MCID: GRN004
MIFTS: 30

Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis:

Name: Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 12 20 3 15 71
Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis Due to Acanthamoeba 12
Acanthamoeba Granulomatous Encephalitis 12
Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis 12
Acanthamoeba Encephalitis 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050246
UMLS 71 C0338428

Summaries for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

GARD : 20 Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a life-threatening infection of the brain caused by the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia pedata. Acanthamoeba species, are commonly found in lakes, swimming pools, tap water, and heating and air conditioning units. The disease affects immunocompromised peple and is very serious. Symptoms include mental status changes, loss of coordination, fever, muscular weakness or partial paralysis affecting one side of the body, double vision, sensitivity to light and other neurologic problems. The diagnosis is difficult and is often made at advanced stages. Tests useful in the diagnosis include brain scans, biopsies, or spinal taps and in disseminated disease, biopsy of the involved sites and testing by the laboratory experts. Early diagnosis is important for the prognosis. No single drug is effective; hence multiple antibiotics are needed for successful treatment. A combination of surgical and medical interventions involving multiple specialty experts is required to prevent death and morbidity in survivors.

MalaCards based summary : Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis, also known as granulomatous amebic encephalitis due to acanthamoeba, is related to primary amebic meningoencephalitis and amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae. An important gene associated with Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis is DCAF8 (DDB1 And CUL4 Associated Factor 8), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination). Affiliated tissues include eye, spinal cord and brain, and related phenotype is homeostasis/metabolism.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that results in infection of the brain caused by Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia mandrillaris. The symptoms include headaches, altered mental status, and focal neurologic deficit, which progresses over several weeks to death.

CDC : 3 Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, free-living ameba, or amoeba* (single-celled living organism), that can cause rare**, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system. The ameba is found worldwide in the environment in water and soil. The ameba can be spread to the eyes through contact lens use, cuts, or skin wounds or by being inhaled into the lungs. Most people will be exposed to Acanthamoeba during their lifetime, but very few will become sick from this exposure. The three diseases caused by Acanthamoeba are: Acanthamoeba keratitis – An infection of the eye that typically occurs in healthy persons and can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE) – A serious infection of the brain and spinal cord that typically occurs in persons with a compromised immune system. Disseminated infection – A widespread infection that can affect the skin, sinuses, lungs, and other organs independently or in combination. It is also more common in persons with a compromised immune system.

Wikipedia : 74 Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a rare, usually fatal, subacute-to-chronic central nervous... more...

Related Diseases for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Diseases related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 45)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 primary amebic meningoencephalitis 27.9 TNFRSF17 SNORA1 PSAT1 JDP2 GMPPB DCAF8
2 amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae 11.3
3 encephalitis 10.8
4 meningoencephalitis 10.4
5 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.2
6 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 10.2
7 type 2 diabetes mellitus 10.1
8 keratitis, hereditary 10.1
9 immune deficiency disease 10.1
10 ocular motor apraxia 10.1
11 diabetes mellitus 10.1
12 bacterial meningitis 10.1
13 toxoplasmosis 10.1
14 lymphomatoid granulomatosis 10.1
15 tuberculous meningitis 10.1
16 amoebic keratitis 10.1
17 infectious encephalitis 10.1
18 lymphoma, hodgkin, classic 10.1
19 kala-azar 1 10.1
20 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 10.1
21 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 10.1
22 diffuse large b-cell lymphoma 10.1
23 cysticercosis 10.1
24 panniculitis 10.1
25 alcohol use disorder 10.1
26 encephalomalacia 10.1
27 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 10.1
28 mast cell neoplasm 10.1
29 rhinitis 10.1
30 extracutaneous mastocytoma 10.1
31 severe combined immunodeficiency 10.1
32 viral encephalitis 10.1
33 b-cell lymphoma 10.1
34 chronic rhinitis 10.1
35 leishmaniasis 10.1
36 amebiasis 10.1
37 hypereosinophilic syndrome 10.1
38 serine deficiency 10.0 PSAT1 PHGDH
39 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency 9.9 PSAT1 PHGDH
40 cryoglobulinemia 9.9
41 vasculitis 9.9
42 lupus erythematosus 9.9
43 phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency 9.9 PSAT1 PHGDH
44 neu-laxova syndrome 1 9.8 PSAT1 PHGDH
45 ectropion 9.7 PSAT1 PHGDH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis:



Diseases related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.32 ATG3 CHCHD4 CPA2 DCAF8 GABARAPL2 JDP2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Genetic Tests for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Anatomical Context for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis:

40
Eye, Spinal Cord, Brain, Kidney, Endothelial, Heart, Skin

Publications for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Articles related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 302)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Discovery of Amoebicidal Compounds by Combining Computational and Experimental Approaches. 61
33229426 2021
2
Derivatisation of metronidazole enhances cytotoxic effect against Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolates and leads to cytomorphological changes in trophozoites. 61
33465352 2021
3
'Targeting the feast of a sleeping beast': Nutrient and mineral dependencies of encysted Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
32602961 2021
4
Immunopathogenicity of Acanthamoeba spp. in the Brain and Lungs. 61
33514026 2021
5
Acanthamoeba spp. monoclonal antibody against a CPA2 transporter: a promising molecular tool for acanthamoebiasis diagnosis and encystment study. 61
32951614 2020
6
Nanoparticles based therapeutic efficacy against Acanthamoeba: Updates and future prospect. 61
32979343 2020
7
Granulomas in parasitic diseases: the good and the bad. 61
32789534 2020
8
[First case report of the Balamuthia mandrillaris in the Camaná district of Arequipa, Peru]. 61
33012571 2020
9
Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis. 61
32966724 2020
10
Growth comparison of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 in several culture media. 61
32984575 2020
11
Discovery of repurposing drug candidates for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae. 61
32970675 2020
12
Isolation and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba species from air conditioning systems, Egypt. 61
32999181 2020
13
Metformin-coated silver nanoparticles exhibit anti-acanthamoebic activities against both trophozoite and cyst stages. 61
32461112 2020
14
Aryl Quinazolinone Derivatives as Novel Therapeutic Agents against Brain-Eating Amoebae. 61
31961126 2020
15
Rapid, Noninvasive Diagnosis of Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis by a Plasma-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Test. 61
32715017 2020
16
Antiamoebic activity of 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-4(3H)-one library against Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
32476058 2020
17
Metronidazole conjugated magnetic nanoparticles loaded with amphotericin B exhibited potent effects against pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. 61
32681358 2020
18
In Vitro Amoebicidal Activity of Imidazolium Salts Against Trophozoites. 61
31939031 2020
19
Gold-Conjugated Curcumin as a Novel Therapeutic Agent against Brain-Eating Amoebae. 61
32548431 2020
20
Schwann Cell Autophagy and Necrosis as Mechanisms of Cell Death by Acanthamoeba. 61
32526974 2020
21
A Surviving Case of Acanthamoeba Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis in a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient. 61
32603318 2020
22
Isoniazid Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles Loaded with Amphotericin B as a Potent Antiamoebic Agent against Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
32466210 2020
23
Encystment Induces Down-Regulation of an Acetyltransferase-Like Gene in Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
32357498 2020
24
Acanthamoeba castellanii phosphate transporter (AcPHS) is important to maintain inorganic phosphate influx and is related to trophozoite metabolic processes. 61
31965457 2020
25
Fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to free-living amoebae in two boys in two different hospitals in Lima, Perú. 61
31758593 2020
26
A homogeneously enhancing mass evolving into multiple hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in amoebic encephalitis with necrotizing vasculitis. 61
31864199 2020
27
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris leading to fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis. 61
31773473 2020
28
Balamuthia mandrillaris-Related Primary Amoebic Encephalitis in China Diagnosed by Next Generation Sequencing and a Review of the Literature. 61
31711180 2020
29
Amoebicidal activity of benzothiazole on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites and its cytotoxic potentials. 61
31887263 2020
30
Antioxidant defense in the eyes of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice infected with Acanthamoeba spp. 61
32143731 2020
31
Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis genotype T4D: An environmental isolate displays pathogenic behavior. 61
31669294 2020
32
Antiamoebic activity of plant-based natural products and their conjugated silver nanoparticles against Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 50492). 61
32016777 2020
33
Molecular detection of free-living amoebae from Namhangang (southern Han River) in Korea. 61
31942007 2020
34
Ac-HSP20 Is Associated With the Infectivity and Encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
33510719 2020
35
Acanthamoeba and its pathogenic role in granulomatous amebic encephalitis. 61
31647916 2020
36
"Proposals for Amendments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Encephalitis caused by Free-living Amoebae". 61
30961516 2020
37
Repositioning of Guanabenz in Conjugation with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles against Pathogenic Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri. 61
31612700 2019
38
Genotyping of Acantamoeba spp. from rhisophere in Hungary. 61
31833382 2019
39
Effects of Shape and Size of Cobalt Phosphate Nanoparticles against Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
31766722 2019
40
Acanthamoeba in Southeast Asia - Overview and Challenges. 61
31533401 2019
41
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in a patient with AIDS: a challenging diagnosis. 61
31455179 2019
42
Evaluation of Oxasqualenoids from the Red Alga Laurencia viridis against Acanthamoeba. 61
31331002 2019
43
Synthesis and in vitro activity of new biguanide-containing dendrimers on pathogenic isolates of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Acanthamoeba griffini. 61
31069536 2019
44
Cobalt nanoparticles as novel nanotherapeutics against Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
31159839 2019
45
Antidiabetic Drugs and Their Nanoconjugates Repurposed as Novel Antimicrobial Agents against Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
31030451 2019
46
Evidence of human-like Ca2+ channels and effects of Ca2+ channel blockers in Acanthamoeba castellanii. 61
30362253 2019
47
Evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine, voriconazole and itraconazole of T4 genotype Acanthamoeba isolated from Mexico. 61
30648558 2019
48
Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis. 61
30838148 2019
49
Innovative Methodology in the Discovery of Novel Drug Targets in the Free-Living Amoebae. 61
29697029 2019
50
Identification and Genotypic Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Acanthamoeba Isolated from Tap Water in Wuxi, China. 61
30630284 2018

Variations for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Expression for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis.

Pathways for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Pathways related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.67 PSAT1 PHGDH
2
Show member pathways
10.25 PSAT1 PHGDH

GO Terms for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Biological processes related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autophagosome assembly GO:0000045 9.32 GABARAPL2 ATG3
2 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process GO:0008652 9.26 PSAT1 PHGDH
3 biosynthetic process GO:0009058 9.16 GMPPB ACCS
4 autophagy of mitochondrion GO:0000422 8.96 GABARAPL2 ATG3
5 L-serine biosynthetic process GO:0006564 8.62 PSAT1 PHGDH

Molecular functions related to Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 8.62 PSAT1 ACCS

Sources for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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