled Syringe (PFS) in Treating Acute Gouty Arthritis Flares in Frequently Flaring Patients Completed NCT01431638 Phase 3 Canakinumab 150mg in prefilled syringe
32 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Active-Controlled Trial To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Celecoxib (Celebrex®) And Indomethacin In The Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Acute Gouty Arthritis Completed NCT00549549 Phase 3 Indomethacin;Celecoxib;Celecoxib;Celecoxib
33 A Randomized, Double-blind, Active-controlled Study of Canakinumab Prefilled Syringes or Reconstituted Lyophilizate Versus Triamcinolone Acetonide for Treating Acute Gouty Arthritis Flares in Frequently Flaring Patients Completed NCT01356602 Phase 3 Canakinumab pre-filled syringe;Canakinumab lyophilized powder;Triamcinolone Acetonide;Placebo
34 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group, 1 Week, Dose Comparison Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of MPC-004 in Patients With an Acute Gout Flare Completed NCT00506883 Phase 3 High Dose Colchicine (4.8 mg total dose);Low Dose Colchicine (1.8mg total dose)
35 Prevention of Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) - Induced Pancreatitis Using Aggressive Lactated Ringer's Infusion and/or Rectal Indomethacin Completed NCT02641561 Phase 3 Indomethacin;Lactated Ringer's Solution;Normal Saline;Placebo
36 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomized, Allopurinol-Controlled Study to Assess the Long-Term Safety of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT00175019 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Febuxostat;Allopurinol
37 Randomized, Multicenter, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Efficacy and Safety Study of 8 mg PEG-uricase in Two Dose Regimens in Hyperuricemic Subjects With Symptomatic Gout Completed NCT00325195 Phase 3
38 A Randomized, Open Label, Multicenter, Allopurinol- Controlled Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat in Patients With Gout Completed NCT01736514 Phase 3 febuxostat;Allopurinol
39 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double Blind, Multicenter, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Febuxostat 40 mg XR, 80 mg XR, 40 mg IR and 80 mg IR in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT02139046 Phase 3 Febuxostat IR;Febuxostat XR;Febuxostat placebo;Colchicine;Naproxen;Lansoprazole
40 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Allopurinol-Controlled Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT02082769 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
41 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Allopurinol-Controlled Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout. Completed NCT00430248 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Febuxostat;Allopurinol
42 A Randomized, Controlled Study of ACZ885 (Canakinumab) on the Treatment and Prevention of Gout Flares in Patients With Frequent Flares for Whom NSAIDs and/or Colchicine Are Contraindicated, Not Tolerated or Ineffective Including a 12 Weeks Extension Study and a 1 Year Open-label Extension Study Completed NCT01080131 Phase 3 Canakinumab 150 mg;Triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg;Placebo to canakinumab;Placebo to triamcinolone acetonide
43 A Multicenter, Randomized, Active-Control, Phase 3B Study to Evaluate the Cardiovascular Safety of Febuxostat and Allopurinol in Subjects With Gout and Cardiovascular Comorbidities Completed NCT01101035 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Allopurinol
44 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Allopurinol and Placebo-Controlled Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat in Subjects With Gout. Completed NCT00174915 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Febuxostat;Febuxostat;Allopurinol;Placebo
45 A Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol in Subjects With Gout Completed NCT00102440 Phase 3 Febuxostat;Febuxostat;Allopurinol
46 A Long-Term Extension Study of Lesinurad in Combination With Febuxostat for Subjects With Gout Completing an Efficacy and Safety Study of Lesinurad and Febuxostat Completed NCT01808144 Phase 3 lesinurad;lesinurad;febuxostat
47 Multicenter, Open-Label, 24 Week Regimen of 8 mg Pegloticase i.v. in Symptomatic Gout Subjects Who Participated in Previous Studies of Pegloticase i.v. Completed NCT00675103 Phase 3 pegloticase 8 mg i.v.
48 A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Placebo- Controlled, Combination Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Lesinurad and Febuxostat Compared to Febuxostat Alone at Lowering Serum Uric Acid and Resolving Tophi in Subjects With Tophaceous Gout Completed NCT01510769 Phase 3 Lesinurad;Lesinurad;Placebo;Febuxostat
49 A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Combination Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Lesinurad and Allopurinol Compared to Allopurinol Alone in Subjects With Gout Who Have Had an Inadequate Hypouricemic Response to Standard of Care Allopurinol. Completed NCT01510158 Phase 3 Lesinurad;Lesinurad;Placebo;Allopurinol;Allopurinol;Allopurinol
50 A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Placebo- Controlled, Combination Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Lesinurad and Allopurinol Compared to Allopurinol Alone in Subjects With Gout Who Have Had an Inadequate Hypouricemic Response to Standard of Care Allopurinol Completed NCT01493531 Phase 3 Lesinurad;Lesinurad;Placebo;Allopurinol

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gout

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 51 :

Gout Suppressants
Naproxen sodium

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gout

Genetic Tests for Gout

Anatomical Context for Gout

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Gout:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gout:

Kidney, Neutrophil, Skin, Myeloid, Endothelial, Eye, Spinal Cord

Publications for Gout

Articles related to Gout:

(show top 50) (show all 13509)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Acupuncture for gouty arthritis: A PRISMA-compliant protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 61 42
33285766 2020
Efficacy and safety of pricking-blood therapy for acute gouty arthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 61 42
33327298 2020
Rufus of Ephesus. 42
33320213 2020
Childhood course of renal insufficiency in a family with a uromodulin gene mutation. 54 61
20151160 2010
Four generations of transition-state analogues for human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 54 61
20212140 2010
Refractory polyarticular gouty arthritis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. 54 61
20051757 2010
The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? 54 61
20075245 2010
Allopurinol, xanthine oxidase, and cardiac ischemia. 54 61
19794315 2009
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout. 61 54
20109996 2009
The interleukin 1 inhibitor rilonacept in treatment of chronic gouty arthritis: results of a placebo-controlled, monosequence crossover, non-randomised, single-blind pilot study. 54 61
19635719 2009
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the fractions of Erythrina stricta Roxb. 54 61
19467311 2009
Severe gouty arthritis and mild neurologic symptoms due to F199C, a newly identified variant of the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. 61 54
19565499 2009
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in a Chinese man with early-onset gout. 54 61
19435978 2009
Febuxostat (Uloric) for chronic treatment of gout. 54 61
19448587 2009
Crystal ball gazing: new therapeutic targets for hyperuricaemia and gout. 61 54
19109320 2009
Role of urate, xanthine oxidase and the effects of allopurinol in vascular oxidative stress. 61 54
19436671 2009
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy: report on a new mutation and a pregnancy. 61 54
19203555 2009
The effect of age and gender on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of febuxostat, a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. 54 61
18635756 2008
Abnormal expression and processing of uromodulin in Fabry disease reflects tubular cell storage alteration and is reversible by enzyme replacement therapy. 54 61
18651238 2008
Normal HPRT coding region in complete and partial HPRT deficiency. 54 61
18316217 2008
[Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase]. 54 61
18409526 2008
Synthesis of N-aryl-5-amino-4-cyanopyrazole derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors. 61 54
17692432 2008
[New antihyperuricemic medicine: febuxostat, Puricase, etc]. 54 61
18409528 2008
The potential role for xanthine oxidase inhibition in major intra-abdominal surgery. 61 54
18074171 2008
Febuxostat. 61 54
18729537 2008
The spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases: recent bench to bedside observations. 61 54
18281860 2008
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors the unappreciated treatment for heart failure. 54 61
18220728 2007
Arts syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in PRPS1. 54 61
17701896 2007
HPRT deficiency in a two-month-old child presenting acute renal failure and gout with a new deletion of two bases in exon 3 of the HPRT gene. 54 61
17416296 2007
Identification of a new single-nucleotide mutation on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from 983 cases with gout in Taiwan. 61 54
17309125 2007
Genetics and experimental models of crystal-induced arthritis. Lessons learned from mice and men: is it crystal clear? 61 54
17278928 2007
Febuxostat: a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the treatment of hyperuricemia in gout. 61 54
19075968 2007
Febuxostat: a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. 61 54
17132810 2006
Pathogenesis, clinical findings and management of acute and chronic gout. 54 61
17213786 2006
Association between intronic SNP in urate-anion exchanger gene, SLC22A12, and serum uric acid levels in Japanese. 61 54
16920156 2006
Metabolic diseases: gout. 61 54
17113968 2006
Proteomic analysis of Down's syndrome patients with gout. 61 54
16500633 2006
Crystal-induced arthropathies: recent investigative advances. 61 54
16582687 2006
Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. 54 61
16507884 2006
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of febuxostat, a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, in a dose escalation study in healthy subjects. 61 54
16884320 2006
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta and their related phenotypes. 54 61
15930087 2006
Familial nephropathy associated with hyperuricemia in Spain: our experience with 3 families harbouring a UMOD mutation. 61 54
17065110 2006
Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and partial hypoxanthine- phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: a follow-up study of 18 Spanish patients. 61 54
17065067 2006
Partial HPRT deficiency (Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome). 54 61
16649740 2006
HPRTSardinia: a new point mutation causing HPRT deficiency without Lesch-Nyhan disease. 61 54
16216473 2006
Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. 54 61
16339094 2005
Association between cigarette smoking and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. 61 54
16358551 2005
Febuxostat (Teijin/Ipsen/TAP). 61 54
16312139 2005
Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation. 61 54
15965771 2005
Febuxostat: a non-purine, selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the management of hyperuricaemia in patients with gout. 54 61
16022578 2005

Variations for Gout

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gout:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.492+2T>C SNV Pathogenic 1062 rs142433332 1:173800770-173800770 1:173831632-173831632
2 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.228-21_228-20delinsC Indel Pathogenic 1057 rs1553201258 1:173797450-173797451 1:173828312-173828313

Expression for Gout

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gout.

Pathways for Gout

Pathways related to Gout according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Purine metabolism hsa00230

Pathways related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
2 12.29 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
3 12.1 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
4 11.89 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
5 11.76 TNF IL1B IL18
7 11.67 TNF IL1B IL18
Show member pathways
11.64 TNF IL1B IL18
9 11.63 TNF NLRP3 IL1B
10 11.48 TNF IL1B IL18
11 11.4 TNF IL1B IL18
12 11.38 TNF IL1B IL18
13 11.35 TNF IL1B IL18
14 11.27 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
15 11.18 TNF IL1B IL18
16 11.09 TNF IL1B IL18
17 11.04 TNF IL1B ABCG2
18 10.93 XDH PRPS1 HPRT1
19 10.83 NLRP3 IL1B IL18
20 10.67 TNF IL1B IL18
21 10.41 PRPS1 HPRT1 ADSL
22 10.4 IL1B IL18
23 10.25 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 PDZK1

GO Terms for Gout

Cellular components related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 brush border membrane GO:0031526 9.26 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 PDZK1 ABCG2
2 apical plasma membrane GO:0016324 9.23 UMOD SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1

Biological processes related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 32)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.98 UMOD TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
2 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 9.87 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 SLC16A9
3 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.84 TNF NLRP3 IL1B IL18
4 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.83 TNF IL1B IL18
5 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.8 TNF IL1B IL18
6 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.8 TNF IL1B IL18
7 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.79 TNF IL1B IL18
8 purine-containing compound salvage GO:0043101 9.65 HPRT1 APRT
9 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production GO:0032725 9.65 IL1B IL18
10 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.65 TNF IL1B IL18
11 grooming behavior GO:0007625 9.64 HPRT1 APRT
12 phosphate ion transport GO:0006817 9.64 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
13 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.63 TNF IL1B
14 drug transmembrane export GO:1990961 9.62 SLC17A3 PDZK1
15 positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation GO:0045630 9.61 NLRP3 IL18
16 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.6 TNF IL1B
17 ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process GO:0009156 9.59 PRPS1 ADSL
18 purine ribonucleoside salvage GO:0006166 9.58 HPRT1 APRT
19 nucleoside metabolic process GO:0009116 9.58 PRPS1 HPRT1 APRT
20 positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell cytokine production GO:2000556 9.57 IL1B IL18
21 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.56 TNF IL1B
22 sialic acid transport GO:0015739 9.55 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
23 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process GO:0006164 9.54 PRPS1 HPRT1 ADSL
24 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.52 TNF IL1B
25 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.51 TNF IL1B
26 GMP catabolic process GO:0046038 9.49 XDH HPRT1
27 adenine metabolic process GO:0046083 9.46 HPRT1 APRT
28 organic anion transport GO:0015711 9.46 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 ABCG2
29 adenine salvage GO:0006168 9.43 HPRT1 APRT
30 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.43 TNF IL1B IL18
31 urate transport GO:0015747 9.35 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 ABCG2
32 urate metabolic process GO:0046415 9.17 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 SLC16A9

Molecular functions related to Gout according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane transporter activity GO:0022857 9.43 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 SLC17A1 SLC16A9
2 efflux transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015562 9.37 SLC17A3 ABCG2
3 organic anion transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008514 9.33 SLC22A11 SLC17A3 ABCG2
4 sodium:phosphate symporter activity GO:0005436 9.32 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
5 sialic acid transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015136 9.26 SLC17A3 SLC17A1
6 urate transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015143 8.92 SLC2A9 SLC22A12 SLC17A3 ABCG2

Sources for Gout

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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