Hepatitis D (HDV)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Liver diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatitis D

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hepatitis D:

Name: Hepatitis D 12 74 52 43 15
Delta Hepatitis 12 52
Hepatitis Delta 58 54
Hepatitis D Infection 71
Hepatitis D Virus 58
Hdv 58


Orphanet: 58  
Rare hepatic diseases
Rare infectious diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2047
MeSH 43 D003699
SNOMED-CT 67 707341005
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 B17.0
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0011226
Orphanet 58 ORPHA402823
UMLS 71 C0011226

Summaries for Hepatitis D

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in inflammation located in liver, has material basis in Hepatitis delta virus, which is an incomplete virus that requires the helper function of Hepatitis B virus to replicate and only occurs among people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus. The infection has symptom fatigue, has symptom lethargy, has symptom anorexia, has symptom nausea, has symptom jaundice, has symptom clay-colored stools, has symptom dark urine, has symptom changes in personality, has symptom disturbances in sleep, has symptom confusion, has symptom abnormal behavior, has symptom somnolence, and has symptom coma.

MalaCards based summary : Hepatitis D, also known as delta hepatitis, is related to hepatitis and hepatitis b, and has symptoms including fatigue, jaundice and anorexia. An important gene associated with Hepatitis D is GPT (Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Interferon gamma signaling and all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis. The drugs Peginterferon alfa-2a and Peginterferon alfa-2b have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, testes and t cells, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 74 Hepatitis D is a disease caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped... more...

Related Diseases for Hepatitis D

Diseases in the Hepatitis family:

Hepatitis C Virus Hepatitis a
Hepatitis C Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis B Hepatitis D
Autoimmune Hepatitis Hepatitis E
Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 2 Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 1

Diseases related to Hepatitis D via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 207)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hepatitis 31.1 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 EIF2AK2
2 hepatitis b 31.0 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
3 hepatitis a 30.5 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
4 viral hepatitis 30.3 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 CD40LG
5 syphilis 30.2 GPT F2 CD40LG
6 infantile liver failure syndrome 1 30.2 GPT F2
7 hepatitis e 30.1 GPT F2 CD40LG
8 immune deficiency disease 30.0 IFNA1 GPT EIF2AK2 CD40LG
9 portal hypertension 30.0 IFNL3 GPT F2 CD40LG
10 hepatic coma 30.0 GPT F2
11 hepatitis c 30.0 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT EIF2AK2
12 schistosomiasis 29.9 GPT F2 CD40LG
13 liver disease 29.8 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
14 esophageal varix 29.8 IFNL3 GPT F2
15 drug-induced hepatitis 29.7 IFNL3 GPT F2 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
16 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 29.6 IFNA2 IFNA1 CD40LG
17 viral infectious disease 29.6 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT EIF2AK2 CD40LG
18 neutropenia 29.6 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT CD40LG
19 primary biliary cirrhosis 29.6 IFNA1 GPT F2 CD40LG
20 bilirubin metabolic disorder 29.6 SLC35A2 GPT F2 CD40LG
21 hypothyroidism 29.4 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2
22 autoimmune hepatitis 29.3 IFNA1 GPT F2 CYP2D6 CD40LG
23 stomatitis 29.3 IFNA2 IFNA1 EIF2AK2 CD40LG ADAR
24 portal vein thrombosis 29.3 IFNA2 IFNA1 F2 CYP2C9 CD40LG
25 thalassemia 29.1 HBE1 GPT F2
26 thrombocytopenia 29.0 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT F2 CD40LG ADAR
27 diarrhea 28.9 SLC10A2 IFNA2 IFNA1 GPT CYP2D6 CD40LG
28 porphyria, acute hepatic 11.3
29 corneal intraepithelial neoplasm 10.5 IFNA2 IFNA1
30 lymphomatoid granulomatosis 10.5 IFNA2 IFNA1
31 heterophyiasis 10.5 GPT CD40LG
32 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.5 GPT F2
33 emphysematous cholecystitis 10.5 GPT F2
34 secondary corneal edema 10.5 IFNA2 IFNA1
35 pyridoxine deficiency anemia 10.5 GPT F2
36 fournier gangrene 10.5 F2 CD40LG
37 retroperitoneal lymphoma 10.5 F2 CD40LG
38 hepatic tuberculosis 10.5 GPT F2
39 giant hemangioma 10.5 IFNA2 F2
40 ascending cholangitis 10.5 GPT F2
41 hepatic infarction 10.4 GPT F2
42 ankylosing spondylitis 1 10.4 GPT F2
43 granulomatous hepatitis 10.4 GPT CD40LG
44 conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma 10.4 IFNA2 IFNA1
45 marburg hemorrhagic fever 10.4 IFNA1 CD40LG
46 viral laryngitis 10.4 GPT CD40LG
47 adult dermatomyositis 10.4 IFNA1 GPT
48 discoid lupus erythematosus 10.4 IFNA2 IFNA1
49 bladder tuberculosis 10.4 SLC35A2 IFNA2
50 acute cholangitis 10.4 GPT F2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatitis D:

Diseases related to Hepatitis D

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hepatitis D


12 (show all 13)
  • fatigue
  • jaundice
  • anorexia
  • lethargy
  • confusion
  • coma
  • dark urine
  • nausea
  • clay-colored stools
  • changes in personality
  • disturbances in sleep
  • abnormal behavior
  • somnolence

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 17)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-105 9.6 IFNA2
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-123 9.6 EIF2AK2
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-127 9.6 IFNA2
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-139 9.6 EIF2AK2
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-167 9.6 IFNA2
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-168 9.6 IFNA2
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-184 9.6 ADAR EIF2AK2 IFNA2
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-185 9.6 ADAR
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-213 9.6 ADAR
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-25 9.6 IFNA2
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-29 9.6 IFNA2
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-4 9.6 CYP2D6
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-60 9.6 EIF2AK2
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-62 9.6 IFNA2
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-67 9.6 EIF2AK2
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-8 9.6 ADAR
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-85 9.6 EIF2AK2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatitis D

Drugs for Hepatitis D (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 45)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Peginterferon alfa-2a Approved, Investigational Phase 3 198153-51-4 5360545
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 3 99210-65-8, 215647-85-1
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 3 155213-67-5 392622
Lonafarnib Investigational Phase 3 193275-84-2 148195
5 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
6 Immunologic Factors Phase 3
7 interferons Phase 3
8 Interferon-alpha Phase 3
9 Antiviral Agents Phase 3
10 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 3
protease inhibitors Phase 3
12 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 3
13 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 3
Ezetimibe Approved Phase 2 163222-33-1 150311
Ribavirin Approved Phase 2 36791-04-5 37542
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 134678-17-4 60825
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51-45-6 774
Entecavir Approved, Investigational Phase 2 142217-69-4 153941
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 60-87-7 4927
Hydroxyzine Approved Phase 2 68-88-2 3658
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Coal tar Approved Phase 2 8007-45-2
Cetirizine Approved Phase 2 83881-51-0 2678
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 2 132-22-9, 113-92-8 2725
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 147127-20-6 464205
26 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
27 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
28 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
29 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 2
30 Antimetabolites Phase 2
31 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 2
32 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 2
33 Interferon alpha-2 Phase 2
34 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 2
35 Histamine Antagonists Phase 2
36 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 2
Histamine Phosphate Phase 2 51-74-1 65513
38 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
Tipranavir Approved, Investigational Phase 1 174484-41-4 65027
40 Liver Extracts Phase 1
41 Iron-Dextran Complex Phase 1
42 Immunoglobulins
43 Antibodies
44 REP 2139
45 Anesthetics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 42)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Plus Ribavirin in the Treatment of Patients With Dual Chronic Hepatitis B and Delta Unknown status NCT00117533 Phase 4 pegylated IFN alfa-2b plus ribavirin
2 A Multicenter Randomised Study Comparing the Antiviral Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon-alfa-2a Plus Placebo vs. Pegylated Interferon-alfa-2a Plus Tenofovir for the Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis Completed NCT01088659 Phase 3 peginterferon alfa-2a [Pegasys];placebo;tenofovir
3 Open-label, Multicenter, Trial Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Peginterferon Alfa-2a (PEGASYS®) in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D (CHD) Completed NCT02732639 Phase 3 Pegylated Interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a
4 An Open Label, Uncontrolled, Study to Assess the Response of Peg-Intron in naïve Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and D Co-infection Completed NCT00686790 Phase 3
5 A Phase 3, Matrix Design, Partially Double-Blind, Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of 50 mg Lonafarnib/100 mg Ritonavir BID With and Without 180 mcg PEG IFN-alfa-2a for 48 Weeks Compared With PEG IFN-alfa-2a Monotherapy and Placebo Treatment in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus Being Maintained on Anti-HBV Nucleos(t)Ide Therapy (D-LIVR) Recruiting NCT03719313 Phase 3 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir;PEG IFN-alfa-2a;Placebo Lonafarnib;Placebo Ritonavir
6 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Phase 3 Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Active, not recruiting NCT03852719 Phase 3 Bulevirtide
7 Ezetimibe for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Unknown status NCT03099278 Phase 2 Ezetimibe
8 Pegylated Interferon Alone or in Combination With Ezetimibe for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Unknown status NCT03105310 Phase 2 Pegylated interferon alfa;Ezetimibe
9 An Open-label, Dose-ranging, Proof-of-Concept Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lonafarnib With and Without Ritonavir Boosting in Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) (LOWR-1) Completed NCT02430181 Phase 2 lonafarnib;PEG IFN-a;Ritonavir
10 An Open-label, Dose-ranging, Proof-of-Concept Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Lonafarnib With Ritonavir-Boosting in Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) (LOWR-2) Completed NCT02430194 Phase 2 lonafarnib;Ritonavir;PEG IFN-a
11 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib Completed NCT01495585 Phase 2 Lonafarnib
12 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib and Ritonavir Completed NCT02511431 Phase 2 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
13 Randomized Open-label Substudy of Daily Myrcludex B Plus Pegylated Interferon-alpha-2a in Patients With HBeAg Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Co-infected With Hepatitis Delta Completed NCT02637999 Phase 1, Phase 2 PEG IFN alfa-2a;Myrcludex B
14 A Phase 2, Open-Label Study of the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamic Activity of a Titrating-Dose Lonafarnib in Combination With Ritonavir in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus Completed NCT02527707 Phase 2 lonafarnib;Ritonavir
15 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Pegylated Interferon Completed NCT00023322 Phase 2 Peginterferon Alpha-2a
16 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of 3 Doses of Myrcludex B for 24 Weeks in Combination With Tenofovir Compared to Tenofovir Alone to Suppress HBV Replication in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Completed NCT03546621 Phase 2 Myrcludex B;Myrcludex-B;Myrcludex-B;Tenofovir
17 A Multicenter Randomised Study Comparing the Efficacy of PegIFN-alfa2a Plus Placebo vs. PegIFN-alfa2a Plus Tenofovir for the Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis-The Hep-Net International Delta Hepatitis Interventional Trial II (HIDIT-II) Completed NCT00932971 Phase 2 PEG-IFN alfa-2a, Tenofovir;PEG-IFN alfa-2a, placebo
18 A Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of Pegylated Interferon Lambda Monotherapy in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection (LIMT) Completed NCT02765802 Phase 2 Peginterferon Lambda-1A
19 Lamivudine for Chronic Hepatitis B Completed NCT00001457 Phase 2 Lamivudine
20 A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Treatment With REP 2139-Ca and Pegasys™ in Patients With Hepatitis B / Hepatitis D Co-infection Completed NCT02233075 Phase 2 REP 2139-Ca + Pegasys (TM)
21 A Randomized, Pilot, Open-Label, Monocenter, Efficacy and Safety Study Examining the Effects of Peginterferon Alfa-2a (Pegasys) With or Without Ribavirin (Copegus) in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D Completed NCT02731131 Phase 2 Peginterferon alfa-2a;Ribavirin
22 Treatment of Chronic Delta Hepatitis With Lonafarnib, Ritonavir and Lambda Interferon Active, not recruiting NCT03600714 Phase 2 Peg-interferon lambda;Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
23 A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Phase 2b Clinical Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Combination With Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis Delta Active, not recruiting NCT03852433 Phase 2 Bulevirtide;Peginterferon Alfa-2a
24 A Phase 2b, Open-Label, Randomized Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamic Activity of Lonafarnib With or Without Ritonavir in Patients Chronically Infected With Hepatitis Delta Virus (LOWR-5) Not yet recruiting NCT02968641 Phase 2 Lonafarnib;Ritonavir
25 A Multicenter, Open-Label Study to Evaluate ARC-520 Administered Alone and in Combination With Other Therapeutics in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection (MONARCH) Terminated NCT02577029 Phase 2 ARC-520;entecavir;tenofovir disoproxil;antihistamine
26 Phase 1 Study of Intrahepatic Reinfusion of Highly Purified CD133+ Stem Cells in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease Unknown status NCT01025622 Phase 1
27 Open Label, Study to Determine the Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Steady State Tipranavir/Ritonavir (500/200 mg) and Steady State Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon Alfa 2a in HIV Negative, HCV Infected Subjects With Mild Hepatic Impairment and the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Tipranavir/Ritonavir in HIV Negative, HCV, HBV, Hepatitis Delta Infected Subjects or Alcoholic Cirrhosis Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Completed NCT02259855 Phase 1 Tipranavir;Ritonavir;Pegylated interferon;Ribavirin
28 An Open Label, Dose-ranging Proof-of-concept Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of EBP921 in Therapy-naive Patients Chronically Infected With Delta Hepatitis (HDV) Terminated NCT01316185 Phase 1 EBP921
29 Serial HBV DNA Levels During Pregnancy in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B: a Prospective Observational Follow-up Study Unknown status NCT01610115
30 Hepatitis D Virus Infection Among Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Positive Individuals in Upper Egypt: Prevalence and Clinical Features Completed NCT04038372
31 Delta Hepatitis and Liver Disease in Hemophiliacs Completed NCT00005304
32 Prevalence and Consequences of Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection in Hemophiliacs Completed NCT00005305
33 Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Mother-To-Child Transmission (MTCT) From Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Co-infected Pregnant Women: a Retrospective Study. Completed NCT02044055
34 Hepatitis Delta Registry and Research Network- Observational Study Recruiting NCT02375906
35 Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Zambia: a Prospective Clinical Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03158818
36 Evaluation of Patients With Liver Disease Recruiting NCT00001971
37 A Long Term Follow-up Study of Patients From the REP 301 Protocol Active, not recruiting NCT02876419
38 HBV DNA Replication in Hepatocytes in HBV and HDV Co-infection Enrolling by invitation NCT04170452
39 Observatory of Efficacy and Safety of Bulevirtide in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)/Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Co-infection With Severe Fibrosis Injuries, or Moderate Fibrosis Injuries Associated With Persistent Increase of ALT Not yet recruiting NCT04166266
40 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C and Delta in Reunion Island Not yet recruiting NCT03362866
41 National, Multicenter, Observational Study Evaluating Prevalence, Virological and Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis Delta in Romania and Assess Efficacy of Peg-interferon Alfa-2a Treatment in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis D (CHD) Terminated NCT01861444
42 A Nationwide Epidemiological, Non-Interventional Study Evaluating an Educational Support Program for Improving Treatment Adherence in Patients With Hepatitis B Viral Infection Withdrawn NCT01991262

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hepatitis D

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Interferon Alfa-2a
Interferon Alfa-2b
interferon alfacon-1
Interferon gamma-1b
peginterferon alfa-2a
peginterferon alfa-2b
Recombinant interferon beta-1a
Recombinant interferon beta-1b

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hepatitis d

Genetic Tests for Hepatitis D

Anatomical Context for Hepatitis D

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Hepatitis D:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hepatitis D:

Liver, Testes, T Cells, Kidney, Lymph Node, Spleen, Brain

Publications for Hepatitis D

Articles related to Hepatitis D:

(show top 50) (show all 2716)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Resolution of chronic hepatitis Delta after 1 year of combined therapy with pegylated interferon, tenofovir and emtricitabine. 61 54
19914127 2010
Clinical outcomes in adults with chronic hepatitis B in association with patient and viral characteristics: A systematic review of evidence. 61 54
19399797 2009
Capped small RNAs and MOV10 in human hepatitis delta virus replication. 54 61
18552826 2008
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D. 61 54
17958644 2007
The human RNA polymerase II interacts with the terminal stem-loop regions of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome. 54 61
16959288 2007
Treatment of chronic hepatitis delta with pegylated interferon-alpha2b. 61 54
16911462 2006
A tryptophan-rich motif in the carboxyl terminus of the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus is central to the assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles. 61 54
16641257 2006
Efficacy of interferon alpha-2b and lamivudine combination treatment in comparison to interferon alpha-2b alone in chronic delta hepatitis: a randomized trial. 54 61
16677149 2006
Lamivudine therapy in chronic delta hepatitis: a multicentre randomized-controlled pilot study. 61 54
16091060 2005
Long-term benefit of interferon alpha therapy of chronic hepatitis D: regression of advanced hepatic fibrosis. 54 61
15188169 2004
Combinatorial control of human RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) pausing and transcript cleavage by transcription factor IIF, hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II. 61 54
14506279 2003
Human transcription elongation factor NELF: identification of novel subunits and reconstitution of the functionally active complex. 61 54
12612062 2003
The double-stranded RNA-activated kinase, PKR, can phosphorylate hepatitis D virus small delta antigen at functional serine and threonine residues. 54 61
12060652 2002
Increased RNA editing and inhibition of hepatitis delta virus replication by high-level expression of ADAR1 and ADAR2. 61 54
11907222 2002
Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen. 61 54
11387440 2001
Large isoform of hepatitis delta antigen activates serum response factor-associated transcription. 54 61
10961986 2000
[Interferon therapy of chronic viral hepatitis in Hungary: 5-year experience. A multicenter study]. 61 54
10377733 1999
Alpha-interferon treatment in HBeAg positive children with chronic hepatitis B and associated hepatitis D. 54 61
9782481 1998
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alpha-2b in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 54 61
9696491 1998
Serum immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis D as a surrogate marker of hepatitis D in interferon-treated patients and in patients who underwent liver transplantation. 61 54
9500721 1998
The nucleolin binding activity of hepatitis delta antigen is associated with nucleolus targeting. 61 54
9516470 1998
Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases. 54 61
9111310 1997
Long-term interferon-alpha treatment of children with chronic hepatitis delta: a multicentre study. 61 54
8871870 1996
RNA editing of hepatitis delta virus antigenome by dsRNA-adenosine deaminase. 61 54
8602246 1996
The French experience of treatment of chronic type D hepatitis with a 12-month course of interferon alpha-2B. Results of a randomized controlled trial. 54 61
7776857 1995
Polymerase-chain-reaction-based semi-quantification of hepatitis D viraemia in patients treated with high doses of alpha 2b interferon. 61 54
7839006 1994
Induction of the human gene for p44, a hepatitis-C-associated microtubular aggregate protein, by interferon-alpha/beta. 54 61
7925411 1994
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. 54 61
8259188 1994
The RNAs of hepatitis delta virus are copied by RNA polymerase II in nuclear homogenates. 54 61
8230419 1993
Chronic hepatitis in a large Indian hospital. 54 61
8241932 1993
Resistance of hepatitis delta virus replication to interferon-alpha treatment in transfected human cells. 61 54
1328404 1992
Current knowledge on Hepatitis Delta Virus replication. 61
32360949 2020
Treatment of hepatitis D: an unmet medical need. 61
32120043 2020
Hepatitis D virus: is it all in the family? 61
32060127 2020
The epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus infection in Cameroon. 61
31907297 2020
Innate immune recognition and modulation in hepatitis D virus infection. 61
32550754 2020
Hepatitis B Virus Entry into Cells. 61
32570893 2020
Hepatitis Delta recurrence post-liver transplantation in absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA in peripheral blood. 61
31892507 2020
TNF-alpha inhibition ameliorates HDV-induced liver damage in a mouse model of acute severe infection. 61
32382723 2020
Hepatitis delta genotype 5 is associated with favourable disease outcome and better response to treatment compared to genotype 1. 61
31981726 2020
Hepatitis Delta: Prevalence, Natural History, and Treatment Options. 61
32389361 2020
Infection by Hepatitis Delta Virus. 61
32560053 2020
Performance of commercially available anti-HDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in Taiwan. 61
32546164 2020
Prevalence of antibodies against Hepatitis D virus (HDV) in blood donors in Northern Germany. 61
31964608 2020
HDVdb: A Comprehensive Hepatitis D Virus Database. 61
32422927 2020
Noninvasive Models for Predicting Liver Fibrosis in Individuals with Hepatitis D Virus/Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection in the Brazilian Amazon Region. 61
32431268 2020
Seroconversion of HBsAG coincides with hepatitis A super-infection: A case report. 61
32432143 2020
N-terminal PreS1 Sequence Regulates Efficient Infection of Cell Culture-generated Hepatitis B Virus. 61
32446278 2020
The effect of Hepatitis D co-infection on the immunologic and molecular profile of Hepatitis B in asymptomatic Chronic Hepatitis B patients in southwest Nigeria. 61
32096684 2020
Modelling hepatitis D virus RNA and HBsAg dynamics during nucleic acid polymer monotherapy suggest rapid turnover of HBsAg. 61
32398799 2020

Variations for Hepatitis D

Expression for Hepatitis D

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hepatitis D.

Pathways for Hepatitis D

GO Terms for Hepatitis D

Biological processes related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to virus GO:0009615 9.69 IFI44 EIF2AK2 ADAR
2 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.63 IFNA2 IFNA1 CD40LG
3 blood coagulation GO:0007596 9.62 IFNA2 IFNA1 HBE1 F2
4 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.58 IFNA2 IFNA1 ADAR
5 organic acid metabolic process GO:0006082 9.56 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
6 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0033141 9.55 IFNA2 IFNA1
7 estrogen metabolic process GO:0008210 9.54 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
8 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002323 9.52 IFNA2 IFNA1
9 oxidative demethylation GO:0070989 9.49 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
10 response to interferon-alpha GO:0035455 9.48 EIF2AK2 ADAR
11 negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0044387 9.43 ADARB1 ADAR
12 adenosine to inosine editing GO:0006382 9.37 ADARB1 ADAR
13 drug catabolic process GO:0042737 9.26 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
14 monoterpenoid metabolic process GO:0016098 9.16 CYP2D6 CYP2C9
15 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.13 IFNA2 IFNA1 CD40LG
16 defense response to virus GO:0051607 9.1 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 EIF2AK2 ADARB1 ADAR

Molecular functions related to Hepatitis D according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.56 IFNL3 IFNA2 IFNA1 CD40LG
2 type I interferon receptor binding GO:0005132 9.37 IFNA2 IFNA1
3 double-stranded RNA binding GO:0003725 9.33 EIF2AK2 ADARB1 ADAR
4 adenosine deaminase activity GO:0004000 9.32 ADARB1 ADAR
5 tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase activity GO:0008251 8.96 ADARB1 ADAR
6 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity GO:0003726 8.62 ADARB1 ADAR

Sources for Hepatitis D

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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