Aliases & Classifications for Hernia, Hiatus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hernia, Hiatus:

Name: Hernia, Hiatus 57
Hiatal Hernia 57 12 29 6 42 15
Hiatus Hernia 12 15
Diaphragmatic - Hiatus -Hernia 12
Hernia, Hiatal 44



57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
autosomal dominant


hernia, hiatus:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12642
OMIM® 57 142400
MeSH 44 D006551
NCIt 50 C98945
ICD10 32 K44
MedGen 41 C3489393
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 263681008
UMLS 70 C0267725 C0376710 C3489393

Summaries for Hernia, Hiatus

MedlinePlus : 42 A hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of your stomach bulges through an opening in your diaphragm. Your diaphragm is the thin muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen. Your diaphragm helps keep acid from coming up into your esophagus. When you have a hiatal hernia, it's easier for the acid to come up. This leaking of acid from your stomach into your esophagus is called GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). GERD may cause symptoms such as Heartburn Problems swallowing A dry cough Bad breath Nausea and/or vomiting Breathing problems The wearing away of your teeth Often, the cause of a hiatal hernia is unknown. It may have to do with weakness in the surrounding muscles. Sometimes the cause is an injury or a birth defect. Your risk of getting a hiatal hernia goes up as you age; they are common in people over age 50. You are also at higher risk if you have obesity or smoke. People usually find out that they have a hiatal hernia when they are getting tests for GERD, heartburn, chest pain, or abdominal pain. The tests may be a chest x-ray, an x-ray with a barium swallow, or an upper endoscopy. You don't need treatment if your hiatal hernia does not cause any symptoms or problems. If you do have symptoms, some lifestyle changes may help. They include eating small meals, avoiding certain foods, not smoking or drinking alcohol, and losing weight. Your health care provider may recommend antacids or other medicines. If these don't help, you may need surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

MalaCards based summary : Hernia, Hiatus, also known as hiatal hernia, is related to displacement of cardia through esophageal hiatus and barrett esophagus. An important gene associated with Hernia, Hiatus is ATP12A (ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Secretion of Hydrochloric Acid in Parietal Cells. The drugs Lidocaine and Pharmaceutical Solutions have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, liver and heart, and related phenotypes are hiatus hernia and abnormal thorax morphology

Wikipedia : 73 A hiatal hernia is a type of hernia in which abdominal organs (typically the stomach) slip through the... more...

More information from OMIM: 142400

Related Diseases for Hernia, Hiatus

Diseases related to Hernia, Hiatus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 408)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 displacement of cardia through esophageal hiatus 32.5 GAST ATP4A ATP12A
2 barrett esophagus 32.1 GAST ATP4A ATP12A
3 esophagitis 31.7 HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
4 gastrointestinal ulceration, recurrent, with dysfunctional platelets 31.4 HRH2 GAST
5 gastric ulcer 31.1 HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
6 volvulus of midgut 30.9 MLN FOXF1 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
7 microinvasive gastric cancer 30.8 GAST ATP4A ATP12A
8 aspiration pneumonia 30.7 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
9 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 30.6 FOXF1 ATP4A ATP12A
10 duodenal ulcer 30.4 MLN HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
11 mediastinitis 30.4 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
12 ileus 30.4 MLN GHRL CRP
13 biliary dyskinesia 30.4 ATP4A ATP12A
14 peptic esophagitis 30.3 MLN LCT LAT2 HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
15 dumping syndrome 30.3 MLN GHRL GAST
16 gastroesophageal reflux 30.3 MLN HRH2 GHRL GAST CYP2C19 ATP4A
17 gastric dilatation 30.2 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
18 duodenal obstruction 30.2 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
19 laryngitis 30.2 HRH2 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
20 gastritis 30.2 HRH2 GHRL GAST CYP2C19 ATP4A
21 esophageal varix 30.2 ATP4A ATP12A
22 peptic ulcer disease 30.1 HRH2 GHRL GAST CYP2C19 ATP4A ATP12A
23 pyloric stenosis 30.0 MLN GAST FOXF1 BARX1
24 systemic scleroderma 30.0 MLN HRH2 GAST CRP
25 hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 30.0 MLN GAST BARX1
26 superior mesenteric artery syndrome 30.0 HRH2 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
27 intestinal obstruction 29.9 MLN GHRL CRP ATP4A ATP12A
28 duodenogastric reflux 29.9 MLN GAST ATP4A ATP12A
29 active peptic ulcer disease 29.9 HRH2 CYP2C19 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
30 gastroenteritis 29.8 MLN HRH2 CRP
31 gastroparesis 29.8 MLN HRH2 GHRL GAST
32 paralytic ileus 29.8 MLN CRP ATP4A ATP12A
33 postgastrectomy syndrome 29.7 MLN GHRL GAST ATP12A
34 sleep apnea 29.6 GHRL CRP ADIPOQ
35 zollinger-ellison syndrome 29.6 MLN HRH2 GAST ATP4A ATP12A
36 bile reflux 29.6 MLN GAST CDX1 ATP4A ATP12A
37 constipation 29.2 MLN GHRL GAST CRP ATP4A ATP12A
38 galloway-mowat syndrome 11.6
39 gastrocutaneous syndrome 11.6
40 galloway-mowat syndrome 1 11.4
41 gas bloat syndrome 11.2
42 sandifer syndrome 11.2
43 ehlers-danlos syndrome, classic-like 11.1
44 dysphagia 10.9
45 deficiency anemia 10.6
46 achalasia 10.5
47 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 10.5
48 iron metabolism disease 10.5
49 esophageal cancer 10.4
50 pneumothorax 10.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hernia, Hiatus:

Diseases related to Hernia, Hiatus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hernia, Hiatus

Human phenotypes related to Hernia, Hiatus:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hiatus hernia 31 HP:0002036
2 abnormal thorax morphology 31 HP:0000765

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
hiatus hernia
congenital short esophagus
partial thoracic stomach

Clinical features from OMIM®:

142400 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hernia, Hiatus:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.56 ATP12A ATP4A BARX1 CDX1 FOXF1 GAST
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.23 ADIPOQ ATP4A CDX1 FOXF1 GAST GDF7

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hernia, Hiatus

Drugs for Hernia, Hiatus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 13)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
2 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
3 Anesthetics Phase 4
4 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
5 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
6 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
7 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational 53608-75-6
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational 61-73-4
11 Immunologic Factors
12 pancreatin
13 Fibrin Tissue Adhesive

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 55)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Biologic Versus Synthetic Mesh for Treatment of Paraesophageal Hernia Unknown status NCT02242526 Phase 4
2 Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication Combined With Posterior Gastropexy in Surgical Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Completed NCT00872755 Phase 4
3 Improving Pain Control in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair: Intravenous Lidocaine Versus Placebo Recruiting NCT04096170 Phase 4 IV lidocaine;Placebo
4 Prospective Randomized Phase III Study of Laparoscopic Repair of Giant Hiatal Hernias With Nitinol-framed Lightweight Polytetrafluoroethylene Mesh Unknown status NCT01780285 Phase 3
5 Prospective Randomized Phase III Study of Laparoscopic Lightweight Mesh Repair of Large Hiatal Hernias Unknown status NCT01408108 Phase 3
6 Randomized Control Trial (RCT) That the Usage With Biological Patch Versus Plastic in the Laparoscopic Repair Unknown status NCT02328248 Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Immunologic Factors Correlating With Cyclooxygenase and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus Unknown status NCT00155805
8 Randomized Prospective Controlled Trial of Paraesophageal Hernia Repair With Small Intestine Submucosa (SIS) Unknown status NCT00786084
9 Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) Plus Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Adenoidectomy/Tonsillectomy on Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea & Hyponea Syndromes in Moderate-to-severe Obese Patients: an Open-label Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03227939
10 The Biologic Basis of Hernia Formation Completed NCT01099033
11 True Short Esophagus in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or Hiatus Hernia Completed NCT03848494
12 Effects of Position and a Test Meal on Esophago-gastric Junction Morphology and Function Assessed by High-resolution Impedance Manometry (HRM) Completed NCT02397616
13 Frequency of True Short Esophagus in Type II-IV Hiatus Hernia Completed NCT01587859
14 Single Anastomosis Sleeve Iejenal Bypass With Crural Repair in Obese Patient With Hiatus Hernia Completed NCT04823767
15 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication (TIF) Using EsophyX With Sham Procedure for the Treatment of PPI Dependent GERD Compared With Sham and Placebo Controls Completed NCT01136980
16 Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair Followed Immediately By Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication Using the Esophyx Device: Efficacy And Safety In 99 Patients In A Community Setting Completed NCT03143608
17 Complications and 1-Year Outcomes Following Hiatal Hernia Repair With MIROMESH a Novel, Highly Vascular, Porcine Derived, Biologic Matrix Completed NCT03735862
18 Veritas Laparoscopic PEH Repair Pilot Trial Completed NCT01195545
19 Approach to Hiatal Hernia Repair Based on Collagen Study Completed NCT04152798
20 A Prospective Post-Market Clinical Evaluation of Miromatrix Biological Mesh for Hiatal Hernia Repair Completed NCT02436681
21 Thirty-year Follow-up of a Case Series of Patients Operated Upon for Type II-IV Hiatal Hernia Completed NCT01606449
22 Long-term Outcome of Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair With or Without Alloderm Mesh at a University Hospital Completed NCT01776827
23 Blind Gastric Tube Placement: Incidence of Malposition Confirmed by Ultrasonography Completed NCT03430908
24 Antireflux Ablation Therapy (ARAT) With Hybrid-APC (Argon Plasma Coagulation) for GERD Treatment in Patients Without Hiatal Hernia Completed NCT03548298
25 Prospective Outcome Evaluation of Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication (TIF) for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): The TIF Registry Study Completed NCT01118585
26 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication (TIF) Using EsophyX With Sham Procedure for the Treatment of PPI Dependent GERD: the TIF vs. Sham Study Completed NCT01110811
27 Randomized, Prospective Controlled Trial of Paraesophageal Hernia Repair With Small Intestinal Submucosa (SIS) Completed NCT00272922
28 Prospective Trial Comparing Utility of Esophageal Crural Dissection During Laparoscopic Fundoplication in Children Completed NCT00287612
29 Frequency, Predictors, Intraoperative Assessment and Outcome of Foreshortened Esophagus and Its Surgical Therapy in Patients Treated for Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00507377
30 Comparison of Symptomatic and Radiographic Outcomes of Paraesophageal Hernia Repair With and Without MatriStem Surgical Matrix Completed NCT03058731
31 Use of Strattice in the Laparoscopic Suture Closure of a Paraesophageal Hernia Completed NCT01678157
32 Esophageal Cancer Risk Registry Recruiting NCT00260585
33 Hiatal Hernia Repair Using Surgimend Mesh: A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT04282720
35 Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy With or Without Hiatal Hernia Repair in Morbidly Obese Patients: a Single-center Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03776669
36 Antireflux Efficacy of Hiatal Hernia Repairs Concomitant to Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Patients (BMI 35-50) Recruiting NCT04433507
37 Registry of Outcomes From AntiReflux Surgery (ROARS) Recruiting NCT02923362
38 Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility During Hiatal Hernia Repair Recruiting NCT04450628
39 Hepatic Energy Fluxes, NASH, and Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy Recruiting NCT03997422
40 Ablation Of The Esophagogastric Junction With Hybrid Argon Plasma Vs Mucosectomy With Band in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Without Hiatal Hernia Recruiting NCT04036942
41 Compare the Effects of Volume-oriented Versus Flow-oriented Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function and Functional Capacity in Patients of Upper Abdominal Laparoscopic Surgery Recruiting NCT04716166
42 Partial Versus Total Fundoplication in the Surgical Repair of Para-esophageal Hernia. Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT04436159
43 Functional Assessment Following Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Gastro-Esophageal Junction Recruiting NCT01799967
44 Two-Armed Double-Blinded Registry-Based Randomized Control Trial Comparing Anterior Gastropexy to No Anterior Gastropexy for Paraesophageal Hernia Repair Recruiting NCT04007952
45 The Value of Lateral Release in Reconstruction of the Diaphragmatic Hiatus in Patients With Type II-IV Paraesophageal Hernia. A Double Blind Randomized Study Recruiting NCT04179578
46 Hiatal Hernia Repair by Tension-free Mesh Closure or Simple Suturing of the Diaphragmatic Hiatus. A Randomized, Double Blind Study With a 3-year Follow up. Active, not recruiting NCT03730233
47 Mayo Clinic Foregut Surgery Report Card Questionnaire Active, not recruiting NCT02708303
48 Clinical vs. Radiological Recurrence Rate After Laparoscopic Repair of Large Hiatal Hernia With Mesh and Anterior Fundoplication Enrolling by invitation NCT03025932
49 Sleeve Gastrectomy: Outcome, Morbidity and Mortality. A Multicentric Retrospective Trial. PSICHE TRIAL (Postoperative Sleevegastrectomy Italian or (International) Group Complications Highlights Experience) Enrolling by invitation NCT04643262
50 A Prospective Randomised Multi - Center Trial on the Repair of Large Hiatal Hernias With Sutures Versus Pledgeted Sutures Versus Absorbable Mesh Not yet recruiting NCT04591860

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hernia, Hiatus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hernia, hiatal

Genetic Tests for Hernia, Hiatus

Genetic tests related to Hernia, Hiatus:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Hiatal Hernia 29

Anatomical Context for Hernia, Hiatus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hernia, Hiatus:

Lung, Liver, Heart, Pancreas, Colon, Small Intestine, Thyroid

Publications for Hernia, Hiatus

Articles related to Hernia, Hiatus:

(show top 50) (show all 4213)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Familial hiatal hernia in a large five generation family confirming true autosomal dominant inheritance. 61 57
10517898 1999
Laparoscopic fixation of biological mesh at hiatus with glue and suture during hiatal hernia repair. 61 42
33752652 2021
Oesophageal hiatus hernia in three generations of one family. 57
5435270 1970
A possible genetic role in esophageal hiatus hernia. 57
5800995 1969
Sliding hiatus hernias in identical twins. 57
5920132 1966
33470373 2021
Incarcerated Paraesophageal Hernia. 42
33593476 2020
Long-term outcomes in mesh versus no mesh laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernia. 61
33131787 2021
Hiatal Surface Area's CT scan measurement is useful in hiatal hernia's treatment of bariatric patients. 61
31671007 2021
Augmentation of Hiatal Repair with the Ligamentum Teres Hepatis for Intrathoracic Gastric Migration After Bariatric Surgery. 61
33409977 2021
Patterns of esophageal dysmotility elicited by multiple rapid swallows. 61
33011871 2021
Hiatal hernia prevalence and natural history on non-contrast CT in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). 61
33731384 2021
[Effect of laparoscopic novel W-H fundoplication in patients with proton pump inhibitor dependent gastroesophageal reflux disease]. 61
33721954 2021
Clinical and videofluoroscopic outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for sliding hiatal hernia and associated gastroesophageal reflux in brachycephalic dogs. 61
33687078 2021
Comparison of Patients with and Without Hiatal Hernia Repair during Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Single-centre Experience. 61
33775014 2021
Estimate of Refractory Reflux Disease in the United States: Economic Burden and Associated Clinical Characteristics. 61
33780218 2021
Robotic LINX Placement: Is It Worth It? 61
33784476 2021
Chicago Classification update (v4.0): Technical review of high-resolution manometry metrics for EGJ barrier function. 61
33655610 2021
Collaboration between GI surgery & Gastroenterology improves understanding of the optimal antireflux valve-the omega flap valve. 61
33709228 2021
The Surgical Management of Acute Gastric Volvulus: Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life Assessment. 61
33121383 2021
Laparoscopic revisional surgery for failed anti-reflux procedures. 61
33709959 2021
Hiatal Hernia Evaluation Before Bariatric Surgery: Should It Be Routinely Done? 61
33130945 2021
Hiatal Hernia with Acute Obstructive Symptoms After Minimally Invasive Oesophagectomy. 61
32710135 2021
Novel Interdisciplinary Approach to GERD: Concomitant Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair with Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication. 61
33346082 2021
Hiatal hernia causing distal transverse colon strangulation and necrosis post-oesophagectomy. 61
33734536 2021
Lumbar hernia diagnosed after laparoscopic hiatal hernia surgery. 61
33768863 2021
When and How Should Hiatal Hernia Be Repaired at the Time of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy? 61
33769907 2021
Improving pre-bariatric surgery diagnosis of hiatal hernia using machine learning models. 61
33779469 2021
Hiatal hernia as a rare cause of cardiac complications - case based review of the literature. 61
33775064 2021
Unusual cause of severe iron deficiency anaemia in a child: paraoesophageal hernia. 61
33664026 2021
Does composite repair of giant paraoesophageal hernia improve patient outcomes? 61
33164290 2021
Systmatic review with meta-analysis: Risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus in individuals with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. 61
33705573 2021
Impact of fellow compared to resident assistance on outcomes of minimally invasive surgery. 61
33763745 2021
The "bowtie" reconstruction flap: A unique solution to cervical esophageal discontinuity repair. 61
33429181 2021
Can lower preoperative 48-hour pH score predict reflux resolution after sleeve gastrectomy. 61
33413875 2021
Laparoscopic Ligamentum Teres cardiopexy to the rescue; an old procedure with a new use in managing reflux after sleeve gastrectomy. 61
33384153 2021
Optimal cutoff value of integrated relaxation pressure on the esophagogastric junction to detect outflow obstruction using starlet high-resolution manometry system. 61
33423114 2021
Trans-hiatal herniation following esophagectomy or gastrectomy: retrospective single-center experiences with a potential surgical emergency. 61
33713205 2021
Robot-assisted vs. laparoscopic repair of complete upside-down stomach hiatal hernia (the RATHER-study): a prospective comparative single center study. 61
33523279 2021
Antireflux surgery leads to durable improvement in laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms. 61
33528667 2021
The Nissen-Sleeve: Early Postoperative Complications. 61
33373544 2021
Severity of GERD and disease progression. 61
33575739 2021
[Use of Mesh in Hiatal Hernia Repair and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Pro]. 61
33556982 2021
Gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease are strongly associated with non-allergic nasal disorders. 61
33557802 2021
Concomitant hiatal hernia repair during bariatric surgery: does the reinforcement make the difference? 61
33006451 2021
Gastric necrosis following a hiatal hernia: A case report. 61
33453464 2021
Incarcerated hiatal hernia - A rare postoperative complication following gastrectomy for stomach cancer. A case report and literature review. 61
33485169 2021
Hiatal hernia after robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery. 61
33717530 2021
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia. 61
33609505 2021
Prevalence of Asymptomatic Hiatal Hernia in Obese Patients During Preoperative Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Assessments and Correlation With Body Mass Index. 61
33758697 2021

Variations for Hernia, Hiatus

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hernia, Hiatus:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 overlap with 13 genes Duplication Likely pathogenic 873324 GRCh37: 9:96160235-97428496

Expression for Hernia, Hiatus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hernia, Hiatus.

Pathways for Hernia, Hiatus

Pathways related to Hernia, Hiatus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes

GO Terms for Hernia, Hiatus

Biological processes related to Hernia, Hiatus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050728 9.54 GHRL FOXF1 ADIPOQ
2 cellular sodium ion homeostasis GO:0006883 9.4 ATP4A ATP12A
3 sodium ion export across plasma membrane GO:0036376 9.32 ATP4A ATP12A
4 cellular potassium ion homeostasis GO:0030007 9.26 ATP4A ATP12A
5 negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation GO:0010745 9.16 CRP ADIPOQ
6 establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient GO:0010248 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
7 gastric acid secretion GO:0001696 8.62 HRH2 GHRL

Molecular functions related to Hernia, Hiatus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity GO:0005391 9.26 ATP4A ATP12A
2 potassium-transporting ATPase activity GO:0008556 9.16 ATP4A ATP12A
3 potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity GO:0008900 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
4 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 MLN GHRL GAST ADIPOQ

Sources for Hernia, Hiatus

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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