MCID: GYN001
MIFTS: 47

Gynecomastia

Categories: Endocrine diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Gynecomastia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gynecomastia:

Name: Gynecomastia 11 75 28 53 5 14 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:12698
MeSH 43 D006177
NCIt 49 C3073
SNOMED-CT 68 155963008
ICD10 31 N62
UMLS 71 C0018418

Summaries for Gynecomastia

Disease Ontology: 11 A disorder of sexual development that is characterized by enlargement or swelling of male breast tissue resulting from elevated male estrogen levels or imbalanced estrogen and testosterone levels.

MalaCards based summary: Gynecomastia is related to 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase iii deficiency and androgen insensitivity, partial. An important gene associated with Gynecomastia is CYP19A1 (Cytochrome P450 Family 19 Subfamily A Member 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism of proteins and Signal Transduction. The drugs Anastrozole and (R)-Bicalutamide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, prostate and testis, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and nervous system

Wikipedia: 75 Gynecomastia (also spelled gynaecomastia)[a] is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both... more...

Related Diseases for Gynecomastia

Diseases related to Gynecomastia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 610)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase iii deficiency 32.3 POMC HSD17B3 GNRH1 AR
2 androgen insensitivity, partial 31.8 SRD5A1 SHBG HSD17B3 CYP19A1 AR
3 aromatase excess syndrome 31.7 SHBG POMC PGR GNRH1 ESR2 ESR1
4 androgen insensitivity syndrome 31.2 SRY SRD5A1 SHBG HSD17B3 CGA AR
5 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 30.9 SHBG PRL POMC INHA HSD17B3 GNRH1
6 hyperthyroidism 30.7 SHBG PRL POMC CGA
7 sertoli cell tumor 30.5 PGR INHA CYP19A1 AR
8 ductal carcinoma in situ 30.5 PGR ESR2 ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1 AR
9 benign breast phyllodes tumor 30.5 PGR ESR1
10 leydig cell tumor 30.4 PRL INHA GNRH1 ESR1 CYP19A1
11 hypertrophy of breast 30.4 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
12 breast fibroadenoma 30.3 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 AR
13 breast malignant phyllodes tumor 30.3 PGR ESR1 ERBB2
14 intraductal papilloma 30.3 PGR ESR1 ERBB2
15 bilateral breast cancer 30.3 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
16 hypospadias 30.3 SRY SRD5A1 HSD17B3 ESR2 ESR1 AR
17 choriocarcinoma 30.2 INHA CYP19A1 CGB5 CGA
18 turner syndrome 30.2 SRY SHBG AR
19 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 30.2 SRD5A1 KLK3 AR
20 hyperprolactinemia 30.2 SHBG PRL POMC GNRH1 CGA
21 hypogonadism 30.2 SHBG PRL POMC PHF6 KLK3 GNRH1
22 testicular cancer 30.2 SHBG KLK3 GNRH1 ESR1 CGB5 CGA
23 alopecia 30.1 SRD5A1 SHBG PRL CYP19A1 AR
24 adrenal cortical carcinoma 30.1 POMC INHA ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
25 impotence 30.1 SRD5A1 SHBG PRL KLK3 CYP3A4 AR
26 mammary paget's disease 30.1 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 AR
27 prostatic hypertrophy 30.0 SHBG KLK3 ESR1 AR
28 teratoma 30.0 ESR1 ERBB2 CGB5 CGA
29 seminoma 30.0 INHA ESR2 ESR1 CGB5 CGA
30 testicular germ cell cancer 30.0 ESR2 ESR1 AR
31 nipple carcinoma 30.0 PGR ESR1 ERBB2
32 breast disease 29.9 SHBG PRL PGR KLK3 ESR2 ESR1
33 acne 29.9 SRD5A1 SHBG PRL POMC CYP19A1 AR
34 oligospermia 29.9 PRL GNRH1 AR
35 germ cell cancer 29.9 ESR2 CGA AR
36 estrogen excess 29.8 SHBG PRL PGR GNRH1 ESR2 ESR1
37 lobular neoplasia 29.8 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
38 apocrine adenocarcinoma 29.8 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 AR
39 sweat gland cancer 29.8 PGR ESR1 ERBB2 AR
40 alopecia, androgenetic, 1 29.8 SRD5A1 SHBG CYP19A1 AR
41 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 29.8 PRL POMC
42 prostate disease 29.8 SRD5A1 KLK3 CYP19A1 AR
43 gonadal dysgenesis 29.8 SRY SHBG CGB5
44 pseudohermaphroditism 29.8 SRY SRD5A1 POMC HSD17B3 GNRH1 CYP19A1
45 androgenic alopecia 29.7 SRD5A1 SHBG PRL CYP19A1 AR
46 breast adenocarcinoma 29.7 PGR ESR2 ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
47 female breast cancer 29.7 PGR KLK3 ESR2 ESR1 ERBB2 CYP19A1
48 hypopituitarism 29.6 SHBG PRL POMC GNRH1
49 pituitary gland disease 29.6 PRL POMC GNRH1 CGA
50 varicocele 29.6 SHBG PRL GNRH1 ESR1 CGA AR

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gynecomastia:



Diseases related to Gynecomastia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gynecomastia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gynecomastia:

45 (show all 14)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.33 AR CGA CGB5 CYP19A1 CYP3A4 ERBB2
2 nervous system MP:0003631 10.29 AR CGA CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.24 AR ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1 INHA
4 normal MP:0002873 10.22 AR CYP19A1 CYP3A4 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.22 AR CGA CGB5 CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1
6 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.18 AR CGA CGB5 CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1
7 muscle MP:0005369 10.13 AR CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 HSD17B3
8 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.1 AR CYP19A1 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1 HSD17B3
9 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.06 AR CYP19A1 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1 INHA
10 reproductive system MP:0005389 10.03 AR CGA CGB5 CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1
11 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.98 AR CYP19A1 ESR1 ESR2 HSD17B3 PHF6
12 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.86 AR CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1
13 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.73 AR CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1
14 integument MP:0010771 9.28 AR CYP19A1 ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gynecomastia

Drugs for Gynecomastia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 29)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Anastrozole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 120511-73-1 2187
2
(R)-Bicalutamide Approved, Experimental Phase 3 90357-06-5, 113299-40-4 2375
3
Tamoxifen Approved Phase 3 10540-29-1, 54965-24-1 2733526
4 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 3
5 Estrogens Phase 3
6 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
7 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 3
8 Hormones Phase 3
9 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
10 Aromatase Inhibitors Phase 3
11 Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 3
12 Androgens Phase 3
13 Androgen Antagonists Phase 3
14 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 3
15
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 1177-87-3 3680
16
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-02-2 3003 5743
17
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
18
Racepinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4, 329-65-7 838 5816
19
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
20
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 22737-96-8, 68-26-8 5280382 445354
21 Anesthetics, Local
22 Pharmaceutical Solutions Early Phase 1
23 Hemostatics
24 Anesthetics
25 Epinephryl borate
26 Retinol palmitate
27 English Lavender
28 Tea Tree
29 Tea

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 15)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 An OptioExtension of Trial 1033US/0006 to Assess Safety, Tolerability, Efficacy of Anastrozole (ZD1033, Arimidex™) in Treatment of Gynecomastia in Pubertal Boys Given Placebo and to Conduct a Long-Term Safety Follow-Up of Non-Responding Subjects Given Anastrozole in the Previous Trial Completed NCT00637182 Phase 3 Anastrozole
2 A Comparative Trial of the Efficacy of Two Different Nolvadex (NDX) Dosing and Scheduling Regimens in Preventing Gynecomastia Induced by Casodex (CDX) 150 Monotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients. An Open, Multicenter, Phase III Trial. Completed NCT00233610 Phase 3 Bicalutamide;Tamoxifen
3 Topical Nitroglycerin as a Mechanism for Cutaneous Vaso-modulation and Improved Wound Healing After Breast Reduction Withdrawn NCT04321967 Phase 3 Nitroglycerin Paste;Dermabond
4 An Open-Label Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Anastrozole (Arimidex™) Used to Treat Pubertal Boys With Gynecomastia of Recent Onset Completed NCT00241436 Phase 2 Anastrozole (ARIMIDEX™)
5 Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel-group, Multicentre Phase II Study to Assess Dose Response Relationship of Nolvadex (Oral Tablet) in Prophylactic Treatment of Gynaecomastia and Breast Pain Associated With CASODEX 150 mg (Oral Tablet), and to Assess the Tumour Control….. Completed NCT00637871 Phase 2 Casodex;Tamoxifen
6 Targeted Fat Reduction of Pseudogynecomastia in the Male Breast Using the ZELTIQ Coolsculpting System Unknown status NCT01791660
7 Ultrasound Guided Modified Pectoral Plane (PECS II )Block Versus Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) Block for Perioperative Analgesia of Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia Completed NCT04221074
8 Post-massive Weight Loss Chest Contouring: Inferior Pedicle Technique in Pseudo-gynecomastia Correction Completed NCT03319862
9 Efficacy of Rhomboid Intercostal Block With Sub-serratus Block on Perioperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Gynecomastia Surgery Completed NCT04859803 Early Phase 1 patients will receive rhomboid intercostal block under ultrasound guidance.;sham block
10 A Randomized Controlled Trial Modified Benelli Procedure For Subcutaneous Mastectomy In Gynecomastia Completed NCT04063722
11 Thoracic Interfascial Plane Block Versus Thoracic Paravertebral Block for Anesthesia in Gynecomastia Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04425447 Tumescent local anesthesia;Thoracic paravertebral block;Thoracic interfascial plane block
12 Prevalence of Endocrine Disorders Among Children Exposed to Lavender Essential Oil and Tea Tree Essential Oils Recruiting NCT04836364
13 A Pilot Study of the Renuvion APR System When Used as an Adjunct Procedure In Gynecomastia Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT05093049
14 Comparison Between Liposuction and Peri-areolar Surgical Excision in Mild and Moderate Cases of Gynaecomastia Active, not recruiting NCT04966078
15 Clinical Evaluation of the UltraShape Device for Non-Invasive Fat Reduction in the Male Breast (Pseudogynecomastia) Withdrawn NCT02711605

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gynecomastia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen Citrate

Genetic Tests for Gynecomastia

Genetic tests related to Gynecomastia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Gynecomastia 28

Anatomical Context for Gynecomastia

Organs/tissues related to Gynecomastia:

MalaCards : Breast, Prostate, Testis, Pituitary, Heart, Liver, Adrenal Cortex

Publications for Gynecomastia

Articles related to Gynecomastia:

(show top 50) (show all 3391)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
[The use of aromatase inhibitors in children]. 53 62
20088436 2009
2
Venlafaxine-induced gynecomastia in a young patient: a case report. 53 62
18978497 2009
3
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function. 53 62
18729003 2008
4
Gynecomastia in prepubertal and pubertal men. 53 62
18622206 2008
5
Effect of hyperprolactinemia during development in children and adolescents. 53 62
18816151 2008
6
An open label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males. 53 62
18700016 2008
7
Association between gynecomastia and aromatase (CYP19) polymorphisms. 53 62
18426832 2008
8
[Phenotype of patients with gynecomastia]. 53 62
18465688 2008
9
Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence? 53 62
17638022 2008
10
Clinical implications of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia spectrum or bipolar spectrum disorders: recent developments and current perspectives. 53 62
18004132 2007
11
Regional rearrangements in chromosome 15q21 cause formation of cryptic promoters for the CYP19 (aromatase) gene. 53 62
17584767 2007
12
Effect of hyperprolactinemia in male patients consulting for sexual dysfunction. 53 62
17655655 2007
13
Gynecomastia: review. 53 62
17925790 2007
14
Gynecomastia. 53 62
17543732 2007
15
Open-label, prospective trial of olanzapine in adolescents with subaverage intelligence and disruptive behavioral disorders. 53 62
16865035 2006
16
Risperidone-induced symptomatic hyperprolactinaemia in adolescents. 53 62
16633146 2006
17
Prepubertal gynecomastia in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: incomplete penetrance in a familial case and management with an aromatase inhibitor. 53 62
16452534 2006
18
Gynecomastia and breast pain induced by adjuvant therapy with bicalutamide after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer: the role of tamoxifen and radiotherapy. 53 62
16280763 2005
19
[Aromatase-dependent gynecomastia in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the lung]. 53 62
16238933 2005
20
Leptin levels in boys with pubertal gynecomastia. 53 62
16355805 2005
21
Evaluation of tamoxifen and anastrozole in the prevention of gynecomastia and breast pain induced by bicalutamide monotherapy of prostate cancer. 53 62
15681525 2005
22
Sertoli cell tumor causing prepubertal gynecomastia in a boy with peutz-jeghers syndrome: the outcome of 1-year treatment with the aromatase inhibitor testolactone. 53 62
15947469 2005
23
Dominant transmission of prepubertal gynecomastia due to serum estrone excess: hormonal, biochemical, and genetic analysis in a large kindred. 53 62
15483104 2005
24
Possible involvement of aromatase overexpression induced by cyclo-oxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of idiopathic gynecomastia. 53 62
16392624 2005
25
The effect of tamoxifen on sex hormone binding globulin in adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia. 53 62
15379424 2004
26
Beneficial effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen in the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia. 53 62
15238910 2004
27
Gynecomastia due to hormone therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a report of ten surgically treated cases and a review of treatment options. 53 62
15510985 2004
28
[Sexual dysfunction among 78 Moroccan male hemodialysis patients: clinical and endocrine study]. 53 62
15277975 2004
29
Multiple structural and functional abnormalities in the p450 aromatase expressing transgenic male mice are ameliorated by a p450 aromatase inhibitor. 53 62
14982857 2004
30
Treatment of testosterone-induced gynecomastia with the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole. 53 62
14963480 2004
31
Differential expressions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in infantile gynecomastia. 53 62
15015615 2004
32
CYP17 mutation E305G causes isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency by selectively altering substrate binding. 53 62
14504283 2003
33
Estrogen excess associated with novel gain-of-function mutations affecting the aromatase gene. 53 62
12736278 2003
34
Gynecomastia attributable to human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting giant cell carcinoma of lung. 53 62
12917067 2003
35
Switch to quetiapine in antipsychotic agent-related hyperprolactinemia. 53 62
12522680 2002
36
On the inhibitory action of 29 drugs having side effect gynecomastia on estrogen production. 53 62
12477487 2002
37
[An elderly case of advanced gastric cancer with gynecomastia and high serum levels of hCG]. 53 62
12404754 2002
38
Gynecomastia with sulpiride. 53 62
11846864 2002
39
Effects of risperidone on gonadal axis hormones in schizophrenia. 53 62
11793612 2001
40
Sertoli cell proliferations of the infantile testis: an intratubular form of Sertoli cell tumor? 53 62
11688457 2001
41
Measurement of androgen and estrogen receptors in breast tissue from subjects with anabolic steroid-dependent gynecomastia. 53 62
11554608 2001
42
Occult Leydig cell tumor in a patient with gynecomastia. 53 62
11497478 2001
43
Pituitary prolactin-secreting macroadenoma combined with bilateral breast cancer in a 45-year-old male. 53 62
11434671 2001
44
Aromatase expression in the human male. 53 62
11403890 2001
45
Overexpression of aromatase in transgenic male mice results in the induction of gynecomastia and other biochemical changes in mammary glands. 53 62
11358670 2001
46
[De La Chapelle syndrome]. 53 62
11268892 2001
47
Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia. 53 62
11039372 2000
48
Immunohistochemical localization of prostate-specific antigen in ductal epithelium of male breast. Potential diagnostic pitfall in patients with gynecomastia. 53 62
10937064 2000
49
Serum inhibin B concentration in a prepubertal boy with gynecomastia and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. 53 62
10689645 2000
50
Aromatase and gynecomastia. 53 62
10731125 1999

Variations for Gynecomastia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gynecomastia:

5
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 KIF4A NM_012310.5(KIF4A):c.1553G>C (p.Arg518Pro) SNV Uncertain Significance
523498 rs766819113 GRCh37: X:69573536-69573536
GRCh38: X:70353686-70353686

Expression for Gynecomastia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gynecomastia.

Pathways for Gynecomastia

Pathways related to Gynecomastia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.83 PRL POMC PGR NR3C2 KLK3 INHA
2 13.64 AR CGA ERBB2 ESR1 ESR2 GNRH1
3
Show member pathways
12.51 SRD5A1 POMC HSD17B3 CYP19A1 CGA
4
Show member pathways
12.34 PGR ESR2 ESR1 ERBB2
5
Show member pathways
12.09 POMC INHA CGB5 CGA
6
Show member pathways
12 SRD5A1 KLK3 ERBB2 AR
7
Show member pathways
11.92 PRL PGR ESR1 ERBB2
8
Show member pathways
11.8 PGR NR3C2 ESR2 ESR1 AR
9 11.78 ESR2 ESR1 AR
10
Show member pathways
11.73 ESR1 ERBB2 CGB5 CGA
11 11.65 PRL POMC CGA
12 11.55 PRL PGR ESR2 ESR1
13
Show member pathways
11.54 SRD5A1 POMC HSD17B3 CYP19A1 CGA
14
Show member pathways
11.49 CYP19A1 CYP3A4 HSD17B3
15 11.44 SRY KLK3 AR
16
Show member pathways
11.43 ESR2 ESR1 CYP3A4
17 11.32 AR CGA CYP19A1 CYP3A4
18 11.25 KLK3 ESR1 AR
19 11.11 PGR INHA ESR2 CYP19A1
20 10.89 SHBG GNRH1 AR
21 10.69 GNRH1 CGA
22 10.69 PGR ESR1 ERBB2
23 10.53 PRL PGR ESR2 ESR1 ERBB2
24 9.73 ESR2 ESR1 CYP19A1

GO Terms for Gynecomastia

Cellular components related to Gynecomastia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pituitary gonadotropin complex GO:0061696 8.8 CGB5 CGA

Biological processes related to Gynecomastia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.28 PRL POMC PGR NR3C2 INHA GNRH1
2 male gonad development GO:0008584 10.06 AR ESR1 INHA SRD5A1
3 cellular response to estradiol stimulus GO:0071392 9.99 SRD5A1 ESR2 ESR1
4 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.97 AR CGB5 ESR2 GNRH1 INHA PGR
5 steroid biosynthetic process GO:0006694 9.87 CYP19A1 CYP3A4 HSD17B3 SRD5A1
6 intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway GO:0030520 9.85 ESR2 ESR1 AR
7 prostate gland growth GO:0060736 9.84 CYP19A1 AR
8 female genitalia development GO:0030540 9.83 SRD5A1 CYP19A1
9 testosterone biosynthetic process GO:0061370 9.8 HSD17B3 CYP19A1
10 mammary gland development GO:0030879 9.8 PRL PGR CYP19A1
11 androgen catabolic process GO:0006710 9.78 SRD5A1 CYP19A1
12 tertiary branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis GO:0060748 9.73 PGR AR
13 androgen metabolic process GO:0008209 9.43 SRD5A1 ESR1 CYP3A4 CYP19A1
14 intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway GO:0030518 9.32 PGR NR3C2 ESR2 ESR1 AR

Molecular functions related to Gynecomastia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enzyme binding GO:0019899 10.18 PHF6 PGR ESR2 ESR1 CYP3A4 AR
2 transcription coactivator binding GO:0001223 9.95 PGR ESR1 AR
3 nuclear receptor activity GO:0004879 9.85 PGR NR3C2 ESR2 ESR1 AR
4 lipid binding GO:0008289 9.8 SHBG PGR NR3C2 ESR2 ESR1 AR
5 nuclear steroid receptor activity GO:0003707 9.8 ESR1 ESR2 NR3C2 PGR
6 estrogen response element binding GO:0034056 9.76 ESR2 ESR1
7 androgen binding GO:0005497 9.73 SHBG AR
8 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.7 PRL POMC INHA GNRH1 CGB5 CGA
9 nuclear estrogen receptor activity GO:0030284 9.67 ESR2 ESR1
10 steroid binding GO:0005496 9.47 SHBG PGR NR3C2 ESR2 ESR1 CYP3A4

Sources for Gynecomastia

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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