Graves' Disease

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Graves' Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Graves' Disease:

Name: Graves' Disease 12 74 43 15
Graves Disease 12 20 43 36 29 54 44 17 71
Exophthalmic Goiter 12 20 43
Toxic Diffuse Goiter 43 71
Basedow's Disease 12 43
Grave's Disease 12 15
Basedow Disease 20 43
Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism 43
Toxic Multinodular Goiter 71
Graves' Hyperthyroidism 20
Parry Disease 20


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12361
KEGG 36 H00082
MeSH 44 D006111
NCIt 50 C3071
SNOMED-CT 67 154655004
ICD10 32 E05.0
UMLS 71 C0018213 C0154143 C0342122

Summaries for Graves' Disease

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of the thyroid, which is a butterfly-shaped gland in the lower neck. The thyroid makes hormones that help regulate a wide variety of critical body functions. For example, thyroid hormones influence growth and development, body temperature, heart rate, menstrual cycles, and weight. In people with Graves disease, the thyroid is overactive and makes more hormones than the body needs. The condition usually appears in mid-adulthood, although it may occur at any age.Excess thyroid hormones can cause a variety of signs and symptoms. These include nervousness or anxiety, extreme tiredness (fatigue), a rapid and irregular heartbeat, hand tremors, frequent bowel movements or diarrhea, increased sweating and difficulty tolerating hot conditions, trouble sleeping, and weight loss in spite of an increased appetite. Affected women may have menstrual irregularities, such as an unusually light menstrual flow and infrequent periods. Some people with Graves disease develop an enlargement of the thyroid called a goiter. Depending on its size, the enlarged thyroid can cause the neck to look swollen and may interfere with breathing and swallowing.Between 25 and 50 percent of people with Graves disease have eye abnormalities, which are known as Graves ophthalmopathy. These eye problems can include swelling and inflammation, redness, dryness, puffy eyelids, and a gritty sensation like having sand or dirt in the eyes. Some people develop bulging of the eyes caused by inflammation of tissues behind the eyeball and "pulling back" (retraction) of the eyelids. Rarely, affected individuals have more serious eye problems, such as pain, double vision, and pinching (compression) of the optic nerve connecting the eye and the brain, which can cause vision loss.A small percentage of people with Graves disease develop a skin abnormality called pretibial myxedema or Graves dermopathy. This abnormality causes the skin on the front of the lower legs and the tops of the feet to become thick, lumpy, and red. It is not usually painful.

MalaCards based summary : Graves' Disease, also known as graves disease, is related to graves disease 1 and hyperthyroidism. An important gene associated with Graves' Disease is GRD2 (Graves Disease, Susceptibility To, 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Autoimmune thyroid disease and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Methimazole and Dexamethasone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include thyroid gland, thyroid and eye, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 An autoimmune disease of endocrine system that involves production of excessive amount of thyroid hormones, located in thyroid gland.

GARD : 20 Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). It is caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the thyroid gland, causing the gland to produce too much thyroid hormone. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and occurs most often in women over age 20. However, the disorder may occur at any age and can affect males as well. More common signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease include irritability, a fast and irregular heartbeat, hand tremors, diarrhea, increased sweating, trouble sleeping, and weight loss. Some people develop abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter). Women with Graves' disease may have irregular menstrual periods. In some cases, Graves' disease causes other problems such as Graves' dermopathy (a condition marked by red, swollen skin), various eye abnormalities (such as bulging eyes, vision problems, pain, or swelling), emotional or behavioral changes, heart-related complications, or bone problems (such as osteoporosis). Treatment for hyperthyroidism and its symptoms may include radioiodine therapy, antithyroid drugs, and/or thyroid surgery. Most people eventually develop hypothyroidism after treatment for hyperthryoidism; this is treated with a daily synthetic thyroid hormone pill. Graves' dermopathy may be treated with corticosteroids and/or compression wraps. Eye problems may not improve after thyroid treatment and may be treated separately with eyedrops, rituximab, or rarely, surgery or radiation therapy.

KEGG : 36 Graves disease is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and is characterized by overstimulation of the thyroid gland with agonistic anti-thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. This overstimulation leads to follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, causing thyroid enlargement, as well as increases in thyroid hormone production and the fraction of triiodothyronine (T3) relative to thyroxine (T4) in thyroid secretion. Thyroid autoimmune diseases are regarded as polygenic disorders resulting from the combination of a genetic predisposition in conjunction with an environmental trigger. Two main approaches have been employed to locate susceptibility loci for AITD, namely case control candidate gene studies and genome-wide linkage screens. Case control candidate gene studies have been employed to investigate numerous genes for association with AITD, but to date, only the human leucocyte region (HLA) on chromosome 6p21 and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4 (CTLA-4) gene on chromosome 2q33 have been consistently shown to be associated with disease.

Wikipedia : 74 Graves disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.... more...

Related Diseases for Graves' Disease

Diseases in the Graves' Disease family:

Graves Disease 1 Graves Disease 2

Diseases related to Graves' Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 878)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 graves disease 1 33.1 TSHR TPO TG GRD1 DIO2
2 hyperthyroidism 32.7 TSHR TPO TG LMOD1 GNAS CTLA4
3 exophthalmos 32.6 TSHR TPO TG
4 myxedema 32.4 TSHR TPO TG CTLA4
5 goiter 32.2 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
6 hypothyroidism 32.1 TSHR TPO TG GNAS DIO2 CTLA4
7 thyroiditis 32.1 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IFNG
8 thyroid carcinoma 32.0 TSHR TPO TG
9 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 31.8 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IFNG CTLA4
10 subacute thyroiditis 31.7 TSHR TPO TG
11 thyroid gland disease 31.6 TSHR TPO TG GNAS DIO2 CTLA4
12 nodular goiter 31.6 TSHR TPO TG ICAM1 CTLA4
13 plummer's disease 31.5 TSHR TPO TG ICAM1
14 myasthenia gravis 31.5 IL4 IFNG CTLA4
15 hypoparathyroidism 31.4 TPO GNAS CTLA4
16 postsurgical hypothyroidism 31.4 TSHR TPO TG
17 multinodular goiter 31.4 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
18 autoimmune disease 31.4 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA
19 thyroid crisis 31.3 TSHR TPO TG
20 papillary carcinoma 31.3 TSHR TPO TG
21 neonatal thyrotoxicosis 31.3 TSHR DIO2
22 mechanical strabismus 31.3 TPO TG
23 hashimoto thyroiditis 31.3 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA
24 nontoxic goiter 31.2 TSHR TPO TG
25 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 31.2 TPO PTPN22 CTLA4
26 type 1 diabetes mellitus 31.1 TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA IFNG
27 anca-associated vasculitis 31.1 PTPN22 CTLA4
28 autoimmune hepatitis 31.1 TPO IL4 CTLA4
29 differentiated thyroid carcinoma 31.1 TSHR TPO TG
30 thrombocytopenia 31.0 PTPN22 IL4 IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4 CD40
31 orbital disease 31.0 TSHR TG IL16 CTLA4
32 lupus erythematosus 31.0 PTPN22 IFNG HLA-DQA1 FCRL3 CTLA4 CD40
33 allergic disease 31.0 IL4 IFNG CTLA4 CD40
34 uveitis 31.0 IL4 IL2RA IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4
35 pernicious anemia 31.0 TPO TG PTPN22
36 turner syndrome 30.9 TPO TG PTPN22
37 acute thyroiditis 30.8 TPO TG
38 toxic diffuse goiter 30.8 TSHR TPO TG DIO2
39 hypoadrenocorticism, familial 30.8 TPO TG PTPN22 CTLA4
40 congenital hypothyroidism 30.8 TSHR TPO TG GNAS DIO2
41 aplastic anemia 30.8 PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA IFNG CTLA4
42 allergic rhinitis 30.8 IL4 IL16 IFNG ICAM1
43 celiac disease 1 30.8 TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA IFNG
44 chronic urticaria 30.8 TPO TG IL4
45 thyroid gland follicular carcinoma 30.8 TSHR TPO TG DIO2
46 follicular adenoma 30.7 TSHR TPO TG GNAS DIO2
47 papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 30.7 TSHR TG
48 myocarditis 30.7 IL4 IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4 CD40
49 hepatitis a 30.6 IL4 IFNG CTLA4
50 suppurative thyroiditis 30.6 TSHR TPO TG FCRL3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Graves' Disease:

Diseases related to Graves' Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Graves' Disease

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Graves' Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.13 CD40 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS HLA-DQA1 ICAM1
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.07 CD40 CTLA4 GNAS HLA-DQA1 ICAM1 IFNG
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.97 CTLA4 DIO2 ICAM1 IFNG IL2RA IL4
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.97 CD40 CEP43 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS ICAM1
5 immune system MP:0005387 9.77 CD40 CTLA4 GNAS HLA-DQA1 ICAM1 IFNG
6 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 CD40 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS IFNG IL2RA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Graves' Disease

Drugs for Graves' Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 107)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Methimazole Approved Phase 4 60-56-0 1349907
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
5 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51384-51-1, 37350-58-6 4171
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
14 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
15 Hormones Phase 4
16 Antithyroid Agents Phase 4
17 Liver Extracts Phase 4
18 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
19 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
20 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
21 BB 1101 Phase 4
22 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
23 glucocorticoids Phase 4
24 Antiemetics Phase 4
25 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
26 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
27 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
28 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
29 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
30 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4
31 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4
32 Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
33 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
34 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
35 Analgesics Phase 4
36 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
37 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
38 Sympatholytics Phase 4
39 Lugol's solution Phase 4
40 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
Propylthiouracil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-52-5 657298
Carbimazole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 22232-54-8 31072
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 7553-56-2 807
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 329-65-7 838
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-43-4 5816
47 Antimetabolites Phase 3
48 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 3
49 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 3
50 Cholestyramine Resin Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 77)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Impact of SSKI Pre-Treatment on Blood Loss in Thyroidectomy for Graves Disease Completed NCT00946296 Phase 4 Potassium Iodide
2 Prevention Relapse of Graves' Disease by Treatment With Intrathyroid Injection of Dexamethasone Completed NCT00917241 Phase 4 MMI combined with IID;MMI
3 Adjuvant Treatment of Graves´ Ophthalmopathy With NSAID (aGO Study) Completed NCT01458600 Phase 4 Diclofenac;Methimazole;L-thyroxin;Propranolol;Metoprolol
4 Influence of Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy on Liver Function in Patients With Graves' Orbitopathy Completed NCT03667157 Phase 4 every week IVMP therapy;very high doses IVMP therapy
5 Is the Routine Pressure Dressing After Thyroidectomy Necessary? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT00400465 Phase 4
6 The Influence of Continuous Treatment With Antithyroid Drugs on the Effect of Radioiodine in Patients With Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT00150137 Phase 4 Methimazole
7 The Influence of Continuous Block-replacement Therapy on the Effect of Radioiodine in Patients With Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT00150124 Phase 4 MTZ+LT4;Methimazole
8 Diagnostic Accuracy Study of Indocyanine Green for Parathyroid Perfusion Assessment Completed NCT03969108 Phase 4 Indocyanine Green
9 Randomized Clinical Trial, Blinded for the Researcher and Multicenter, to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Preoperative Preparation With Lugol Solution in Euthyroid Patients With Graves-Basedow Disease. Recruiting NCT03980132 Phase 4 Lugols Strong Iodine
10 Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of Total Thyroidectomy (Tx) Versus Thionamides (Anti-Thyroid Drugs) in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Graves' Ophthalmopathy - a 1-year Follow-up Unknown status NCT03066076 Phase 3 Antithyroid Drug
11 A Multi-center, Open Label, Randomised Parallel- Group Study to Compare the Efficacy of Cholestyramine Plus Standard Treatment Versus Prednisolone Plus Standard Treatment Versus Standard Treatment Alone in Treatment of Overt Hyperthyroidism Unknown status NCT03303053 Phase 3 Cholestyramine Powder 4g;Prednisolone;Standard treatment
12 Assessing the Impact of the Early and Systematic Hormonal Replacement After Radio-isotopic Ablation of Graves'hyperthyroïdism on Quality of Life, Efficiency and Tolerance Completed NCT01295333 Phase 3 the early prophylactic introduction of low dose of LT4 (50 µg/d) at 15 days post-ablation;The initiation of LT4 as soon as the first biological signs of hypothyroidism.
13 Comparison of Different Doses of 131I in Severe Graves' Hyperthyroidism: A Clinical Trial With Historical Control Completed NCT01039818 Phase 3
14 Prevention of Overt Hypothyroidism Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease Completed NCT01950260 Phase 2, Phase 3 Levothyroxine
15 Does the Use of Pre-operative SSKI Actually Reduce Vascularity and Improve Surgical Outcomes for Total Thyroidectomy in Graves' Disease? Recruiting NCT04080505 Phase 3 SSKI- Potassium Iodide
16 Bupivacaine Injection of Eye Muscles to Treat Strabismus Recruiting NCT01616108 Phase 2, Phase 3 Bupivacaine
17 Investigation of Novel Biomarkers and Definition of the Role of the Microbiome In Graves' Orbitopathy Unknown status NCT02373995 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 The Effect of Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline in Mild Graves' Orbitopathy Unknown status NCT02203682 Phase 2 Doxycycline;placebo
19 Effects Of Oral Alfacalcidol On Maturation Of Dendritic Cells In Graves' Disease Patients Completed NCT02993302 Phase 2 1α-D3;Placebos
20 Radioactive Iodide Therapy for Pediatric Graves' Disease Completed NCT01269749 Phase 2 ATD Group
21 An Open Label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of 12 Week Treatment With CFZ533 in Patients With Graves' Disease Completed NCT02713256 Phase 2 CFZ533
22 B Cell Depletion With the Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody Rituximab in the Treatment of Graves' Disease Completed NCT00150111 Phase 1, Phase 2 Methimazole;Rituximab
23 Pretreatment With Recombinant Human Thyrotropin (rhTSH) for the Effect on Thyroid Size and Function, and for the Effect of Radioiodine Treatment in Patients With Nodular Goiter. Prospective, Randomized Double-blinded Trials. Completed NCT00145366 Phase 2 Recombinant human thyrotropin (Thyrogen)
24 Efficacy of Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline for Moderate to Severe and Active Graves' Orbitopathy: a Prospective, Uncontrolled Pilot Study Completed NCT01727973 Phase 1, Phase 2 Doxycycline
25 A Phase II, Randomized, Cross-over, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Single-center, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Sirolimus in Patients With Graves' Disease and Moderate-to-severe and Active Graves' Orbitopathy (GO) Not yet recruiting NCT04598815 Phase 2 Sirolimus
26 Safety and Proof of Principle Study of ATX-GD-59 in Male and Female Subjects With Graves' Disease Not Currently Treated With Anti-thyroid Therapy: An Open Label Study, With an Upward Titration Over Five Dose Levels Administered by Intradermal Injection Completed NCT02973802 Phase 1
27 Function of Regulatory T Cells Improved by Treatment With an Intrathyroid Injection of Dexamethasone in Graves' Patients Completed NCT01534169 Phase 1 Dexamethasone
28 K1-70 - A Phase I, Single Ascending Intramuscular Dose or Single Ascending Intravenous Dose, Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study in Subjects With Graves' Disease Recruiting NCT02904330 Phase 1 K1-70 intramuscular or K1-70 intravenous
29 Prevalence of Graves Disease in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Unknown status NCT03324334
30 The Effect of Different Calculated Doses of I-131 in Treatment of Patients With Grave's Disease Unknown status NCT02114619 Low dose of I-131;Intermediate dose;High dose
31 Comparison of Standardized Update Value Using Single-photo Emission Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography Between Grave's Disease (Hyperthyroidism) Patients and Normal Humans Unknown status NCT02772705
32 Application of Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging in Thyroid Disease and Associated Ophthalmopathy and Dermopathy Unknown status NCT01182584
33 Evaluation of Optimal Time of Methimazole Discontinuation Before Radio-iodine Therapy in Hyperthyroid Grave's Patients Completed NCT01560299 Methimazole;Methimazole;Methimazole
34 Randomized Open Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Selenium Plus Methimazole for Treatment of Graves' Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT02727738 Methimazole
35 Effectiveness of Classical Potassium Iodide Therapy for the Treatment of Untreated Patients With Graves' Hyperthyroidism, Avoiding Thionamide Drugs With Serious Side Effects of Agranulocytosis, Liver Injury, Vasculitis, Embryopathy or Frequent Side Effects of Skin Eruption Completed NCT04686006 Potassium Iodide
36 Shared Decision Making in Graves Disease - Graves Disease (GD) Choice Completed NCT02107794
37 A Prospective Evaluation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the Treatment of Relapsed Graves' Disease Completed NCT02685514
38 Serum Antibodies Against the Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) in Graves' Disease and Graves' Orbitopathy Completed NCT03498417
39 Prevalence of Circulating Parvovirus Genome in Recently Diagnosed Graves' Disease: a Case-control Study Completed NCT02798965
40 Positive Effect of Lugol's Solution on the Blood Flow and Microvessel Density of Thyroid Gland in the Patients With Graves' Disease Completed NCT00432146 lugol's solution
41 TSH Receptor Antibody Heterogeneity in Children and Adolescents With Graves' Disease Completed NCT00335062
42 Five-year Follow up of a Randomized Clinical Trial of Bilateral Subtotal Thyroidectomy Versus Total Thyroidectomy for Graves' Disease. Completed NCT01408368
43 Differential Diagnosis Value of Peak Systolic Velocity of Thyroid Superior Artery Using Color Flow Doppler Sonography in Transient Thyrotoxicosis Caused by Thyroiditis and Graves Disease Completed NCT01227499
44 Use of Low-dose Radioiodine for Ablation of Thyroid Remnants in Patients With Graves' Disease Following Thyroidectomy Completed NCT03110835
45 Study of the Influence of the GST, CYP and TP53 Gene Polymorphisms in the Risk of Graves' Disease and Its Outcome. Completed NCT00505011
46 Prospective Randomized Study of Therapy Withdrawal vs Continued Low Dose Medical Therapy in Patients With Graves' Disease Entering Remission During ATD Therapy Completed NCT00796913
47 Characteristics of Islet β-cell Functions in Chinese Patients With Graves' Disease Completed NCT02376088 Methimazole
49 Blood Pressure Profile and NT-proBNP Dynamics in Response to Intravenous Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy of Severe Graves' Orbitopathy Completed NCT03590080 Methylprednisolone
50 High-dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone Therapy in Patients With Graves' Orbitopathy is Associated With the Increased Activity of Factor VIII Completed NCT03535090 Methylprednisolone

Search NIH Clinical Center for Graves' Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: graves disease

Genetic Tests for Graves' Disease

Genetic tests related to Graves' Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Graves Disease 29

Anatomical Context for Graves' Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Graves' Disease:

Thyroid Gland

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Graves' Disease:

Thyroid, Eye, T Cells, Pituitary, B Cells, Endothelial, Breast

Publications for Graves' Disease

Articles related to Graves' Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 11785)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Gene polymorphisms of interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in Graves' disease. 54 61
19882211 2010
Immunopathogenesis of thyroid eye disease: emerging paradigms. 54 61
20385333 2010
HLA and CTLA4 polymorphisms may confer a synergistic risk in the susceptibility to Graves' disease. 54 61
20300120 2010
Four patients with hypothyroid Graves' disease. 54 61
20421660 2010
Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease--does autoimmunity against the TSH receptor explain all cases? 61 54
20464711 2010
Association of the CTLA4 gene with Graves' disease in the Chinese Han population. 54 61
20352109 2010
Clinical associations of the genetic variants of CTLA-4, Tg, TSHR, PTPN22, PTPN12 and FCRL3 in patients with Graves' disease. 61 54
19438904 2010
Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with coexisting Graves' disease. 54 61
20151830 2010
The level of TSH appeared favourable in maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. 54 61
20151763 2010
A long-term follow-up of serum myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA) in patients with Graves disease treated with propylthiouracil. 61 54
19851036 2010
TSH receptor autoantibodies. 54 61
19332151 2009
Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome: a clinical review. 54 61
20009114 2009
[New assays of TSH-receptor antibodies: analytical and clinical performances in the diagnosis of Graves' disease]. 54 61
19939769 2009
49A/G and CT60 polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 gene associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. 54 61
19559744 2009
Thyroid peroxidase forms thionamide-sensitive homodimers: relevance for immunomodulation of thyroid autoimmunity. 61 54
19669106 2009
Association of polymorphism at position 49 in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated factor 4 gene with Graves' disease refractory to medical treatment, but not with amiodarone-associated thyroid dysfunction. 54 61
19731979 2009
Autoimmune thyroid disease: unlocking a complex puzzle. 61 54
19474733 2009
Type 2 deiodinase Thr92Ala polymorphism impact on clinical course and myocardial remodeling in patients with Graves' disease. 54 61
19684474 2009
Association of CTLA-4 gene polymorphism with Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients. 54 61
19524188 2009
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease: a meta-analysis. 61 54
18782354 2009
The T393C polymorphism of the Galphas gene (GNAS1) is associated with the course of Graves' disease. 54 61
19513951 2009
Monokine induced by interferon gamma (IFNgamma) (CXCL9) and IFNgamma inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (CXCL11) involvement in Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. 61 54
19276231 2009
The relationship between thyroid function, serum monokine induced by interferon gamma and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in thyroid autoimmune diseases. 54 61
19250272 2009
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 polymorphism in Turkish patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. 54 61
19284444 2009
Membranous nephropathy associated with thyroid-peroxidase antigen. 54 61
18762990 2009
[Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies in the diagnosis of Graves' disease in children]. 54 61
19388481 2009
Polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene and Graves disease: a case-control study and a meta-analysis of available evidence. 54 61
19284637 2009
Pendrin is a novel autoantigen recognized by patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. 61 54
19050049 2009
Graves' disease occurring after surgery of a multinodular goiter: a case report. 61 54
18563680 2009
An investigation of the C77G and C772T variations within the human protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C gene for association with multiple sclerosis in an Australian population. 61 54
19111528 2009
First automated assay for thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies. 61 54
19634982 2009
Association of the IL2RA/CD25 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. 54 61
19116909 2009
Association of CD40 and thyroglobulin genes with later-onset Graves' disease in Taiwanese patients. 54 61
18755875 2008
No association between Fas A/G polymorphism and therapeutic effects induced by methimazole treatment for Graves' disease in Northern Chinese. 54 61
18972838 2008
CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroid diseases. 54 61
18752454 2008
Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves' disease. 61 54
18768899 2008
Association of CT60 polymorphism of the CTLA4 gene with Graves' disease in Taiwanese children. 61 54
18780601 2008
Differential expression of Fas system apoptotic molecules in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 54 61
18505906 2008
Associations of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to Graves' disease in a Japanese population. 61 54
18578611 2008
Association of CTLA-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy in Chinese children. 61 54
18296657 2008
Association of the interleukin (IL)-16 gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease. 61 54
18394967 2008
PTPRC (CD45) variation and disease association studied using single nucleotide polymorphism tagging. 61 54
18312479 2008
Thyrotoxicosis factitia masquerading as recurrent Graves' disease: endogenous antibody immunoassay interference, a pitfall for the unwary. 61 54
18482926 2008
An alternative therapy for graves' disease: clinical effects and mechanisms of an herbal remedy. 54 61
18379045 2008
Thyroglobulin mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and patients with thyroid disease. 61 54
18243140 2008
Enhancement of experimental Graves' disease by intranasal administration of a T cell epitope of the thyrotropin receptor. 61 54
18234558 2008
The functional R620W variant of the PTPN22 gene is associated with celiac disease. 54 61
18194365 2008
Polymorphism of the oestrogen receptor beta gene (ESR2) is associated with susceptibility to Graves' disease. 61 54
17941906 2008
Family-based association study of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Han population of Taiwan. 61 54
18059468 2008
The common variants of E-selectin gene in Graves' disease. 61 54
18094708 2008

Variations for Graves' Disease

Expression for Graves' Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Graves' Disease.

Pathways for Graves' Disease

Pathways related to Graves' Disease according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Autoimmune thyroid disease hsa05320

Pathways related to Graves' Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
6 12.18 IL2RA ICAM1 HLA-DQA1 CD40
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.09 IL4 IFNG HLA-DQA1 CD40
Show member pathways
10 11.91 ICAM1 HLA-DQA1 CTLA4 CD40
11 11.77 IL4 IL2RA HLA-DQA1
12 11.67 IL4 IFNG ICAM1
13 11.66 IL4 IL2RA IFNG
15 11.57 PTPN22 HLA-DQA1 CTLA4
Show member pathways
17 11.35 IFNG ICAM1 CD40
18 11.3 IL4 IL2RA IFNG
19 11.17 IL4 IL2RA ICAM1 CTLA4 CD40
20 10.98 IL4 IL2RA IFNG CD40
21 10.21 TSHR TPO TG

GO Terms for Graves' Disease

Cellular components related to Graves' Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.5 TSHR TPO ICAM1 HLA-DQA1 FCRL3 CTLA4
2 cell surface GO:0009986 9.1 TSHR TPO IL2RA ICAM1 FCRL3 CD40

Biological processes related to Graves' Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.86 IL4 IL2RA IL16 ICAM1
2 immune response GO:0006955 9.8 IL4 IL2RA IL16 IFNG HLA-DQA1 CTLA4
3 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.69 IFNG ICAM1 HLA-DQA1
4 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.67 IL4 IFNG CD40
5 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 9.58 IL16 IFNG CD40
6 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.56 TSHR IL4 GNAS DIO2
7 negative regulation of immune response GO:0050777 9.55 IL2RA CTLA4
8 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.54 IL4 IFNG
9 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.54 IL4 FCRL3 CD40
10 thyroid hormone metabolic process GO:0042403 9.52 TG DIO2
11 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.48 IL4 CD40
12 positive regulation of cellular respiration GO:1901857 9.46 IL4 IFNG
13 neuroinflammatory response GO:0150076 9.43 IL4 IFNG
14 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.33 IL2RA IFNG CTLA4
15 thyroid hormone generation GO:0006590 9.13 TPO TG DIO2
16 hormone biosynthetic process GO:0042446 8.8 TPO TG DIO2

Sources for Graves' Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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