Hepatitis D (HDV)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Liver diseases, Mental diseases, Nephrological diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatitis D

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hepatitis D:

Name: Hepatitis D 12 73 20 44 15
Delta Hepatitis 12 20
Hepatitis Delta 58 54
Hepatitis D Infection 70
Hepatitis D Virus 58
Hdv 58


Orphanet: 58  
Rare hepatic diseases
Rare infectious diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2047
MeSH 44 D003699
SNOMED-CT 67 424460009
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 B17.0
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0011226
Orphanet 58 ORPHA402823
UMLS 70 C0011226

Summaries for Hepatitis D

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in inflammation located in liver, has material basis in Hepatitis delta virus, which is an incomplete virus that requires the helper function of Hepatitis B virus to replicate and only occurs among people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus. The infection has symptom fatigue, has symptom lethargy, has symptom anorexia, has symptom nausea, has symptom jaundice, has symptom clay-colored stools, has symptom dark urine, has symptom changes in personality, has symptom disturbances in sleep, has symptom confusion, has symptom abnormal behavior, has symptom somnolence, and has symptom coma.

MalaCards based summary : Hepatitis D, also known as delta hepatitis, is related to hepatitis and viral hepatitis, and has symptoms including fatigue, jaundice and anorexia. An important gene associated with Hepatitis D is GPT (Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA and Interferon gamma signaling. The drugs Peginterferon alfa-2b and Ritonavir have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, t cells and kidney, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 73 Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small spherical... more...

Related Diseases for Hepatitis D

Diseases in the Hepatitis family:

Hepatitis C Virus Hepatitis a
Hepatitis C Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis B Hepatitis D
Autoimmune Hepatitis Hepatitis E
Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 2 Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 1

Diseases related to Hepatitis D via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 159)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hepatitis 31.5 SLC10A1 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 EIF2AK2
2 viral hepatitis 30.9 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
3 hepatitis b 30.8 SLC10A1 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
4 hepatitis a 30.8 IFNA1 GPT F2
5 liver cirrhosis 30.5 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 CYP2D6
6 portal hypertension 30.3 IFNL3 GPT F2
7 hepatitis c 30.3 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT EIF2AK2
8 liver disease 30.3 SLC10A1 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
9 hepatic coma 30.3 GPT F2
10 drug-induced hepatitis 30.2 IFNL3 GPT CYP2D6 CYP2C9
11 hepatitis e 30.1 IFNL3 GPT F2
12 viral infectious disease 30.0 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT EIF2AK2
13 esophageal varix 29.9 IFNL3 GPT F2
14 portal vein thrombosis 29.9 IFNA1 F2 CYP2C9
15 autoimmune hepatitis 29.7 IFNA1 GPT F2 CYP2D6
16 stomatitis 29.7 IFNA2 IFNA1 EIF2AK2 ADAR
17 cholestasis 29.4 SLC10A2 SLC10A1 GPT F2
18 thrombocytopenia 29.3 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 ADAR
19 bilirubin metabolic disorder 28.4 SLC35A2 SLC10A2 SLC10A1 IFNL3 GPT F2
20 corneal intraepithelial neoplasm 10.4 IFNA2 IFNA1
21 lymphomatoid granulomatosis 10.4 IFNA2 IFNA1
22 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.4 GPT F2
23 cryoglobulinemia, familial mixed 10.3 IFNA2 IFNA1
24 emphysematous cholecystitis 10.3 GPT F2
25 pyridoxine deficiency anemia 10.3 GPT F2
26 internal hordeolum 10.3 IFNA2 IFNA1
27 ankylosing spondylitis 1 10.3 GPT F2
28 giant hemangioma 10.3 IFNA2 F2
29 conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma 10.3 IFNA2 IFNA1
30 acalculous cholecystitis 10.3 GPT F2
31 hepatitis c virus 10.3
32 squamous papillomatosis 10.3 IFNA2 IFNA1
33 hepatic infarction 10.3 GPT F2
34 adult dermatomyositis 10.3 IFNA1 GPT
35 splenic abscess 10.3 GPT F2
36 ascending cholangitis 10.3 GPT F2
37 small intestine diverticulitis 10.3 F2 CYP2C9
38 peliosis hepatis 10.3 GPT F2
39 paralytic ileus 10.3 GPT F2
40 discoid lupus erythematosus 10.3 IFNA2 IFNA1
41 acute cholangitis 10.3 GPT F2
42 common bile duct disease 10.3 GPT F2
43 abdominal tuberculosis 10.3 GPT F2
44 splenic infarction 10.3 GPT F2
45 pyuria 10.3 GPT F2
46 sulfonamide allergy 10.3 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
47 pleural empyema 10.3 GPT F2
48 hypertrophy of tongue papillae 10.3 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
49 abacavir allergy 10.3 IFNL3 CYP2C9
50 kwashiorkor 10.3 GPT F2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatitis D:

Diseases related to Hepatitis D

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hepatitis D


12 (show all 13)
  • fatigue
  • jaundice
  • anorexia
  • lethargy
  • coma
  • confusion
  • dark urine
  • nausea
  • clay-colored stools
  • changes in personality
  • disturbances in sleep
  • abnormal behavior
  • somnolence

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 17)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-105 9.6 IFNA2
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-123 9.6 EIF2AK2
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-127 9.6 IFNA2
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-139 9.6 EIF2AK2
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-167 9.6 IFNA2
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-168 9.6 IFNA2
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-184 9.6 ADAR EIF2AK2 IFNA2
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-185 9.6 ADAR
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-213 9.6 ADAR
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-25 9.6 IFNA2
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-29 9.6 IFNA2
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-4 9.6 CYP2D6
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-60 9.6 EIF2AK2
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-62 9.6 IFNA2
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-67 9.6 EIF2AK2
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-8 9.6 ADAR
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-85 9.6 EIF2AK2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatitis D

Drugs for Hepatitis D (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 47)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 3 99210-65-8, 215647-85-1
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 3 155213-67-5 392622
Lonafarnib Approved, Investigational Phase 3 193275-84-2 148195
4 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 3
5 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 3
protease inhibitors Phase 3
7 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 3
Ezetimibe Approved Phase 2 163222-33-1 150311
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 134678-17-4 60825
Ribavirin Approved Phase 2 36791-04-5 37542
Peginterferon alfa-2a Approved, Investigational Phase 2 198153-51-4 5360545
Entecavir Approved, Investigational Phase 2 142217-69-4 153941
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 2 132-22-9, 113-92-8 2725
Cetirizine Approved Phase 2 83881-51-0 2678
Hydroxyzine Approved Phase 2 68-88-2 3658
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 60-87-7 4927
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Coal tar Approved Phase 2 8007-45-2
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 147127-20-6 464205
21 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
22 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
23 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
24 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites Phase 2
26 REP 2139 Phase 2
27 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
28 Antiviral Agents Phase 2
29 interferons Phase 2
30 Interferon alpha-2 Phase 2
31 Interferon-alpha Phase 2
32 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
33 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 2
34 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 2
35 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 2
36 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
Histamine Phosphate Phase 2 51-74-1 65513
38 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 2
39 Histamine Antagonists Phase 2
Tipranavir Approved, Investigational Phase 1 174484-41-4 65027
nivolumab Approved Phase 1 946414-94-4
42 Iron-Dextran Complex Phase 1
43 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 1
44 Antibodies
45 Immunoglobulins
46 Anesthetics
47 Liver Extracts

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 43)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Plus Ribavirin in the Treatment of Patients With Dual Chronic Hepatitis B and Delta Unknown status NCT00117533 Phase 4 pegylated IFN alfa-2b plus ribavirin
2 A Multicenter Randomised Study Comparing the Antiviral Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon-alfa-2a Plus Placebo vs. Pegylated Interferon-alfa-2a Plus Tenofovir for the Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis Completed NCT01088659 Phase 3 peginterferon alfa-2a [Pegasys];placebo;tenofovir
3 Open-label, Multicenter, Trial Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Peginterferon Alfa-2a (PEGASYS®) in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D (CHD) Completed NCT02732639 Phase 3 Pegylated Interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a
4 An Open Label, Uncontrolled, Study to Assess the Response of Peg-Intron in naïve Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and D Co-infection Completed NCT00686790 Phase 3
5 A Phase 3, Matrix Design, Partially Double-Blind, Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of 50 mg Lonafarnib/100 mg Ritonavir BID With and Without 180 mcg PEG IFN-alfa-2a for 48 Weeks Compared With PEG IFN-alfa-2a Monotherapy and Placebo Treatment in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus Being Maintained on Anti-HBV Nucleos(t)Ide Therapy (D-LIVR) Recruiting NCT03719313 Phase 3 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir;PEG IFN-alfa-2a;Placebo Lonafarnib;Placebo Ritonavir
6 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Phase 3 Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Active, not recruiting NCT03852719 Phase 3 Bulevirtide
7 Pegylated Interferon Alone or in Combination With Ezetimibe for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Unknown status NCT03105310 Phase 2 Pegylated interferon alfa;Ezetimibe
8 Ezetimibe for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Unknown status NCT03099278 Phase 2 Ezetimibe
9 Randomized Open-label Substudy of Daily Myrcludex B Plus Pegylated Interferon-alpha-2a in Patients With HBeAg Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Co-infected With Hepatitis Delta Completed NCT02637999 Phase 1, Phase 2 PEG IFN alfa-2a;Myrcludex B
10 An Open-label, Dose-ranging, Proof-of-Concept Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lonafarnib With Ritonavir-Boosting in Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) (LOWR-2) Completed NCT02430194 Phase 2 lonafarnib;Ritonavir;PEG IFN-a
11 An Open-label, Dose-ranging, Proof-of-Concept Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lonafarnib With and Without Ritonavir Boosting in Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) (LOWR-1) Completed NCT02430181 Phase 2 lonafarnib;PEG IFN-a;Ritonavir
12 A Phase 2, Open-Label Study of the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamic Activity of a Titrating-Dose Lonafarnib in Combination With Ritonavir in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus Completed NCT02527707 Phase 2 lonafarnib;Ritonavir
13 A Multicenter Randomised Study Comparing the Efficacy of PegIFN-alfa2a Plus Placebo vs. PegIFN-alfa2a Plus Tenofovir for the Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis-The Hep-Net International Delta Hepatitis Interventional Trial II (HIDIT-II) Completed NCT00932971 Phase 2 PEG-IFN alfa-2a, Tenofovir;PEG-IFN alfa-2a, placebo
14 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of 3 Doses of Myrcludex B for 24 Weeks in Combination With Tenofovir Compared to Tenofovir Alone to Suppress HBV Replication in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Completed NCT03546621 Phase 2 Myrcludex B;Myrcludex-B;Myrcludex-B;Tenofovir
15 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib and Ritonavir Completed NCT02511431 Phase 2 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
16 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib, Ritonavir and Lambda Interferon Completed NCT03600714 Phase 2 Peg-interferon lambda;Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
17 A Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of Pegylated Interferon Lambda Monotherapy in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection (LIMT) Completed NCT02765802 Phase 2 Peginterferon Lambda-1A
18 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Pegylated Interferon Completed NCT00023322 Phase 2 Peginterferon Alpha-2a
19 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib Completed NCT01495585 Phase 2 Lonafarnib
20 Lamivudine for Chronic Hepatitis B Completed NCT00001457 Phase 2 Lamivudine
21 A Randomized, Pilot, Open-Label, Monocenter, Efficacy and Safety Study Examining the Effects of Peginterferon Alfa-2a (Pegasys) With or Without Ribavirin (Copegus) in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Completed NCT02731131 Phase 2 Peginterferon alfa-2a;Ribavirin
22 A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Treatment With REP 2139-Ca and Pegasys™ in Patients With Hepatitis B / Hepatitis D Co-infection Completed NCT02233075 Phase 2 REP 2139-Ca + Pegasys (TM)
23 A Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study With Deferred Active Treatment to Investigate the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of JNJ-73763989 + Nucleos(t)Ide Analog in Participants Co-Infected With Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D Virus Recruiting NCT04535544 Phase 2 JNJ-73763989;Placebo;Entecavir (ETV) monohydrate;Tenofovir disoproxil;Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)
24 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Phase 2b Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Combination With Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Active, not recruiting NCT03852433 Phase 2 Bulevirtide;Peginterferon Alfa-2a
25 A Multicenter, Open-Label Study to Evaluate ARC-520 Administered Alone and in Combination With Other Therapeutics in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection (MONARCH) Terminated NCT02577029 Phase 2 ARC-520;entecavir;tenofovir disoproxil;antihistamine
26 A Phase 2b, Open-Label, Randomized Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamic Activity of Lonafarnib With or Without Ritonavir in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus (LOWR-5) Withdrawn NCT02968641 Phase 2 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
27 Open Label, Study to Determine the Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Steady State Tipranavir/Ritonavir (500/200 mg) and Steady State Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon Alfa 2a in HIV Negative, HCV Infected Subjects With Mild Hepatic Impairment and the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Tipranavir/Ritonavir in HIV Negative, HCV, HBV, Hepatitis Delta Infected Subjects or Alcoholic Cirrhosis Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Completed NCT02259855 Phase 1 Tipranavir;Ritonavir;Pegylated interferon;Ribavirin
28 A Phase Ib, Open Label Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Sequential Administration of P1101 and Anti-PD1 in Interferon-Naive Adults With Chronic Hepatitis B or D Infection Not yet recruiting NCT04638439 Phase 1 P1101 + Nivolumab + Entecavir
29 An Open Label, Dose-ranging Proof-of-concept Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of EBP921 in Therapy-naive Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) Terminated NCT01316185 Phase 1 EBP921
30 Epidemiological Survey of Hepatitis D Virus Infection in Hepatitis B Population Among Multi-center Hepatitis B Population in China Completed NCT04483518
31 Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Mother-To-Child Transmission (MTCT) From Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Co-infected Pregnant Women: a Retrospective Study. Completed NCT02044055
32 Hepatitis D Virus Infection Among Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Positive Individuals in Upper Egypt: Prevalence and Clinical Features Completed NCT04038372
33 A Long Term Follow-up Study of Patients From the REP 301 Protocol Completed NCT02876419
34 Prevalence and Consequences of Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection in Hemophiliacs Completed NCT00005305
35 Delta Hepatitis and Liver Disease in Hemophiliacs Completed NCT00005304
36 Hepatitis Delta Registry and Research Network- Observational Study Recruiting NCT02375906
37 Evaluation of Patients With Liver Disease Recruiting NCT00001971
38 Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Zambia: a Prospective Clinical Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03158818
39 HBV DNA Replication in Hepatocytes in HBV and HDV Co-infection Enrolling by invitation NCT04170452
40 Observatory of Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)/Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Co-infection With Severe Fibrosis Injuries, or Moderate Fibrosis Injuries Associated With Persistent Increase of ALT Not yet recruiting NCT04166266
41 "Constitution of a Biological Collection to Establish Preclinical Translational Models for the Study of Tumors and Chronic Liver Diseases". Not yet recruiting NCT04690972
42 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C and Delta in Reunion Island Not yet recruiting NCT03362866
43 National, Multicenter, Observational Study Evaluating Prevalence, Virological and Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis Delta in Romania and Assess Efficacy of Peg-interferon Alfa-2a Treatment in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D (CHD) Terminated NCT01861444

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hepatitis D

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Interferon Alfa-2a
Interferon Alfa-2b
interferon alfacon-1
Interferon gamma-1b
peginterferon alfa-2a
peginterferon alfa-2b
Recombinant interferon beta-1a
Recombinant interferon beta-1b

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hepatitis d

Genetic Tests for Hepatitis D

Anatomical Context for Hepatitis D

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Hepatitis D:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hepatitis D:

Liver, T Cells, Kidney, Thymus, Spleen, Brain, Skeletal Muscle

Publications for Hepatitis D

Articles related to Hepatitis D:

(show top 50) (show all 2812)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Resolution of chronic hepatitis Delta after 1 year of combined therapy with pegylated interferon, tenofovir and emtricitabine. 54 61
19914127 2010
Clinical outcomes in adults with chronic hepatitis B in association with patient and viral characteristics: A systematic review of evidence. 54 61
19399797 2009
Capped small RNAs and MOV10 in human hepatitis delta virus replication. 61 54
18552826 2008
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D. 61 54
17958644 2007
The human RNA polymerase II interacts with the terminal stem-loop regions of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome. 54 61
16959288 2007
Treatment of chronic hepatitis delta with pegylated interferon-alpha2b. 61 54
16911462 2006
A tryptophan-rich motif in the carboxyl terminus of the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus is central to the assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles. 54 61
16641257 2006
Efficacy of interferon alpha-2b and lamivudine combination treatment in comparison to interferon alpha-2b alone in chronic delta hepatitis: a randomized trial. 54 61
16677149 2006
Lamivudine therapy in chronic delta hepatitis: a multicentre randomized-controlled pilot study. 54 61
16091060 2005
Long-term benefit of interferon alpha therapy of chronic hepatitis D: regression of advanced hepatic fibrosis. 54 61
15188169 2004
Combinatorial control of human RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) pausing and transcript cleavage by transcription factor IIF, hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II. 61 54
14506279 2003
Human transcription elongation factor NELF: identification of novel subunits and reconstitution of the functionally active complex. 61 54
12612062 2003
The double-stranded RNA-activated kinase, PKR, can phosphorylate hepatitis D virus small delta antigen at functional serine and threonine residues. 61 54
12060652 2002
Increased RNA editing and inhibition of hepatitis delta virus replication by high-level expression of ADAR1 and ADAR2. 61 54
11907222 2002
Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen. 54 61
11387440 2001
Large isoform of hepatitis delta antigen activates serum response factor-associated transcription. 61 54
10961986 2000
[Interferon therapy of chronic viral hepatitis in Hungary: 5-year experience. A multicenter study]. 54 61
10377733 1999
Alpha-interferon treatment in HBeAg positive children with chronic hepatitis B and associated hepatitis D. 54 61
9782481 1998
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alpha-2b in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 61 54
9696491 1998
The nucleolin binding activity of hepatitis delta antigen is associated with nucleolus targeting. 54 61
9516470 1998
Serum immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis D as a surrogate marker of hepatitis D in interferon-treated patients and in patients who underwent liver transplantation. 61 54
9500721 1998
Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases. 61 54
9111310 1997
Long-term interferon-alpha treatment of children with chronic hepatitis delta: a multicentre study. 61 54
8871870 1996
RNA editing of hepatitis delta virus antigenome by dsRNA-adenosine deaminase. 54 61
8602246 1996
The French experience of treatment of chronic type D hepatitis with a 12-month course of interferon alpha-2B. Results of a randomized controlled trial. 54 61
7776857 1995
Induction of the human gene for p44, a hepatitis-C-associated microtubular aggregate protein, by interferon-alpha/beta. 54 61
7925411 1994
Polymerase-chain-reaction-based semi-quantification of hepatitis D viraemia in patients treated with high doses of alpha 2b interferon. 61 54
7839006 1994
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. 54 61
8259188 1994
The RNAs of hepatitis delta virus are copied by RNA polymerase II in nuclear homogenates. 54 61
8230419 1993
Chronic hepatitis in a large Indian hospital. 61 54
8241932 1993
Resistance of hepatitis delta virus replication to interferon-alpha treatment in transfected human cells. 54 61
1328404 1992
Forty-Five Years after the Discovery of the Hepatitis D Virus: Where Do We Stand? 61
33810224 2021
New insights into HDV persistence: The role of interferon response and implications for upcoming novel therapies. 61
33276031 2021
[Clinical course and outcomes of chronic viral hepatitis D in patients from Republic of Tuva as endemic region]. 61
33683068 2021
The dynamics of hepatitis delta virus prevalence and its potential association with hepatitis B virus vaccination. 61
33722780 2021
Molecular Phylogenetics of Hepatitis D Virus in New Zealand and the Implications for Pacific Island Countries. 61
33647912 2021
Predominance of HBV Genotype B and HDV Genotype 1 in Vietnamese Patients with Chronic Hepatitis. 61
33671832 2021
HBV/HDV Co-Infection: Epidemiological and Clinical Changes, Recent Knowledge and Future Challenges. 61
33671730 2021
The strategy and efficacy of prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation for HBV-related diseases in the era of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues: A meta-analysis. 61
33128339 2021
Preliminary Evidence for Hepatitis Delta Virus Exposure in Patients Who Are Apparently Not Infected With Hepatitis B Virus. 61
32628280 2021
N-Terminal PreS1 Sequence Regulates Efficient Infection of Cell-Culture-Generated Hepatitis B Virus. 61
32446278 2021
Persistent Control of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Following REP 2139-Ca and Pegylated Interferon Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus/Hepatitis Delta Virus Coinfection. 61
33553968 2021
Viral hepatitis and pregnancy. 61
33046891 2021
Lonafarnib: First Approval. 61
33590450 2021
The year's new drugs and biologics 2020. 61
33656016 2021
[Viral hepatitis A-E]. 61
33443614 2021
Murine hepatocytes do not support persistence of Hepatitis D virus mono-infection in vivo. 61
32997847 2021
A transient early HBV-DNA increase during PEG-IFNα therapy of hepatitis D indicates loss of infected cells and is associated with HDV-RNA and HBsAg reduction. 61
33185325 2021
Clinical effects of NTCP-inhibitor myrcludex B. 61
33599010 2021
Residual low HDV viraemia is associated HDV RNA relapse after PEG-IFNa-based antiviral treatment of hepatitis delta: Results from the HIDIT-II study. 61
33217778 2021

Variations for Hepatitis D

Expression for Hepatitis D

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hepatitis D.

Pathways for Hepatitis D

Pathways related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
4 10.8 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1
Show member pathways
10.36 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
Show member pathways
Show member pathways

GO Terms for Hepatitis D

Biological processes related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to virus GO:0009615 9.65 IFI44 EIF2AK2 ADAR
2 exogenous drug catabolic process GO:0042738 9.55 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
3 T cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002286 9.54 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.54 IFNA2 IFNA1 ADAR
5 organic acid metabolic process GO:0006082 9.52 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
6 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0033141 9.51 IFNA2 IFNA1
7 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002323 9.49 IFNA2 IFNA1
8 oxidative demethylation GO:0070989 9.46 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
9 response to interferon-alpha GO:0035455 9.43 EIF2AK2 ADAR
10 negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0044387 9.4 ADARB1 ADAR
11 adenosine to inosine editing GO:0006382 9.32 ADARB1 ADAR
12 drug catabolic process GO:0042737 9.26 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
13 monoterpenoid metabolic process GO:0016098 9.16 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
14 defense response to virus GO:0051607 9.1 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 EIF2AK2 ADARB1 ADAR
15 base conversion or substitution editing GO:0016553 8.96 ADARB1 ADAR

Molecular functions related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 double-stranded RNA binding GO:0003725 9.43 EIF2AK2 ADARB1 ADAR
2 type I interferon receptor binding GO:0005132 9.37 IFNA2 IFNA1
3 adenosine deaminase activity GO:0004000 9.32 ADARB1 ADAR
4 tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase activity GO:0008251 9.16 ADARB1 ADAR
5 bile acid:sodium symporter activity GO:0008508 8.96 SLC10A2 SLC10A1
6 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity GO:0003726 8.62 ADARB1 ADAR

Sources for Hepatitis D

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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