MCID: HPT019
MIFTS: 60

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Categories: Liver diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hepatic Encephalopathy:

Name: Hepatic Encephalopathy 12 75 53 37 55 15 72
Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy 12
Encephalopathy, Hepatic 53
Hepatoencephalopathy 53

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13413
KEGG 37 H01506
ICD9CM 35 572.2
MeSH 44 D006501
NCIt 50 C79596
SNOMED-CT 68 13920009
ICD10 33 K72
UMLS 72 C0019151

Summaries for Hepatic Encephalopathy

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. It is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded. Signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely. They may include personality or mood changes, intellectual impairment, abnormal movements, a depressed level of consciousness, and other symptoms. There are several theories regarding the exact cause, but development of the condition is probably at least partially due to the effect of substances that are toxic to nerve tissue (neurotoxic), which are typically present with liver damage and/or liver disease. Treatment depends upon the severity of mental status changes and upon the certainty of the diagnosis.

MalaCards based summary : Hepatic Encephalopathy, also known as portal-systemic encephalopathy, is related to hepatic coma and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. An important gene associated with Hepatic Encephalopathy is TSPO (Translocator Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Circadian entrainment and Immune response IL-23 signaling pathway. The drugs Metformin and Midazolam have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by loss of brain function, the occurrence of confusion, altered level of consciousness, and coma that results when the liver is unable to remove toxins from the blood.

KEGG : 37
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency or portal systemic shunting. HE most commonly occurs in decompensated liver cirrhosis and incorporates a spectrum of manifestations that ranges from mild cognitive impairment to coma. Although its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, one of the main factors is thought to be ammonia. Apart from hyperammonemia, various other pathogenic mechanisms, such as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) theory, the benzodiazepine theory, the manganese theory, and the theory of oxidative/nitrosative stress, have been implicated in the development of HE. The pharmacological treatments that are currently used in clinical practice are directed toward reducing the production and absorption of gut-derived ammonia.

Wikipedia : 75 Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure. Onset may... more...

Related Diseases for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 393, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hepatic coma 33.2 TSPO GPT F2 ALB
2 alcoholic liver cirrhosis 33.0 SLC17A5 F2 ALB
3 liver cirrhosis 32.6 SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
4 acute liver failure 31.5 TSPO SLC17A5 GPT GC F2 ALB
5 alcoholic hepatitis 31.5 TNF SLC17A5 IL6 GPT F2 ALB
6 portal hypertension 31.1 TNF GPT F2 ALB
7 peritonitis 30.9 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
8 meningitis 30.7 TNF IL6 ALB
9 end stage renal failure 30.7 TNF IL6 ALB
10 non-a-e hepatitis 30.6 F2 ALB
11 fatty liver disease 30.5 TNF SLC17A5 IL6
12 schistosomiasis 30.5 TNF F2 ALB
13 eclampsia 30.3 TNF F2 ALB
14 brain edema 30.3 SLC25A13 SLC1A2 IL6 GLUL ALB
15 peripheral nervous system disease 30.3 TNF IL6 ALB
16 wilson disease 30.2 GPT F2 ALB
17 appendicitis 30.2 TNF IL6 ALB
18 gastroenteritis 30.2 TNF IL6 ALB
19 viral hepatitis 30.2 TNF SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
20 meningoencephalitis 30.1 SLC17A5 IL6 ALB
21 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.1 TNF IL6 ALB
22 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.1 TNF IL6 ALB
23 intestinal disease 30.1 TNF IL6 ALB
24 infantile liver failure syndrome 1 30.1 SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
25 cerebrovascular disease 30.1 TSPO TNF IL6 F2
26 paracetamol poisoning 30.0 GC F2
27 cholecystitis 29.9 GPT F2 ALB
28 mood disorder 29.9 MAOB MAOA IL6
29 cholestasis 29.8 SLC25A13 GPT F2
30 gastrointestinal system disease 29.8 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
31 hepatitis e 29.8 TNF GPT F2 ALB
32 liver disease 29.7 TNF SLC25A13 SLC17A5 IL6 GPT F2
33 hepatitis 29.7 TNF SLC17A5 GPT F2
34 protein-energy malnutrition 29.6 TNF IL6 GPT ALB
35 hepatitis a 29.6 TNF GPT F2 ALB
36 central nervous system disease 29.5 TNF MAOB IL6 GC
37 kwashiorkor 29.5 SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
38 bilirubin metabolic disorder 29.5 SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
39 hepatitis b 29.4 TNF SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
40 cholangitis 29.4 TNF IL6 GPT F2 ALB
41 heart disease 29.0 TNF S100B IL6 F2 ALB
42 nervous system disease 28.7 TNF S100B MAOB IL6 GC ALB
43 psychotic disorder 28.6 S100B NOS1 MAOB
44 infections, recurrent, with encephalopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiovascular malformations 12.6
45 combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 12.1
46 hepatorenal syndrome 11.5
47 congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt 11.5
48 encephalopathy 11.4
49 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency 11.3
50 hepatic veno-occlusive disease 11.2
51 ocular motor apraxia 10.9
52 carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 10.8
53 antipyrine metabolism 10.7 F2 ALB
54 scorpion envenomation 10.7 TNF IL6
55 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.7 F2 ALB
56 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.6 TNF IL6
57 fournier gangrene 10.6 F2 ALB
58 autoimmune myocarditis 10.6 TNF IL6
59 sudden sensorineural hearing loss 10.6 IL6 F2
60 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.6 TNF IL6
61 varicose veins 10.6
62 abdominal tuberculosis 10.5 F2 ALB
63 cardiogenic shock 10.5 TNF IL6
64 marburg hemorrhagic fever 10.5 TNF F2
65 juvenile ankylosing spondylitis 10.5 TNF IL6
66 null-cell leukemia 10.5 TNF IL6
67 atypical depressive disorder 10.5 MAOB MAOA
68 hypersensitivity reaction type iii disease 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
69 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.5
70 keratoconjunctivitis sicca 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
71 hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
72 pyelonephritis 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
73 filariasis 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
74 upper respiratory tract disease 10.5 TNF IL6 ALB
75 intermittent claudication 10.5 IL6 F2 ALB
76 pancreas disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
77 primary bacterial infectious disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
78 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.4 GPT F2
79 retinitis pigmentosa 55 10.4 TNF IL6
80 esophageal varix 10.4
81 paraquat poisoning 10.4 SLC17A5 GPT
82 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.4 TNF MAOA IL6
83 laryngitis 10.4 TNF IL6
84 peripheral vascular disease 10.4 IL6 F2 ALB
85 otitis media 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
86 arteries, anomalies of 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
87 glucose metabolism disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
88 infective endocarditis 10.4 TNF IL6 F2
89 trypanosomiasis 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
90 glossitis 10.4 TNF IL6
91 leptospirosis 10.4 TNF IL6 F2
92 uremic pruritus 10.4 SLC17A5 IL6
93 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.4 TNF IL6 F2
94 urinary system disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
95 chronic graft versus host disease 10.4 TNF ALB
96 tremor 10.4
97 acquired metabolic disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
98 pyridoxine deficiency 10.4 SLC17A5 GPT
99 kawasaki disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
100 respiratory system disease 10.4 TNF IL6 ALB
101 endometritis 10.4 TNF SLC17A5 IL6
102 purpura 10.4 TNF IL6 F2
103 exhibitionism 10.4 MAOB MAOA F2
104 cerebral palsy 10.4 TNF IL6 F2
105 overgrowth syndrome 10.3
106 constipation 10.3
107 helicobacter pylori infection 10.3
108 periventricular leukomalacia 10.3 TNF SLC1A2 IL6
109 adult dermatomyositis 10.3 TNF GPT
110 alcohol dependence 10.3
111 hepatic tuberculosis 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
112 portal vein thrombosis 10.3
113 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.3
114 intracranial hypertension 10.3
115 fascioliasis 10.2 SLC17A5 GPT ALB
116 status epilepticus 10.2
117 typhoid fever 10.2 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
118 temporal lobe epilepsy 10.2 TSPO SLC1A2 GLUL
119 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.2 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
120 endocarditis 10.2 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
121 biliary tract disease 10.2 SLC25A13 F2 ALB
122 gastrointestinal system cancer 10.2 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
123 vascular disease 10.2 TNF IL6 F2 ALB
124 scrub typhus 10.2 TNF SLC17A5 GPT
125 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 10.2 TNF S100B IL6
126 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.2
127 kidney disease 10.2
128 primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma 10.2 S100B GPT
129 diarrhea 10.2
130 sleep apnea 10.2 TNF S100B IL6
131 uveitis 10.1
132 situs inversus 10.1
133 mpv17-related mitochondrial dna maintenance defect 10.1
134 hypotonia 10.1
135 compartment syndrome 10.1 TNF SLC17A5 F2 ALB
136 bacterial infectious disease 10.1
137 acute cystitis 10.1
138 intestinal schistosomiasis 10.1
139 budd-chiari syndrome 10.1
140 hepatitis c virus 10.1
141 thrombosis 10.1
142 primary biliary cirrhosis 10.1
143 hypokalemia 10.1
144 muscular atrophy 10.1
145 subacute delirium 10.1
146 primary biliary cholangitis 10.1
147 congenital portosystemic shunt 10.1
148 pik3ca-related overgrowth syndrome 10.1
149 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 10.1
150 viral infectious disease 10.1 TNF IL6 GPT
151 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 10.1 TNF IL6 ALB
152 inflammatory bowel disease 10.0
153 cortical blindness 10.0
154 reye syndrome 10.0
155 hypothyroidism 10.0
156 alcohol use disorder 10.0
157 acute kidney failure 10.0
158 sleep disorder 10.0
159 bacterial meningitis 10.0 TNF S100B IL6 ALB
160 apraxia 10.0
161 respiratory failure 10.0
162 telangiectasis 10.0
163 hepatitis c 10.0
164 uremia 10.0
165 neuropathy 10.0
166 hypoglycemia 10.0
167 splenomegaly 10.0
168 cryptogenic cirrhosis 10.0
169 choledocholithiasis 10.0 SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
170 jejunoileitis 10.0 TNF NOS1 ALB
171 cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cst3-related 10.0
172 thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency 10.0
173 lactose intolerance 10.0
174 gastric ulcer 10.0
175 pulmonary edema 10.0
176 transient cerebral ischemia 10.0
177 alcoholic pancreatitis 10.0
178 hypopituitarism 10.0
179 central congenital hypothyroidism 10.0
180 single ventricular heart 10.0
181 spastic paraparesis 10.0
182 opisthorchiasis 9.9 TNF GPT
183 hellp syndrome 9.9 SLC17A5 IL6 GPT F2
184 hepatocellular carcinoma 9.9
185 schistosoma mansoni infection, susceptibility/ 9.9
186 pulmonary hypertension 9.9
187 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis 9.9
188 pre-eclampsia 9.9
189 visual epilepsy 9.9
190 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 9.9
191 autoimmune hepatitis 9.9
192 lactic acidosis 9.9
193 central pontine myelinolysis 9.9
194 peptic ulcer disease 9.9
195 encephalitis 9.9
196 47,xyy 9.9
197 anoxia 9.9
198 hypersomnia 9.9
199 myoclonus 9.9
200 seizure disorder 9.9
201 posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis 9.9
202 spinal cord injury 9.9 TNF NOS1 IL6
203 dependent personality disorder 9.9 MAOB MAOA
204 atrial standstill 1 9.8
205 hemochromatosis, type 1 9.8
206 pancreatic cancer 9.8
207 insulin-like growth factor i 9.8
208 stroke, ischemic 9.8
209 citrullinemia, type ii, adult-onset 9.8
210 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 9.8
211 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 9.8
212 hyperprolactinemia 9.8
213 erythema multiforme 9.8
214 cryptococcal meningitis 9.8
215 polycystic kidney disease 9.8
216 lymphocytic leukemia 9.8
217 brucellosis 9.8
218 autonomic neuropathy 9.8
219 nephrotic syndrome 9.8
220 leiomyoma 9.8
221 papilledema 9.8
222 substance abuse 9.8
223 cellulitis 9.8
224 movement disease 9.8
225 congestive heart failure 9.8
226 active peptic ulcer disease 9.8
227 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 9.8
228 48,xyyy 9.8
229 banti's syndrome 9.8
230 nodular regenerative hyperplasia 9.8
231 cerebral atrophy 9.8
232 erythema multiforme major 9.8
233 x-linked intellectual disability-macrocephaly-macroorchidism syndrome 9.8
234 intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy 9.8 TNF SLC25A13 SLC17A5
235 bile duct disease 9.8 SLC25A13 GPT F2 ALB
236 pfeiffer syndrome 9.7
237 alzheimer disease 9.7
238 bladder cancer 9.7
239 blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus 9.7
240 colorectal cancer 9.7
241 cleft palate, isolated 9.7
242 creutzfeldt-jakob disease 9.7
243 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 9.7
244 leiomyoma, uterine 9.7
245 neutrophil migration 9.7
246 schizophrenia 9.7
247 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 9.7
248 triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein 9.7
249 wilms tumor 1 9.7
250 citrullinemia, classic 9.7
251 congenital heart defects, hamartomas of tongue, and polysyndactyly 9.7
252 lysinuric protein intolerance 9.7
253 visceral steatosis, congenital 9.7
254 immune deficiency disease 9.7
255 myxedema 9.7
256 orotic aciduria 9.7
257 polycythemia vera 9.7
258 patent ductus venosus 9.7
259 branchiootic syndrome 1 9.7
260 meningioma, radiation-induced 9.7
261 meningioma, familial 9.7
262 anxiety 9.7
263 legionnaire disease 9.7
264 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 9.7
265 malaria 9.7
266 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 9.7
267 encephalopathy, progressive, with or without lipodystrophy 9.7
268 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.7
269 chorea, childhood-onset, with psychomotor retardation 9.7
270 portal hypertension, noncirrhotic 9.7
271 phenytoin toxicity 9.7
272 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 9.7
273 rocky mountain spotted fever 9.7
274 aspiration pneumonia 9.7
275 exanthem 9.7
276 metabolic acidosis 9.7
277 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 9.7
278 sexual disorder 9.7
279 aphasia 9.7
280 clostridium difficile colitis 9.7
281 agraphia 9.7
282 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 9.7
283 cardiac arrest 9.7
284 cholelithiasis 9.7
285 ehrlichiosis 9.7
286 common cold 9.7
287 renal hypertension 9.7
288 amnestic disorder 9.7
289 hemiplegia 9.7
290 spotted fever 9.7
291 disseminated intravascular coagulation 9.7
292 rabies 9.7
293 arteriovenous malformation 9.7
294 tetanus 9.7
295 pneumocystosis 9.7
296 spinal meningioma 9.7
297 constrictive pericarditis 9.7
298 allergic hypersensitivity disease 9.7
299 cryptococcosis 9.7
300 alveolar echinococcosis 9.7
301 aseptic meningitis 9.7
302 neutropenia 9.7
303 marasmus 9.7
304 pancytopenia 9.7
305 pseudobulbar palsy 9.7
306 locked-in syndrome 9.7
307 choreatic disease 9.7
308 dilated cardiomyopathy 9.7
309 carotid stenosis 9.7
310 dementia 9.7
311 biliary atresia 9.7
312 extrahepatic cholestasis 9.7
313 beriberi 9.7
314 plasmodium falciparum malaria 9.7
315 cerebral degeneration 9.7
316 echinococcosis 9.7
317 angioedema 9.7
318 thrombocytopenia 9.7
319 neuroendocrine tumor 9.7
320 pericarditis 9.7
321 islet cell tumor 9.7
322 leiomyosarcoma 9.7
323 rectum cancer 9.7
324 post-traumatic stress disorder 9.7
325 dyspepsia 9.7
326 west nile encephalitis 9.7
327 kernicterus 9.7
328 wernicke encephalopathy 9.7
329 kluver-bucy syndrome 9.7
330 dermatitis 9.7
331 acute pancreatitis 9.7
332 pulmonary tuberculosis 9.7
333 antiphospholipid syndrome 9.7
334 glioblastoma multiforme 9.7
335 nervous system cancer 9.7
336 central nervous system cancer 9.7
337 gastric adenocarcinoma 9.7
338 intestinal pseudo-obstruction 9.7
339 hyperglycemia 9.7
340 myopathy 9.7
341 dysgraphia 9.7
342 nominal aphasia 9.7
343 secretory meningioma 9.7
344 lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma 9.7
345 ideomotor apraxia 9.7
346 lymph node tuberculosis 9.7
347 tubular adenocarcinoma 9.7
348 pancreatitis 9.7
349 dystonia 9.7
350 hemoglobinuria 9.7
351 silent myocardial infarction 9.7
352 acute stress disorder 9.7
353 hypersplenism 9.7
354 viral encephalitis 9.7
355 inherited metabolic disorder 9.7
356 chronic kidney disease 9.7
357 hyperthyroidism 9.7
358 myocarditis 9.7
359 polycythemia 9.7
360 mucormycosis 9.7
361 herpes simplex 9.7
362 ulcerative colitis 9.7
363 recurrent hypersomnia 9.7
364 crohn's disease 9.7
365 mitochondrial encephalomyopathy 9.7
366 narcolepsy 9.7
367 hepatopulmonary syndrome 9.7
368 urea cycle disorder 9.7
369 diabetes mellitus 9.7
370 chronic cholangitis 9.7
371 pathologic nystagmus 9.7
372 congenital hepatic fibrosis 9.7
373 carcinoid syndrome 9.7
374 cerebellar degeneration 9.7
375 cytokine deficiency 9.7
376 glioblastoma 9.7
377 stevens-johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis 9.7
378 tuberculous meningitis 9.7
379 aneurysm 9.7
380 brain injury 9.7
381 head injury 9.7
382 paresthesia 9.7
383 rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma 9.7
384 pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension 9.7
385 exercise-induced malignant hyperthermia 9.7
386 cirrhotic cardiomyopathy 9.7
387 serotonin syndrome 9.7
388 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 9.6 TNF IL6 GC
389 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 9.6 TNF SLC17A5 IL6 GPT ALB
390 myocardial infarction 9.6 TNF S100B IL6 F2 ALB
391 analbuminemia 9.4 SLC17A5 GPT GC F2 ALB
392 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 9.1 TSPO SLC1A2 NOS1 MAOB
393 obstructive jaundice 9.0 TNF SLC25A13 SLC17A5 IL6 GPT F2

Comorbidity relations with Hepatic Encephalopathy via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (showing 24, show less)


Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Alcoholic Hepatitis Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Encephalopathy Esophageal Varix
Heart Disease Hepatitis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatorenal Syndrome
Hypersplenism Liver Disease
Neutropenia Portal Hypertension
Portal Vein Thrombosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Urea Cycle Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:



Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hepatic Encephalopathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

46 (showing 6, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.18 F2 GLS GLUL IL6 MAOA MAOB
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.17 ALB F2 GC GLUL IL6 MAOA
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.9 ALB F2 GLS GLUL IL6 NOS1
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.8 ALB GLUL IL6 NOS1 SLC25A13 TNF
5 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 F2 GLUL IL6 MAOA MAOB NOS1
6 normal MP:0002873 9.23 ALB F2 GLS GLUL NOS1 S100B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Drugs for Hepatic Encephalopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(showing 313, show less)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 4091 14219
2
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
3
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
4
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
5
Magnesium oxide Approved Phase 4 1309-48-4 14792
6
Imipenem Approved Phase 4 74431-23-5, 64221-86-9 104838
7
Clavulanate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58001-44-8 5280980
8
Cefoxitin Approved Phase 4 35607-66-0 441199
9
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
10
Cefotaxime Approved Phase 4 63527-52-6 456256 5742673
11
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
12
Vancomycin Approved Phase 4 1404-90-6 441141 14969
13
Insulin Aspart Approved Phase 4 116094-23-6 16132418
14
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
15
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 465-65-6 5284596
16
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
17
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
18
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 52485-79-7 40400 644073
19
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
20
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
21
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
22
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
23
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 134678-17-4 60825
24
Furosemide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-31-9 3440
25
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
26
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
27
chloroquine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-05-7 2719
28
Azathioprine Approved Phase 4 446-86-6 2265
29
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 4 134523-00-5 60823
30
Terlipressin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 14636-12-5 72081
31
Tranexamic Acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
32
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83150-76-9 383414 6400441
33
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 69-65-8 453 6251
34
Tolvaptan Approved Phase 4 150683-30-0 216237
35
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
36
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
37
Lorazepam Approved Phase 4 846-49-1 3958
38
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 22737-96-8, 11103-57-4, 68-26-8 9904001 445354
39
Isoleucine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 443-79-8, 73-32-5 6306
40
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
41 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
42 arginine Phase 4
43 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4
44 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
45 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
46 Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination Phase 4
47 Antitubercular Agents Phase 4
48 Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists Phase 4
49 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4
50 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
51 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
52 Protective Agents Phase 4
53 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
54 Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Phase 4
55 Acidophilus Phase 4
56 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
57 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
58 Narcotics Phase 4
59 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
60 Retinol palmitate Phase 4
61 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
62 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
63 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
64
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
65 retinol Phase 4
66 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
67 Antipruritics Phase 4
68 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination Phase 4
69 phenylalanine Phase 4
70 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
71 Bifidobacterium Phase 4
72 Antioxidants Phase 4
73 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4
74 Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
75 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
76 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
77 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
78 diuretics Phase 4
79 glucocorticoids Phase 4
80 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
81 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
82 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
83 Prednisolone acetate Phase 4
84 Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors Phase 4
85 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
86 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
87 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
88 Chloroquine diphosphate Phase 4 50-63-5
89 Anthelmintics Phase 4
90 Antimalarials Phase 4
91 Cathartics Phase 4
92 Laxatives Phase 4
93 Polyethylene glycol 3350 Phase 4
94 Antimetabolites Phase 4
95 valine Phase 4
96 leucine Phase 4
97 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
98 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
99 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
100 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
101 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
102 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
103 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 4
104 Hemostatics Phase 4
105 Coagulants Phase 4
106 Antifibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
107 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
108 Analgesics Phase 4
109 Antiemetics Phase 4
110 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
111 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
112 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
113 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
114 Natriuretic Agents Phase 4
115 Hormones Phase 4
116 Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
117 Vasopressins Phase 4
118 Arginine Vasopressin Phase 4
119 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
120 GABA Agents Phase 4
121 GABA Modulators Phase 4
122 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
123 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
124 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
125 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
126 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
127 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
128 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
129 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
130 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
131
Acetylcarnitine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 3040-38-8 7045767
132
Phenylacetic acid Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 103-82-2 999
133
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 616-91-1 12035
134
Sofosbuvir Approved Phase 3 1190307-88-0 45375808
135
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 6493-05-6 4740
136
Ledipasvir Approved Phase 3 1256388-51-8 67505836
137
Lactulose Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
138
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56-81-5 753
139
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 103-90-2 1983
140
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 3 83869-56-1, 123774-72-1
141
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 3 135968-09-1
142
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-00-0 712
143
Entecavir Approved, Investigational Phase 3 142217-69-4 153941
144
Misoprostol Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59122-46-2 5282381
145
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-78-2 2244