Graves' Disease

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Graves' Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Graves' Disease:

Name: Graves' Disease 12 74 25 15
Graves Disease 12 52 25 36 29 54 43 17 71
Exophthalmic Goiter 12 52 25
Toxic Diffuse Goiter 25 71
Basedow's Disease 12 25
Grave's Disease 12 15
Basedow Disease 52 25
Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism 25
Toxic Multinodular Goiter 71
Graves' Hyperthyroidism 52
Parry Disease 52


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12361
KEGG 36 H00082
MeSH 43 D006111
NCIt 49 C3071
SNOMED-CT 67 353295004
ICD10 32 E05.0
UMLS 71 C0018213 C0154143 C0342122

Summaries for Graves' Disease

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of the thyroid, which is a butterfly-shaped gland in the lower neck. The thyroid makes hormones that help regulate a wide variety of critical body functions. For example, thyroid hormones influence growth and development, body temperature, heart rate, menstrual cycles, and weight. In people with Graves disease, the thyroid is overactive and makes more hormones than the body needs. The condition usually appears in mid-adulthood, although it may occur at any age. Excess thyroid hormones can cause a variety of signs and symptoms. These include nervousness or anxiety, extreme tiredness (fatigue), a rapid and irregular heartbeat, hand tremors, frequent bowel movements or diarrhea, increased sweating and difficulty tolerating hot conditions, trouble sleeping, and weight loss in spite of an increased appetite. Affected women may have menstrual irregularities, such as an unusually light menstrual flow and infrequent periods. Some people with Graves disease develop an enlargement of the thyroid called a goiter. Depending on its size, the enlarged thyroid can cause the neck to look swollen and may interfere with breathing and swallowing. Between 25 and 50 percent of people with Graves disease have eye abnormalities, which are known as Graves ophthalmopathy. These eye problems can include swelling and inflammation, redness, dryness, puffy eyelids, and a gritty sensation like having sand or dirt in the eyes. Some people develop bulging of the eyes caused by inflammation of tissues behind the eyeball and "pulling back" (retraction) of the eyelids. Rarely, affected individuals have more serious eye problems, such as pain, double vision, and pinching (compression) of the optic nerve connecting the eye and the brain, which can cause vision loss. A small percentage of people with Graves disease develop a skin abnormality called pretibial myxedema or Graves dermopathy. This abnormality causes the skin on the front of the lower legs and the tops of the feet to become thick, lumpy, and red. It is not usually painful.

MalaCards based summary : Graves' Disease, also known as graves disease, is related to graves disease 1 and exophthalmos. An important gene associated with Graves' Disease is GRD2 (Graves Disease, Susceptibility To, 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Autoimmune thyroid disease and NF-kappaB Signaling. The drugs Dexamethasone acetate and Dexamethasone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include thyroid gland, thyroid and eye, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 An autoimmune disease of endocrine system that involves production of excessive amount of thyroid hormones, located in thyroid gland.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism ). It is caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the thyroid gland, causing the gland to produce too much thyroid hormone . Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and occurs most often in women over age 20. However, the disorder may occur at any age and can affect males as well. More common signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease include irritability, a fast and irregular heartbeat, hand tremors, diarrhea, increased sweating, trouble sleeping, and weight loss. Some people develop abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter ). Women with Graves' disease may have irregular menstrual periods. In some cases, Graves' disease causes other problems such as Graves' dermopathy (a condition marked by red, swollen skin), various eye abnormalities (such as bulging eyes, vision problems, pain, or swelling), emotional or behavioral changes, heart-related complications, or bone problems (such as osteoporosis ). Treatment for hyperthyroidism and its symptoms may include radioiodine therapy , antithyroid drugs , and/or thyroid surgery. Most people eventually develop hypothyroidism after treatment for hyperthryoidism; this is treated with a daily synthetic thyroid hormone pill. Graves' dermopathy may be treated with corticosteroids and/or compression wraps. Eye problems may not improve after thyroid treatment and may be treated separately with eyedrops, rituximab , or rarely, surgery or radiation therapy .

KEGG : 36 Graves disease is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and is characterized by overstimulation of the thyroid gland with agonistic anti-thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. This overstimulation leads to follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, causing thyroid enlargement, as well as increases in thyroid hormone production and the fraction of triiodothyronine (T3) relative to thyroxine (T4) in thyroid secretion. Thyroid autoimmune diseases are regarded as polygenic disorders resulting from the combination of a genetic predisposition in conjunction with an environmental trigger. Two main approaches have been employed to locate susceptibility loci for AITD, namely case control candidate gene studies and genome-wide linkage screens. Case control candidate gene studies have been employed to investigate numerous genes for association with AITD, but to date, only the human leucocyte region (HLA) on chromosome 6p21 and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4 (CTLA-4) gene on chromosome 2q33 have been consistently shown to be associated with disease.

Wikipedia : 74 Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.... more...

Related Diseases for Graves' Disease

Diseases in the Graves' Disease family:

Graves Disease 1 Graves Disease 2

Diseases related to Graves' Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 870)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 graves disease 1 34.9 TSHR TPO TG GRD1 DIO2
2 exophthalmos 33.4 TSHR TPO TG
3 hyperthyroidism 33.3 TSHR TPO TG LMOD1 GNAS FCRL3
4 myxedema 33.3 TSHR TPO TG CTLA4
5 goiter 32.3 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
6 thyroiditis 32.2 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 DIO2
7 thyroid carcinoma 32.1 TSHR TPO TG
8 hypothyroidism 32.0 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 GNAS DIO2
9 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 31.9 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IFNG CTLA4
10 subacute thyroiditis 31.9 TSHR TPO TG
11 nodular goiter 31.7 TSHR TPO TG ICAM1 CTLA4
12 thyroid gland disease 31.7 TSHR TPO TG GNAS DIO2 CTLA4
13 plummer's disease 31.6 TSHR TPO TG ICAM1
14 hypoparathyroidism 31.6 TPO PTPN22 GNAS CTLA4
15 autoimmune disease 31.5 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA
16 myasthenia gravis 31.5 PTPN22 IL4 IFNG CTLA4
17 neonatal thyrotoxicosis 31.5 TSHR TG DIO2
18 postsurgical hypothyroidism 31.5 TPO TG
19 multinodular goiter 31.5 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
20 thyroid crisis 31.4 TSHR TPO TG
21 eye disease 31.4 TSHR LMOD1 IL4 IFNG ICAM1
22 mechanical strabismus 31.4 TPO TG
23 nontoxic goiter 31.3 TSHR TPO TG
24 papillary carcinoma 31.3 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
25 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 31.2 TPO PTPN22 CTLA4
26 hyperthyroxinemia 31.2 TSHR TPO TG
27 differentiated thyroid carcinoma 31.2 TSHR TPO TG
28 hashimoto thyroiditis 31.2 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA
29 pernicious anemia 31.1 TPO TG PTPN22
30 lupus erythematosus 31.1 PTPN22 IFNG FCRL3 CTLA4 CD40
31 autoimmune hepatitis 31.1 TPO IL4 CTLA4
32 thymoma 31.0 TG PTPN22 IL4 CTLA4
33 thrombocytopenia 31.0 PTPN22 IL4 IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4 CD40
34 uveitis 31.0 IL4 IL2RA IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4
35 toxic diffuse goiter 31.0 TSHR TPO TG
36 acute thyroiditis 31.0 TPO TG
37 congenital hypothyroidism 30.9 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
38 hashimoto encephalopathy 30.9 TSHR TPO
39 hypoadrenocorticism, familial 30.9 TPO TG PTPN22 CTLA4
40 primary biliary cirrhosis 30.9 PTPN22 IL4 IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4
41 follicular adenoma 30.9 TSHR TPO TG GNAS
42 celiac disease 1 30.8 TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA IFNG
43 endemic goiter 30.8 TSHR TPO TG
44 papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 30.8 TSHR TG
45 allergic rhinitis 30.8 IL4 IL16 IFNG ICAM1
46 aplastic anemia 30.8 PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA IFNG CTLA4
47 diabetes mellitus, type i 30.8 TSHR TPO TG PTPN22 IL4 IL2RA
48 myocarditis 30.7 IL4 IFNG ICAM1 CTLA4 CD40
49 hepatitis a 30.7 IL4 IFNG CTLA4
50 bone inflammation disease 30.6 PTPN22 IL4 IFNG CTLA4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Graves' Disease:

Diseases related to Graves' Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Graves' Disease

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Graves' Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.22 CD40 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS ICAM1 IFNG
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.18 CD40 CTLA4 GNAS ICAM1 IFNG IL16
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.17 CD40 CEP43 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS ICAM1
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.07 CD40 CTLA4 GNAS ICAM1 IFNG IL16
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.03 CTLA4 DIO2 ICAM1 IFNG IL2RA IL4
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.7 CD40 DIO2 GNAS IFNG IL4 PTPN22
7 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.5 CTLA4 GNAS IFNG IL2RA IL4 PTPN22
8 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 CD40 CTLA4 DIO2 GNAS IFNG IL2RA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Graves' Disease

Drugs for Graves' Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 136)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
Dinoprost Approved, Investigational Phase 4 551-11-1 5283078
Dinoprost tromethamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 38562-01-5 5282415
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
leucovorin Approved Phase 4 58-05-9 6006 143
Methotrexate Approved Phase 4 59-05-2, 1959-05-2 126941
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
13 BB 1101 Phase 4
14 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
15 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
16 Liver Extracts Phase 4
17 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
18 Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
19 Sympatholytics Phase 4
20 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
21 Analgesics Phase 4
22 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
23 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
24 Lubricant Eye Drops Phase 4
25 Benzalkonium Compounds Phase 4
26 cadexomer iodine Phase 4
27 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
28 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
29 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
30 Lugol's solution Phase 4
31 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
32 Folic Acid Antagonists Phase 4
33 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 4
34 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
35 Folate Phase 4
36 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
37 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
Propylthiouracil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-52-5 657298
Carbimazole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 22232-54-8 31072
tannic acid Approved Phase 3 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Simvastatin Approved Phase 3 79902-63-9 54454
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 329-65-7 838
46 Cholestyramine Resin Phase 3
47 Antithyroid Agents Phase 3
48 Antimetabolites Phase 3
49 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Anesthetics, Local Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 121)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect of Early Total Thyroidectomy in the Course of Graves' Orbitopathy Unknown status NCT01056419 Phase 4 Propylthiouracil
2 Prevention Relapse of Graves' Disease by Treatment With Intrathyroid Injection of Dexamethasone Completed NCT00917241 Phase 4 MMI combined with IID;MMI
3 Impact of SSKI Pre-Treatment on Blood Loss in Thyroidectomy for Graves Disease Completed NCT00946296 Phase 4 Potassium Iodide
4 The Influence of Continuous Treatment With Antithyroid Drugs on the Effect of Radioiodine in Patients With Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT00150137 Phase 4 Methimazole
5 The Influence of Continuous Block-replacement Therapy on the Effect of Radioiodine in Patients With Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT00150124 Phase 4 MTZ+LT4;Methimazole
6 Is the Routine Pressure Dressing After Thyroidectomy Necessary? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT00400465 Phase 4
7 Influence of Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy on Liver Function in Patients With Graves' Orbitopathy Completed NCT03667157 Phase 4 every week IVMP therapy;very high doses IVMP therapy
8 Adjuvant Treatment of Graves´ Ophthalmopathy With NSAID (aGO Study) Completed NCT01458600 Phase 4 Diclofenac;Methimazole;L-thyroxin;Propranolol;Metoprolol
9 Diagnostic Accuracy Study of Indocyanine Green for Parathyroid Perfusion Assessment Completed NCT03969108 Phase 4 Indocyanine Green
10 Prostaglandin F2-alpha Eye Drops (Bimatoprost) in Thyroid Eye Disease: a Randomised Controlled Double Blind Crossover Trial Completed NCT02059655 Phase 4 Bimatoprost;Eye drop solution
11 Randomized Clinical Trial, Blinded for the Researcher and Multicenter, to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Preoperative Preparation With Lugol Solution in Euthyroid Patients With Graves-Basedow Disease. Recruiting NCT03980132 Phase 4 Lugols Strong Iodine
12 Rituximab (RTX) Therapy in Steroid Resistant Patients or Patients Relapsing After Intravenous Steroids With Active TAO Recruiting NCT02378298 Phase 4 Rituximab;Iv Methylprednisolone;peroral methylprednisolone and Methotrexate
13 The Secondary Beneficial Effects of Prostaglandin Analog Treatment in Thyroid Eye Disease Patients. Withdrawn NCT01927406 Phase 4 Prostaglandin Analog;Timolol
14 Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of Total Thyroidectomy (Tx) Versus Thionamides (Anti-Thyroid Drugs) in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Graves' Ophthalmopathy - a 1-year Follow-up Unknown status NCT03066076 Phase 3 Antithyroid Drug
15 "5010 Clinical Research Programme"of Sun Yat-sen University Unknown status NCT01204359 Phase 3
16 A Multi-center, Open Label, Randomised Parallel- Group Study to Compare the Efficacy of Cholestyramine Plus Standard Treatment Versus Prednisolone Plus Standard Treatment Versus Standard Treatment Alone in Treatment of Overt Hyperthyroidism Unknown status NCT03303053 Phase 3 Cholestyramine Powder 4g;Prednisolone;Standard treatment
17 Comparison of Different Doses of 131I in Severe Graves' Hyperthyroidism: A Clinical Trial With Historical Control Completed NCT01039818 Phase 3
18 Assessing the Impact of the Early and Systematic Hormonal Replacement After Radio-isotopic Ablation of Graves'hyperthyroïdism on Quality of Life, Efficiency and Tolerance Completed NCT01295333 Phase 3 the early prophylactic introduction of low dose of LT4 (50 µg/d) at 15 days post-ablation;The initiation of LT4 as soon as the first biological signs of hypothyroidism.
19 Prevention of Overt Hypothyroidism Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease Completed NCT01950260 Phase 2, Phase 3 Levothyroxine
20 A Randomised Study of Two Anti-thyroid Drug Treatment Regimens in Young People Completed NCT01436994 Phase 3 carbimazole;propylthiouracil;thyroxine
21 Does the Use of Pre-operative SSKI Actually Reduce Vascularity and Improve Surgical Outcomes for Total Thyroidectomy in Graves' Disease? Recruiting NCT04080505 Phase 3 SSKI- Potassium Iodide
22 Treatment of Graves´Ophthalmopathy With Simvastatin (GO-DS) Recruiting NCT03131726 Phase 3 Simvastatin 40mg
23 Bupivacaine Injection of Eye Muscles to Treat Strabismus Recruiting NCT01616108 Phase 2, Phase 3 Bupivacaine
24 Investigation of Novel Biomarkers and Definition of the Role of the Microbiome In Graves' Orbitopathy Unknown status NCT02373995 Phase 1, Phase 2
25 The Effect of Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline in Mild Graves' Orbitopathy Unknown status NCT02203682 Phase 2 Doxycycline;placebo
26 An Open Label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of 12 Week Treatment With CFZ533 in Patients With Graves' Disease Completed NCT02713256 Phase 2 CFZ533
27 B Cell Depletion With the Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody Rituximab in the Treatment of Graves' Disease Completed NCT00150111 Phase 1, Phase 2 Methimazole;Rituximab
28 Effects Of Oral Alfacalcidol On Maturation Of Dendritic Cells In Graves' Disease Patients Completed NCT02993302 Phase 2 1α-D3;Placebos
29 Rituximab Treatment of Graves' Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy Phase I/II Completed NCT00424151 Phase 1, Phase 2 Rituximab
30 Pretreatment With Recombinant Human Thyrotropin (rhTSH) for the Effect on Thyroid Size and Function, and for the Effect of Radioiodine Treatment in Patients With Nodular Goiter. Prospective, Randomized Double-blinded Trials. Completed NCT00145366 Phase 2 Recombinant human thyrotropin (Thyrogen)
31 Efficacy of Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline for Moderate to Severe and Active Graves' Orbitopathy: a Prospective, Uncontrolled Pilot Study Completed NCT01727973 Phase 1, Phase 2 Doxycycline
32 Radioactive Iodide Therapy for Pediatric Graves' Disease Completed NCT01269749 Phase 2 ATD Group
33 Thyroid Hormone to Induce Non-Insulin Mediated Glucose Disposal in Patients With Insulin Receptor Mutations Completed NCT02457897 Phase 2 Liothyronine
34 A Pilot Study of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition (Durvalumab With or Without Tremelimumab) in Combination With Radiation Therapy in Patients With Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT02311361 Phase 1, Phase 2
35 A Phase II, Open-labeled, Ophthalmological External Investigator-blinded, Single-center, Randomized, Superiority, Non Profit, Pilot Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effects of Atorvastatin on Graves' Orbitopathy (GO) in Hypercholesterolemic Patients With Moderate-to-severe and Active GO Subjected to Intravenous Glucocorticoid Therapy: the STAGO Study Not yet recruiting NCT03110848 Phase 2 Atorvastatin;Methylprednisolone
36 Pilot Study of Teriparatide for Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism Terminated NCT01171690 Phase 2 Teriparatide
37 Safety and Proof of Principle Study of ATX-GD-59 in Male and Female Subjects With Graves' Disease Not Currently Treated With Anti-thyroid Therapy: An Open Label Study, With an Upward Titration Over Five Dose Levels Administered by Intradermal Injection Completed NCT02973802 Phase 1
38 Function of Regulatory T Cells Improved by Treatment With an Intrathyroid Injection of Dexamethasone in Graves' Patients Completed NCT01534169 Phase 1 Dexamethasone
39 K1-70 - A Phase I, Single Ascending Intramuscular Dose or Single Ascending Intravenous Dose, Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study in Subjects With Graves' Disease Recruiting NCT02904330 Phase 1 K1-70 intramuscular or K1-70 intravenous
40 GRAves Selenium Supplementation Trial (GRASS) - an Investigator-initiated Randomised, Blinded, Multicentre Clinical Trial of Selenium Supplementation Versus Placebo in Patients With Graves' Hyperthyroidism Unknown status NCT01611896
41 The Effect of Different Calculated Doses of I-131 in Treatment of Patients With Grave's Disease Unknown status NCT02114619 Low dose of I-131;Intermediate dose;High dose
42 Prevalence of Graves Disease in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Unknown status NCT03324334
43 Comparison of Standardized Update Value Using Single-photo Emission Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography Between Grave's Disease (Hyperthyroidism) Patients and Normal Humans Unknown status NCT02772705
44 Application of Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging in Thyroid Disease and Associated Ophthalmopathy and Dermopathy Unknown status NCT01182584
45 The Effect of Intestinal Microbiota on Treatment Sensitivity and Prognosis of Methimazole for GD Unknown status NCT03433352 Methimazole Pill;Propylthiouracil Pill
46 The Association of Costimulatory Molecules and PPAR-polymorphisms With Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Taiwan Unknown status NCT01260532
47 Cases of Goiter in Children Attending Assiut University Children Hospital Unknown status NCT03202160
48 Shared Decision Making in Graves Disease - Graves Disease (GD) Choice Completed NCT02107794
49 Randomized Open Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Selenium Plus Methimazole for Treatment of Graves' Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT02727738 Methimazole
50 Prevalence of Circulating Parvovirus Genome in Recently Diagnosed Graves' Disease: a Case-control Study Completed NCT02798965

Search NIH Clinical Center for Graves' Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: graves disease

Genetic Tests for Graves' Disease

Genetic tests related to Graves' Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Graves Disease 29

Anatomical Context for Graves' Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Graves' Disease:

Thyroid Gland

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Graves' Disease:

Thyroid, Eye, T Cells, Bone, Heart, Testes, Skin

Publications for Graves' Disease

Articles related to Graves' Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 11464)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Gene polymorphisms of interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in Graves' disease. 61 54
19882211 2010
HLA and CTLA4 polymorphisms may confer a synergistic risk in the susceptibility to Graves' disease. 61 54
20300120 2010
Immunopathogenesis of thyroid eye disease: emerging paradigms. 54 61
20385333 2010
Four patients with hypothyroid Graves' disease. 54 61
20421660 2010
Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease--does autoimmunity against the TSH receptor explain all cases? 61 54
20464711 2010
Association of the CTLA4 gene with Graves' disease in the Chinese Han population. 61 54
20352109 2010
Clinical associations of the genetic variants of CTLA-4, Tg, TSHR, PTPN22, PTPN12 and FCRL3 in patients with Graves' disease. 54 61
19438904 2010
Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with coexisting Graves' disease. 61 54
20151830 2010
The level of TSH appeared favourable in maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. 54 61
20151763 2010
A long-term follow-up of serum myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA) in patients with Graves disease treated with propylthiouracil. 61 54
19851036 2010
Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome: a clinical review. 54 61
20009114 2009
TSH receptor autoantibodies. 54 61
19332151 2009
[New assays of TSH-receptor antibodies: analytical and clinical performances in the diagnosis of Graves' disease]. 54 61
19939769 2009
49A/G and CT60 polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 gene associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. 54 61
19559744 2009
Thyroid peroxidase forms thionamide-sensitive homodimers: relevance for immunomodulation of thyroid autoimmunity. 54 61
19669106 2009
Association of polymorphism at position 49 in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated factor 4 gene with Graves' disease refractory to medical treatment, but not with amiodarone-associated thyroid dysfunction. 61 54
19731979 2009
Type 2 deiodinase Thr92Ala polymorphism impact on clinical course and myocardial remodeling in patients with Graves' disease. 54 61
19684474 2009
Autoimmune thyroid disease: unlocking a complex puzzle. 61 54
19474733 2009
Association of CTLA-4 gene polymorphism with Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients. 61 54
19524188 2009
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease: a meta-analysis. 54 61
18782354 2009
The T393C polymorphism of the Galphas gene (GNAS1) is associated with the course of Graves' disease. 61 54
19513951 2009
The relationship between thyroid function, serum monokine induced by interferon gamma and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in thyroid autoimmune diseases. 54 61
19250272 2009
Monokine induced by interferon gamma (IFNgamma) (CXCL9) and IFNgamma inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (CXCL11) involvement in Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. 54 61
19276231 2009
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 polymorphism in Turkish patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. 54 61
19284444 2009
Polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene and Graves disease: a case-control study and a meta-analysis of available evidence. 54 61
19284637 2009
Membranous nephropathy associated with thyroid-peroxidase antigen. 54 61
18762990 2009
[Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies in the diagnosis of Graves' disease in children]. 54 61
19388481 2009
An investigation of the C77G and C772T variations within the human protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C gene for association with multiple sclerosis in an Australian population. 54 61
19111528 2009
Pendrin is a novel autoantigen recognized by patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. 61 54
19050049 2009
Graves' disease occurring after surgery of a multinodular goiter: a case report. 61 54
18563680 2009
First automated assay for thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies. 54 61
19634982 2009
Association of the IL2RA/CD25 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. 61 54
19116909 2009
Association of CD40 and thyroglobulin genes with later-onset Graves' disease in Taiwanese patients. 61 54
18755875 2008
No association between Fas A/G polymorphism and therapeutic effects induced by methimazole treatment for Graves' disease in Northern Chinese. 61 54
18972838 2008
CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroid diseases. 61 54
18752454 2008
Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves' disease. 61 54
18768899 2008
Association of CT60 polymorphism of the CTLA4 gene with Graves' disease in Taiwanese children. 54 61
18780601 2008
Association of the interleukin (IL)-16 gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease. 54 61
18394967 2008
Associations of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to Graves' disease in a Japanese population. 61 54
18578611 2008
Differential expression of Fas system apoptotic molecules in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 61 54
18505906 2008
Association of CTLA-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy in Chinese children. 61 54
18296657 2008
PTPRC (CD45) variation and disease association studied using single nucleotide polymorphism tagging. 54 61
18312479 2008
Thyrotoxicosis factitia masquerading as recurrent Graves' disease: endogenous antibody immunoassay interference, a pitfall for the unwary. 54 61
18482926 2008
Enhancement of experimental Graves' disease by intranasal administration of a T cell epitope of the thyrotropin receptor. 61 54
18234558 2008
Thyroglobulin mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and patients with thyroid disease. 61 54
18243140 2008
An alternative therapy for graves' disease: clinical effects and mechanisms of an herbal remedy. 61 54
18379045 2008
Multiple sclerosis and the CTLA4 autoimmunity polymorphism CT60: no association in patients from Germany, Hungary and Poland. 61 54
17942509 2008
The functional R620W variant of the PTPN22 gene is associated with celiac disease. 54 61
18194365 2008
Family-based association study of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Han population of Taiwan. 61 54
18059468 2008
The common variants of E-selectin gene in Graves' disease. 54 61
18094708 2008

Variations for Graves' Disease

Expression for Graves' Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Graves' Disease.

Pathways for Graves' Disease

Pathways related to Graves' Disease according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Autoimmune thyroid disease hsa05320

GO Terms for Graves' Disease

Cellular components related to Graves' Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 9.1 TSHR TPO IL2RA ICAM1 FCRL3 CD40

Biological processes related to Graves' Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.91 IL4 IL2RA IL16 IFNG CTLA4
2 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.85 IL4 IL2RA IL16 ICAM1
3 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.63 IL4 IFNG CD40
4 regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901222 9.56 UACA PTPN22
5 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.56 TSHR IL4 GNAS DIO2
6 negative regulation of immune response GO:0050777 9.54 IL2RA CTLA4
7 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.52 IL4 IFNG
8 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.5 IL4 FCRL3 CD40
9 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.49 IL4 CD40
10 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.48 IL4 IFNG
11 thyroid hormone metabolic process GO:0042403 9.43 TG DIO2
12 positive regulation of cellular respiration GO:1901857 9.4 IL4 IFNG
13 neuroinflammatory response GO:0150076 9.37 IL4 IFNG
14 thyroid hormone generation GO:0006590 9.33 TPO TG DIO2
15 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.13 IL2RA IFNG CTLA4
16 hormone biosynthetic process GO:0042446 8.8 TPO TG DIO2

Sources for Graves' Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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