MCID: HPT019
MIFTS: 60

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Categories: Liver diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hepatic Encephalopathy:

Name: Hepatic Encephalopathy 12 77 54 38 56 15 74
Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy 12
Encephalopathy, Hepatic 54
Hepatoencephalopathy 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13413
KEGG 38 H01506
ICD9CM 36 572.2
MeSH 45 D006501
NCIt 51 C79596
SNOMED-CT 69 13920009
ICD10 34 K72
UMLS 74 C0019151

Summaries for Hepatic Encephalopathy

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. It is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded. Signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely. They may include personality or mood changes, intellectual impairment, abnormal movements, a depressed level of consciousness, and other symptoms. There are several theories regarding the exact cause, but development of the condition is probably at least partially due to the effect of substances that are toxic to nerve tissue (neurotoxic), which are typically present with liver damage and/or liver disease. Treatment depends upon the severity of mental status changes and upon the certainty of the diagnosis.

MalaCards based summary : Hepatic Encephalopathy, also known as portal-systemic encephalopathy, is related to hepatic coma and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. An important gene associated with Hepatic Encephalopathy is TSPO (Translocator Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Circadian entrainment and Immune response IL-23 signaling pathway. The drugs Rifaximin and Metformin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by loss of brain function, the occurrence of confusion, altered level of consciousness, and coma that results when the liver is unable to remove toxins from the blood.

Wikipedia : 77 Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure. Onset may... more...

Related Diseases for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 249, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hepatic coma 33.0 ALB F2 GPT TSPO
2 alcoholic liver cirrhosis 32.6 ALB F2 SLC17A5
3 liver cirrhosis 32.4 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5
4 alcoholic hepatitis 31.6 ALB F2 GPT IL6 SLC17A5 TNF
5 acute liver failure 31.4 ALB F2 GC GPT SLC17A5 TSPO
6 infantile liver failure syndrome 1 30.8 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5
7 hepatitis 30.5 F2 GPT SLC17A5 TNF
8 portal hypertension 30.4 ALB F2 GPT TNF
9 peritonitis 30.2 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
10 wilson disease 30.2 ALB F2 GPT
11 brain edema 30.0 ALB GLUL IL6 SLC1A2 SLC25A13
12 meningitis 30.0 ALB IL6 TNF
13 end stage renal failure 29.9 ALB IL6 TNF
14 schistosomiasis 29.9 ALB F2 TNF
15 liver disease 29.9 ALB F2 GPT IL6 SLC17A5 SLC25A13
16 hepatitis b 29.8 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TNF
17 fatty liver disease 29.7 IL6 SLC17A5 TNF
18 hepatitis e 29.5 ALB F2 GPT TNF
19 viral hepatitis 29.5 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TNF
20 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 29.4 ALB GPT IL6 SLC17A5 TNF
21 psychotic disorder 29.0 MAOB NOS1 S100B
22 infections, recurrent, with encephalopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiovascular malformations 12.5
23 combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 12.0
24 encephalopathy 11.4
25 congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt 11.4
26 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency 11.1
27 hepatic veno-occlusive disease 11.0
28 hepatorenal syndrome 11.0
29 antipyrine metabolism 10.4 ALB F2
30 non-a-e hepatitis 10.4 ALB F2
31 leukomalacia 10.4 IL6 TNF
32 scorpion envenomation 10.4 IL6 TNF
33 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.4 ALB F2
34 fournier gangrene 10.4 ALB F2
35 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.4 IL6 TNF
36 autoimmune myocarditis 10.4 IL6 TNF
37 critical limb ischemia 10.4 IL6 TNF
38 sudden sensorineural hearing loss 10.3 F2 IL6
39 abdominal tuberculosis 10.3 ALB F2
40 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.3 IL6 TNF
41 juvenile ankylosing spondylitis 10.3 IL6 TNF
42 cardiogenic shock 10.3 IL6 TNF
43 marburg hemorrhagic fever 10.3 F2 TNF
44 atypical depressive disorder 10.3 MAOA MAOB
45 burns 10.3 ALB TNF
46 null-cell leukemia 10.3 IL6 TNF
47 hypersensitivity reaction type iii disease 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
48 keratoconjunctivitis sicca 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
49 hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
50 retinitis pigmentosa 55 10.3 IL6 TNF
51 pyelonephritis 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
52 appendicitis 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
53 filariasis 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
54 intermittent claudication 10.3 ALB F2 IL6
55 pancreas disease 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
56 upper respiratory tract disease 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
57 primary bacterial infectious disease 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
58 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.3 F2 GPT
59 gastroenteritis 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
60 paraquat poisoning 10.3 GPT SLC17A5
61 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.3 IL6 MAOA TNF
62 glossitis 10.3 IL6 TNF
63 peripheral vascular disease 10.3 ALB F2 IL6
64 arteries, anomalies of 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
65 otitis media 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
66 meningoencephalitis 10.3 ALB IL6 SLC17A5
67 glucose metabolism disease 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
68 trypanosomiasis 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
69 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 10.3 ALB IL6 TNF
70 infective endocarditis 10.3 F2 IL6 TNF
71 laryngitis 10.2 IL6 TNF
72 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
73 leptospirosis 10.2 F2 IL6 TNF
74 urinary system disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
75 intestinal disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
76 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.2 F2 IL6 TNF
77 acquired metabolic disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
78 chronic graft versus host disease 10.2 ALB TNF
79 pyridoxine deficiency 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
80 kawasaki disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
81 eclampsia 10.2 ALB F2 TNF
82 uremic pruritus 10.2 IL6 SLC17A5
83 respiratory system disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
84 helicobacter pylori infection 10.2
85 endometritis 10.2 IL6 SLC17A5 TNF
86 purpura 10.2 F2 IL6 TNF
87 exhibitionism 10.2 F2 MAOA MAOB
88 peripheral nervous system disease 10.2 ALB IL6 TNF
89 cerebral palsy 10.2 F2 IL6 TNF
90 adult dermatomyositis 10.2 GPT TNF
91 paracetamol poisoning 10.2 F2 GC
92 periventricular leukomalacia 10.2 IL6 SLC1A2 TNF
93 hepatic tuberculosis 10.2 ALB F2 GPT
94 cholecystitis 10.2 ALB F2 GPT
95 fascioliasis 10.2 ALB GPT SLC17A5
96 ocular motor apraxia 10.2
97 thrombosis 10.2
98 mood disorder 10.1 IL6 MAOA MAOB
99 situs inversus 10.1
100 temporal lobe epilepsy 10.1 GLUL SLC1A2 TSPO
101 typhoid fever 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
102 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
103 cerebrovascular disease 10.1 F2 IL6 TNF TSPO
104 endocarditis 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
105 gastrointestinal system cancer 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
106 biliary tract disease 10.1 ALB F2 SLC25A13
107 gastrointestinal system disease 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
108 vascular disease 10.1 ALB F2 IL6 TNF
109 scrub typhus 10.1 GPT SLC17A5 TNF
110 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 10.1 IL6 S100B TNF
111 primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma 10.1 GPT S100B
112 sleep apnea 10.1 IL6 S100B TNF
113 status epilepticus 10.1
114 compartment syndrome 10.1 ALB F2 SLC17A5 TNF
115 varicose veins 10.1
116 diabetes mellitus 10.1
117 portal vein thrombosis 10.1
118 viral infectious disease 10.0 GPT IL6 TNF
119 protein-energy malnutrition 10.0 ALB GPT IL6 TNF
120 dependent personality disorder 10.0 MAOA MAOB
121 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 10.0 ALB IL6 TNF
122 hepatocellular carcinoma 10.0
123 hepatitis c 10.0
124 hepatitis a 10.0 ALB F2 GPT TNF
125 bacterial meningitis 10.0 ALB IL6 S100B TNF
126 kwashiorkor 10.0 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5
127 choledocholithiasis 10.0 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5
128 bilirubin metabolic disorder 10.0 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5
129 jejunoileitis 10.0 ALB NOS1 TNF
130 budd-chiari syndrome 10.0
131 bacterial infectious disease 10.0
132 cortical blindness 10.0
133 hellp syndrome 10.0 F2 GPT IL6 SLC17A5
134 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 10.0 F2 GPT SLC17A5 TNF
135 thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency 10.0
136 intestinal schistosomiasis 10.0
137 apraxia 10.0
138 esophageal varix 10.0
139 spastic paraparesis 10.0
140 spinal cord injury 9.9 IL6 NOS1 TNF
141 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 9.9
142 hepatitis c virus 9.9
143 reye syndrome 9.9
144 hypothyroidism 9.9
145 depression 9.9
146 intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy 9.9 SLC17A5 SLC25A13 TNF
147 bile duct disease 9.9 ALB F2 GPT SLC25A13
148 cholestasis 9.9 F2 GPT SLC25A13
149 cholangitis 9.9 ALB F2 GPT IL6 TNF
150 central nervous system disease 9.9 GC IL6 MAOB TNF
151 opisthorchiasis 9.8 GPT TNF
152 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 9.8
153 hyperprolactinemia 9.8
154 pulmonary hypertension 9.8
155 leukemia 9.8
156 lymphocytic leukemia 9.8
157 autonomic neuropathy 9.8
158 kidney disease 9.8
159 neuropathy 9.8
160 intracranial hypertension 9.8
161 banti's syndrome 9.8
162 myoclonus 9.8
163 tremor 9.8
164 congenital portosystemic shunt 9.8
165 heart disease 9.8 ALB F2 IL6 S100B TNF
166 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 9.8 GC IL6 TNF
167 myocardial infarction 9.8 ALB F2 IL6 S100B TNF
168 alzheimer disease 9.7
169 atrial standstill 1 9.7
170 biliary cirrhosis, primary, 1 9.7
171 cleft palate, isolated 9.7
172 leiomyoma, uterine 9.7
173 pelger-huet anomaly 9.7
174 schizophrenia 9.7
175 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 9.7
176 wilms tumor 1 9.7
177 visceral steatosis, congenital 9.7
178 hemochromatosis, type 1 9.7
179 myxedema 9.7
180 orotic aciduria 9.7
181 polycythemia vera 9.7
182 patent ductus venosus 9.7
183 citrullinemia, type ii, adult-onset 9.7
184 anxiety 9.7
185 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 9.7
186 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 9.7
187 malaria 9.7
188 phenytoin toxicity 9.7
189 autoimmune hepatitis 9.7
190 brain injury 9.7
191 dilated cardiomyopathy 9.7
192 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 9.7
193 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 9.7
194 primary biliary cirrhosis 9.7
195 ulcerative colitis 9.7
196 urea cycle disorder 9.7
197 inflammatory bowel disease 9.7
198 aphasia 9.7
199 colitis 9.7
200 constrictive pericarditis 9.7
201 patulous eustachian tube 9.7
202 leiomyoma 9.7
203 telangiectasis 9.7
204 carotid stenosis 9.7
205 dementia 9.7
206 diarrhea 9.7
207 beriberi 9.7
208 plasmodium falciparum malaria 9.7
209 neuroendocrine tumor 9.7
210 pericarditis 9.7
211 epilepsy 9.7
212 post-traumatic stress disorder 9.7
213 constipation 9.7
214 kluver-bucy syndrome 9.7
215 acute pancreatitis 9.7
216 adenocarcinoma 9.7
217 gastric adenocarcinoma 9.7
218 intestinal pseudo-obstruction 9.7
219 hypokalemia 9.7
220 pancreatitis 9.7
221 dystonia 9.7
222 hemoglobinuria 9.7
223 central pontine myelinolysis 9.7
224 viral encephalitis 9.7
225 myocarditis 9.7
226 polycythemia 9.7
227 influenza 9.7
228 mucormycosis 9.7
229 recurrent hypersomnia 9.7
230 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 9.7
231 encephalitis 9.7
232 polyarteritis nodosa 9.7
233 polycystic kidney disease 9.7
234 juvenile hereditary hemochromatosis 9.7
235 rere-related disorders 9.7
236 anton's syndrome 9.7
237 nodular regenerative hyperplasia 9.7
238 primary biliary cholangitis 9.7
239 tuberculous meningitis 9.7
240 seizure disorder 9.7
241 hypersomnia 9.7
242 exercise-induced malignant hyperthermia 9.7
243 cirrhotic cardiomyopathy 9.7
244 serotonin syndrome 9.7
245 x-linked intellectual disability-macrocephaly-macroorchidism syndrome 9.7
246 analbuminemia 9.6 ALB F2 GC GPT SLC17A5
247 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 9.5 MAOB NOS1 SLC1A2 TSPO
248 nervous system disease 9.4 ALB GC IL6 MAOB S100B TNF
249 obstructive jaundice 9.4 ALB F2 GPT IL6 SLC17A5 SLC25A13

Comorbidity relations with Hepatic Encephalopathy via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (showing 26, show less)


Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Alcohol Abuse Alcoholic Hepatitis
Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Chronic Kidney Failure
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Encephalopathy Esophageal Varix
Heart Disease Hepatitis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatorenal Syndrome
Hypersplenism Liver Disease
Neutropenia Portal Hypertension
Portal Vein Thrombosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Urea Cycle Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:



Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hepatic Encephalopathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

47 (showing 6, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.18 F2 GLS GLUL IL6 MAOA MAOB
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.17 ALB F2 GC GLUL IL6 MAOA
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.9 ALB F2 GLS GLUL IL6 NOS1
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.8 ALB GLUL IL6 NOS1 SLC25A13 TNF
5 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 F2 GLUL IL6 MAOA MAOB NOS1
6 normal MP:0002873 9.23 ALB F2 GLS GLUL NOS1 S100B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Drugs for Hepatic Encephalopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(showing 290, show less)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 80621-81-4 46783403 6436173
2
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
3
Lactulose Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 4618-18-2 11333
4
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4,Not Applicable 59467-70-8 4192
5
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 2078-54-8 4943
6
Magnesium oxide Approved Phase 4 1309-48-4 14792
7
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 79902-63-9 54454
8
Nadolol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 42200-33-9 39147
9
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 72956-09-3 2585
10
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 525-66-6 4946
11
Entecavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 142217-69-4 153941
12
Norfloxacin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 70458-96-7 4539
13
Insulin Aspart Approved Phase 4 116094-23-6 16132418
14
Midodrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 133163-28-7, 42794-76-3 4195
15
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
16
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 60-87-7 4927
17
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 465-65-6 5284596
18
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
19
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 52485-79-7 644073 40400
20
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
21
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 69-65-8 6251 453
22
Terlipressin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 14636-12-5 72081
23
Tenofovir Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 147127-20-6 464205
24
Tolvaptan Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 150683-30-0 216237
25
Tranexamic Acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
26
chenodeoxycholic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 474-25-9 10133
27
Ornithine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 70-26-8, 3184-13-2 6262
28
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Not Applicable 7440-70-2 271
29
Isoleucine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 73-32-5, 443-79-8 6306
30
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 68-26-8, 22737-96-8, 11103-57-4 9904001 445354
31 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
33 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
34 Liver Extracts Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
35 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
36 Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
37 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
38 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
39 Aspartic Acid Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
40 N-Methylaspartate Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
41 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4,Not Applicable
42 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
43 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
44 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Not Applicable
45 GABA Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
46 GABA Modulators Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
47 Anesthetics, General Phase 4,Not Applicable
48 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
49 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
50 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
51 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Not Applicable
52 Antacids Phase 4
53 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
54 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
55 Antimetabolites Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
56 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
57 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
58 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
59 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
60 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
61 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
62 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
63 Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
64 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4,Not Applicable
65 Antioxidants Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
66 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
67 calcium channel blockers Phase 4,Not Applicable
68 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
69 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
70 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
71 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
72 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
73 phenylalanine Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
74 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
75 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
76 Antiviral Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
77 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
78 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
79 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3
80 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3
81 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
82 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4,Not Applicable
83 Narcotics Phase 4,Not Applicable
84 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
85 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
86 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
87 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
88 leucine Phase 4
89 valine Phase 4
90 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
91 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
92 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
93 Sympathomimetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
94 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
95 Antiemetics Phase 4
96 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
97 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination Phase 4
98 Antipruritics Phase 4
99 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
100 Retinol palmitate Phase 4
101 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
102 retinol Phase 4
103 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
104 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
105
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
106 Cathartics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
107 Laxatives Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
108 Natriuretic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
109 Arginine Vasopressin Phase 4,Phase 3
110 Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
111 Vasopressins Phase 4,Phase 3
112 Antifibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
113 Coagulants Phase 4
114 Hemostatics Phase 4,Not Applicable
115
Adefovir dipivoxil Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Not Applicable 142340-99-6 60871
116
Nitazoxanide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable 55981-09-4 41684
117
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-41-2 439260
118
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 616-91-1 12035
119
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 103-90-2 1983
120
Acetylcarnitine Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Not Applicable 3040-38-8 7045767
121
Phenylacetic acid Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 103-82-2 999
122
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 6493-05-6 4740
123
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 123774-72-1, 83869-56-1
124
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 135968-09-1
125
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 3 215647-85-1, 99210-65-8
126
Ribavirin Approved Phase 3,Not Applicable 36791-04-5 37542
127
Peginterferon alfa-2a Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Not Applicable 198153-51-4 5360545
128
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Not Applicable 128-13-2 31401
129
Bezafibrate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 41859-67-0 39042
130
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Phase 2 56-81-5 753
131
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable 83150-76-9 6400441 383414
132
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-00-0 712
133
Rivaroxaban Approved Phase 3,Not Applicable 366789-02-8
134
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3,Not Applicable 59-30-3 6037
135
Serine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3,Not Applicable 56-45-1 5951
136
Adefovir Investigational Phase 3,Not Applicable 106941-25-7
137 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
138 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable
139 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable
140 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
141 Anticoagulants Phase 3,Not Applicable
142 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3
143 Acidophilus Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
144 Sulfalene Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
145 Bifidobacterium Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
146 Expectorants Phase 3
147 Antipyretics Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
148 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 3
149 Free Radical Scavengers Phase 3
150 Antidotes Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
151 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3
152 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
153 Vitamins Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
154 Trace Elements Phase 3,Not Applicable
155 carnitine Phase 3,Not Applicable
156 Nutrients Phase 3,Not Applicable
157 Vitamin B Complex Phase 3,Not Applicable
158 Nootropic Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
159 Vitamin B9 Phase 3,Not Applicable
160 Micronutrients Phase 3,Not Applicable
161 Folate Phase 3,Not Applicable
162 Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Phase 2, Phase 3
163 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 3
164 Radiation-Protective Agents Phase 3
165 Immunologic Factors Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
166 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
167 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable
168 Interferon-alpha Phase 3,Not Applicable
169 interferons Phase 3,Not Applicable
170 Interferon alpha-2 Phase 3,Not Applicable
171 Cholagogues and Choleretics Phase 3,Not Applicable
172 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
173
protease inhibitors Phase 3,Not Applicable
174 Antithrombins Phase 3,Not Applicable
175 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 3,Not Applicable
176 Factor Xa Inhibitors Phase 3,Not Applicable
177 Antithrombin III Phase 3,Not Applicable
178 Serine Proteinase Inhibitors Phase 3,Not Applicable
179 Complement C3a Phase 3
180
Metronidazole Approved Phase 2 443-48-1 4173
181
Sodium Citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2,Not Applicable 68-04-2
182
Dobutamine Approved Phase 2 34368-04-2 36811
183
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 53-03-2 5865
184
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 2,Not Applicable 134678-17-4 60825
185
Silver sulfadiazine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 22199-08-2 441244
186
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 23214-92-8 31703
187
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
188
Vincristine Approved, Investigational Phase 2