MCID: HRN003
MIFTS: 44

Heroin Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Heroin Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Heroin Dependence:

Name: Heroin Dependence 12 44 15 17 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9976
MeSH 44 D006556
NCIt 50 C34694
SNOMED-CT 67 191817000
UMLS 71 C0019337

Summaries for Heroin Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 An opiate dependence that involves the continued use of heroin despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Heroin Dependence is related to withdrawal disorder and opioid addiction. An important gene associated with Heroin Dependence is MEG3 (Maternally Expressed 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Transmission across Chemical Synapses. The drugs Guaifenesin and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 74 Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substance use disorder relating to the use of an opioid. Any such... more...

Related Diseases for Heroin Dependence

Diseases related to Heroin Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 160)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 withdrawal disorder 30.5 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1
2 opioid addiction 30.4 OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD2 COMT
3 opiate dependence 30.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD4
4 depression 30.3 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A BDNF
5 morphine dependence 30.2 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
6 premature ejaculation 30.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 COMT
7 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
8 chronic pain 30.1 OPRM1 COMT
9 sexual disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
10 borderline personality disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2 COMT
11 personality disorder 29.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
12 antisocial personality disorder 29.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
13 childhood absence epilepsy 29.6 PDYN OPRM1 GABRG2 GABRB2
14 movement disease 29.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 BDNF
15 mental depression 29.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
16 eating disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT BDNF
17 drug dependence 29.2 TTC12 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD2
18 mood disorder 29.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
19 substance dependence 29.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 MAOA
20 cocaine dependence 29.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A
21 major depressive disorder 28.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A DRD4
22 substance abuse 28.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 MIAT MAOA
23 psychotic disorder 28.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A
24 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 28.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A DRD4
25 bipolar disorder 28.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN MAOA HTR2A GABRB2
26 autism 27.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A GABRG2
27 alcohol dependence 27.5 TTC12 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
28 tobacco addiction 27.5 TTC12 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 MAOA
29 schizophrenia 26.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 MIAT MAOA
30 arterial thoracic outlet syndrome 10.4
31 alcohol-induced mental disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 DRD2
32 inhibited male orgasm 10.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
33 barbiturate dependence 10.3 SLC6A4 OPRM1
34 acute stress disorder 10.3
35 polysubstance abuse 10.3 DRD2 COMT
36 dependent personality disorder 10.3 MAOA DRD4
37 somatization disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 COMT
38 barbiturate abuse 10.3 OPRM1 MAOA
39 drug psychosis 10.3 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
40 drug-induced mental disorder 10.3 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
41 amphetamine abuse 10.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
42 migraine without aura 10.2 SLC6A4 DRD4 DRD2
43 flying phobia 10.2 MAOA COMT
44 taqi polymorphism 10.2 DRD2 ANKK1
45 psychosexual disorder 10.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A
46 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 10.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A COMT
47 alcoholic psychosis 10.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A
48 lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia 10.2 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2
49 brunner syndrome 10.2 SLC6A4 MAOA COMT
50 hyperprolactinemia 10.2 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Heroin Dependence:



Diseases related to Heroin Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Heroin Dependence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Heroin Dependence:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 AUTS2 BDNF COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.77 BDNF COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 GABRB2
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.7 BDNF DRD1 DRD2 HTR2A OPRM1 PDYN
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.47 AUTS2 BDNF COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Heroin Dependence

Drugs for Heroin Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 87)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Buspirone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 36505-84-7 2477
4
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
5
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 52485-79-7 40400 644073
6
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
7
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
8 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
9 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
10 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4
11 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
12 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
13 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
14 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
15 Narcotics Phase 4
16
Heroin Phase 4 5462328
17 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
18
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
19
Mirtazapine Approved Phase 3 85650-52-8, 61337-67-5 4205
20
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
21
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 10118-90-8 5281021
22
Hydromorphone Approved, Illicit Phase 3 466-99-9 5284570
23
Clonidine Approved Phase 3 4205-90-7 2803
24
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 57-27-2 5288826
25
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 19982-08-2 4054
26
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 465-65-6 5284596
27 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 3
28 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 3
29 Histamine Antagonists Phase 3
30
Histamine Phosphate Phase 3 51-74-1 65513
31 Antidepressive Agents Phase 3
32 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 3
33 Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
34 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
35 Dopamine Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
36 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Analgesics Phase 3
39 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination Phase 3
40
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 50-03-3
41
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 50-23-7 5754
42
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 2 50-36-2 5760 446220
43
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 437-38-7 3345
44
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 2 76-42-6 5284603
45
Yohimbine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 146-48-5 8969
46
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
47
Nicotine Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 54-11-5 942 89594
48
Methadyl Acetate Experimental, Illicit Phase 2 509-74-0 10517
49 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2
50 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Phase 1, Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 91)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Transfer From Methadone to Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment Using Buprenorphine Patches: A Study on Practicability With Patients Maintained With Daily Dosages Between 60mg and 100mg Methadone. Unknown status NCT00750217 Phase 4 Buprenorphine patch and sublingual tablets
2 Graded Strategy for Pharmacological Treatment of Heroin Dependence Completed NCT00310934 Phase 4 methadone;buprenorphine / methadone sequence
3 Feasibility, Mechanism of Action and Potential Side Effects of Extended Release Depot Naltrexone in Opioid Dependent Patients Completed NCT01471145 Phase 4 Naltrexone
4 Effects of Buspirone in Withdrawal From Opiates Completed NCT00326235 Phase 4 Buspirone
5 Buprenorphine/Nx Treatment of Heroin Dependence-A Compassionate Use Study Completed NCT00015340 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone
6 Extended-Release Naltrexone Opioid Treatment at Jail Re-Entry Active, not recruiting NCT01999946 Phase 4 Extended-Release Naltrexone
7 Biomarkers of Disease and Response to Treatment in Opioid Addiction Active, not recruiting NCT02324725 Phase 4 Naltrexone
8 Mirtazapine as a Treatment for Co-Occurring Opioid and Amphetamine Type Stimulant Dependence (COATS) in Malaysia Unknown status NCT02541526 Phase 3 Mirtazapine;Placebo
9 An Open-label Study of Oral Paliparidone for the Treatment of Patients With Co-occurring Opioid and Amphetamine-type Stimulant Dependence Unknown status NCT02541513 Phase 3 paliparidone
10 An Open-label Study of Oral Minocycline for the Treatment of Patients With Co-occurring Opioid and Amphetamine-type Stimulant Dependence (COATS) Unknown status NCT02541500 Phase 3 Minocycline
11 Efficacy and Safety of VIVITROL® (Naltrexone for Extended-release Injectable Suspension) in Adults With Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00678418 Phase 3 VIVITROL® 380 mg;Placebo
12 Preventing Injection Initiation: The Change the Cycle Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT02774954 Phase 3
13 CS1008 A&B Eff/Safety Trial of BUP/NX for the Treatment of Opiate Dependence Completed NCT00015171 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
14 SALOME: Multi-Centre, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing The Effectiveness Of Diacetylmorphine Vs. Hydromorphone For The Treatment Of Long-Term Injection Opioid Users Who Do Not Benefit From Available Therapies Completed NCT01447212 Phase 3 Hydromorphone, Injectable;Diacetylmorphine, injectable;Hydromorphone, liquid oral;Diacetylmorphine, liquid oral
15 Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence in Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial of At-Home Versus In-Office Buprenorphine Induction Completed NCT00684554 Phase 2, Phase 3 Buprenorphine
16 Buprenorphine for Prisoners Completed NCT00574067 Phase 3 Buprenorphine +OTP;Buprenorphine +CHC;Counseling +OTP;Counseling +CHC
17 Behavioral Naltrexone Therapy (BNT) for Promoting Adherence to Oral Naltrexone (BNT-oral) vs Extended Release Injectable Depot Naltrexone (Depot-BNT); a Randomized Trial Completed NCT00577408 Phase 3 depot naltrexone;Oral Naltrexone
18 Addiction Treatment in Russia: Oral and Depot Naltrexone Completed NCT00218426 Phase 2, Phase 3 naltrexone implant;oral naltrexone;oral placebo naltrexone;placebo implant
19 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine For Out-patient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032968 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
20 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032955 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
21 Expanded Steady-State Pharmacokinetic Study, Comparing Liquid and Tablet Buprenorphine Formulations Completed NCT00000302 Phase 3 Buprenorphine
22 Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners Completed NCT00378079 Phase 3 Counseling + Transfer;Counseling + Methadone
23 Directly Administered vs. Self-administered Antiretroviral Therapy in Methadone Clinics Completed NCT00279110 Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Reinforcing Effects of Intranasal Buprenorphine Versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Buprenorphine-maintained Intranasal Drug Users Completed NCT01760473 Phase 3 Intranasal challenge drug
25 Placebo Controlled Study of Memantine as an Adjunct to Naltrexone in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00476242 Phase 2, Phase 3 Vivitrol;memantine
26 Buprenorphine Stabilization and Induction Onto Vivitrol for Heroin-dependent Individuals Recruiting NCT03711318 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
27 Evaluating the Role of Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy (DAART) in Conjunction With Opiate Substitution in Delivery of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy to HIV-1-infected Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Chennai, India Withdrawn NCT00709007 Phase 2, Phase 3
28 A Stage 1 Study of Community Reinforcement and Family Training for Treatment Drug Abuse Treatment Retention/HIV Risk Reduction Unknown status NCT00609089 Phase 1, Phase 2
29 Study Behavioral Naltrexone Therapy: A Novel Treatment for Heroin Dependence Completed NCT00332228 Phase 2 depot naltrexone;BNT
30 Opiate Dependence: Combined Naltrexone/Behavior Therapy Completed NCT00238914 Phase 2 Naltrexone
31 Counseling Conditions for Thrice Weekly Buprenorphine in a Primary Care Clinic Completed NCT00023283 Phase 2 Buprenorphine
32 Place of Low-Dose Naltrexone in Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00135759 Phase 2 Naltrexone;Placebo comparator;naltrexone;naltrexone
33 Opioid Maintenance: Optimum Stabilization and Withdrawal Completed NCT00218127 Phase 2 Levoacetyl Methadol;Levoacetyl Methadol;Levoacetyl Methadol
34 LAAM With Behavioral Treatment for Opioid/Cocaine Abuse Completed NCT00158288 Phase 2
35 Heroin Addiction Treatment: Naltrexone and Adrenergic Agents Completed NCT00142948 Phase 2 Naltrexone;Placebo
36 Effects of Dynorphin 1-13 on Heroin Addiction Completed NCT00000244 Phase 2 Dynorphin 1 - 13
37 Treatment Efficacy for Drug Abuse and AIDS Prevention Completed NCT00000210 Phase 2 Buprenorphine
38 Pilot Trial of a Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response System for Buprenorphine Maintenance: The Recovery Line Support System Completed NCT01315184 Phase 2
39 A Laboratory Model for Heroin Abuse Medications Completed NCT00000273 Phase 2 opiates
40 Treatment Efficacy for Drug Abuse and AIDS Prevention Completed NCT00000211 Phase 2 Buprenorphine
41 Biobehavioral Studies of Opioid Seeking: Effects of Buprenorphine/Naloxone Dose on Experimental Stress Reactivity and Opioid Abstinence Completed NCT03015246 Phase 1, Phase 2 Extended release morphine;Buprenorphine/Naloxone low dose;Buprenorphine/Naloxone moderate dose;Buprenorphine/Naloxone high dose;Active stressor;Placebo stressor
42 To Characterize the Acute and Short-term Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) Administration on Cue-induced Craving in Drug-abstinent Heroin-dependent Humans Completed NCT02539823 Phase 2 CBD 400 mg;CBD 800 mg;Control (placebo)
43 Neuroimaging and CBD for Heroin Use Disorder Recruiting NCT04567784 Phase 2 Cannabidiol (CBD);Placebo
44 Effects of Pioglitazone, a PPARγ Agonist, on the Abuse Liability of Heroin and of Nicotine Terminated NCT01395797 Phase 1, Phase 2 PIO;Placebo
45 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment II-3 Withdrawn NCT00000331 Phase 2 Test Drug;Placebo Drug
46 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment II-2 Withdrawn NCT00000330 Phase 2 Opioid-Related Disorders
47 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment II-1 Withdrawn NCT00000329 Phase 2 Opioid-Related Disorders
48 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment III Withdrawn NCT00000328 Phase 2 Opioid-Related Disorders
49 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment I(2) Withdrawn NCT00000327 Phase 2 Heroin Dependence
50 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment 1(1) Withdrawn NCT00000326 Phase 2 Heroin Dependence

Search NIH Clinical Center for Heroin Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 51 :


Buprenorphine
Buprenorphine hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: heroin dependence

Genetic Tests for Heroin Dependence

Anatomical Context for Heroin Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Heroin Dependence:

40
Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Pituitary, Eye, T Cells, Cingulate Cortex

Publications for Heroin Dependence

Articles related to Heroin Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 649)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Quality of life as a predictor of time to heroin relapse among male residents following release from compulsory rehabilitation centres in Vietnam. 61
32985029 2021
2
Impulsivity in heroin-dependent individuals: structural and functional abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits. 61
33528803 2021
3
Opioid overdose risk during and after drug treatment for heroin dependence: An incidence density case-control study nested in the VEdeTTE cohort. 61
32969097 2021
4
Association of Dopamine Transporter Gene with Heroin Dependence in an Indian Subpopulation from Manipur. 61
32557146 2021
5
Sexual relationship, self-esteem, dysfunction, and sexual satisfaction in treatment naïve men with heroin dependence. 61
33441051 2021
6
Heroin-assisted treatment of heroin-addicted patients normalizes regulatory T cells but does not restore CD4+ T cell proliferation. 61
33336491 2020
7
Buprenorphine is a weak dopamine releaser relative to heroin, but its pretreatment attenuates heroin-evoked dopamine release in rats. 61
32935483 2020
8
Retrospective analysis of heroin detoxification with buprenorphine in a psychiatric hospital in Japan. 61
33107693 2020
9
Effects of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) in reducing risk-behaviors among a small sample of HIV positive opiate users in Malaysia. 61
33190622 2020
10
The Competence and Willingness to Consent to Research Among Patients with Heroin Dependence. 61
32052310 2020
11
The Chinese version of obsessive compulsive drug use scale: validation in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment program. 61
32977774 2020
12
Further evidence for the association of GAL, GALR1 and NPY1R variants with opioid dependence. 61
32757697 2020
13
Australian treatment outcome study: protocol for the 18-20-year follow-up of a prospective longitudinal cohort examining the natural history of heroin dependence and associated mortality, psychiatric and physical health, and health service use. 61
32660955 2020
14
Towards a common metric for assessing heroin-dependent patient satisfaction with medications: Testing methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone. 61
32380375 2020
15
Association studies of dopamine synthesis and metabolism genes with multiple phenotypes of heroin dependence. 61
32736537 2020
16
Significant association of <i>DRD2</i> and <i>ANKK1</i> genes with rural heroin dependence and relapse in men. 61
32588604 2020
17
Clinical effects beyond cocaine use of sustained-release dexamphetamine for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with comorbid opioid dependence: secondary analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. 61
31908066 2020
18
Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of women with heroin dependence in Johannesburg, South Africa. 61
32880569 2020
19
A single nucleotide polymorphism in OPRM1(rs483481) and risk for heroin use disorder. 61
32189578 2020
20
Genetic polymorphisms in the opioid receptor delta 1 (OPRD1) gene are associated with methadone dose in methadone maintenance treatment for heroin dependence. 61
31907389 2020
21
Valuing families' preferences for drug treatment: a discrete choice experiment. 61
31506995 2020
22
Heroin exposure and withdrawal differentially influence expression of NMDA receptor NR2 subunits in the prelimbic region of rat medial prefrontal cortex. 61
32032749 2020
23
Weighted gene co-expression network analysis to explore the mechanism of heroin addiction in human nucleus accumbens. 61
31692007 2020
24
Effects of voluntary exercise and sex on multiply-triggered heroin reinstatement in male and female rats. 61
31712970 2020
25
Genesis of the Heroin-Induced Addictive Process: Articulation Between Psychodynamic and Neurobiological Theories. 61
33362589 2020
26
Cocaine dependence: "Side effects" and syndrome formation within 1-12 months after first cocaine use. 61
31753734 2020
27
Neurocognitive and Psychiatric Markers for Addiction: Common vs. Specific Endophenotypes for Heroin and Amphetamine Dependence. 61
32003694 2020
28
Adhesion Molecules as Potential Novel Biomarkers for Opioid Dependence. 61
31951160 2020
29
One Is Not Enough: Understanding and Modeling Polysubstance Use. 61
32612502 2020
30
Relationship Between Buddhist Belief and Suicide Risk in Chinese Persons Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Therapy for Heroin Dependence. 61
32457671 2020
31
Treatment of Adolescent Heroin Dependence: The End of an Era. 61
32298556 2020
32
Decreased Relative Cerebral Blood Flow in Unmedicated Heroin-Dependent Individuals. 61
32760297 2020
33
Quality of life and well-being from the perspective of patients on opioid agonist maintenance treatment: study protocol for a systematic review of qualitative research and a scoping review of measures. 61
31787102 2019
34
Monitoring consumption of methadone and heroin in major Chinese cities by wastewater-based epidemiology. 61
31683242 2019
35
Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention to Reduce Mental Health and Addiction Stigma in Primary Care Settings. 61
31317439 2019
36
Causes of hospital admission and mortality among 6683 people who use heroin: A cohort study comparing relative and absolute risks. 61
31581023 2019
37
Support vector machine-based multivariate pattern classification of methamphetamine dependence using arterial spin labeling. 61
30623517 2019
38
Direct and indirect associations between perception of childhood trauma and suicidal ideation through emotion dysregulation in males who use heroin. 61
31233952 2019
39
DRD2 and ANKK1 genes associate with late-onset heroin dependence in men. 61
28854834 2019
40
Prevalence and correlates of suicide attempt among Chinese individuals receiving methadone maintenance treatment for heroin dependence. 61
31666637 2019
41
Rumination and problematic substance use among individuals with a long-term history of illicit drug use. 61
31404848 2019
42
Modelling Long-Term Joint Trajectories of Heroin Use and Treatment Utilisation: Findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study. 61
31709404 2019
43
Effects of childhood emotional maltreatment on depressive symptoms through emotion dysregulation in treatment-seeking patients with heroin-dependence. 61
31252238 2019
44
Multi-View Cluster Analysis with Incomplete Data to Understand Treatment Effects. 61
32863420 2019
45
Atypical frontal midline theta activity during cognitive control in heroin addicts. 61
31283705 2019
46
Contribution of the Visante® OCT and B-scan ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow up of a topiramate-induced bilateral ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome. 61
30738599 2019
47
Identification of novel risk loci with shared effects on alcoholism, heroin, and methamphetamine dependence. 61
31462767 2019
48
Abstinence Following a Motivation-Skill-Desensitization-Mental Energy Intervention for Heroin Dependence: A Three-year Follow-up Result of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
31209821 2019
49
Characterization of DSM-IV Opioid Dependence Among Individuals of European Ancestry. 61
31250797 2019
50
VMAT2 gene (SLC18A2) variants associated with a greater risk for developing opioid dependence. 61
30983500 2019

Variations for Heroin Dependence

Expression for Heroin Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Heroin Dependence.

Pathways for Heroin Dependence

Pathways related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.37 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A GABRG2 GABRB2
2
Show member pathways
12.82 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA GABRG2 GABRB2 COMT
3
Show member pathways
12.41 OPRM1 GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD1
4
Show member pathways
12.41 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2 DRD1 COMT
6 11.99 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A BDNF
7 11.82 OPRM1 OPRD1 MAOA
8
Show member pathways
11.78 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
9 11.77 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A GABRB2
10
Show member pathways
11.67 PDYN GABRB2 DRD1
11
Show member pathways
11.66 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
12 11.64 HTR2A DRD2 DRD1
13
Show member pathways
11.5 SLC6A3 PDYN MAOA DRD2 DRD1 BDNF
14
Show member pathways
11.27 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA
15 10.99 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
16 10.91 DRD2 ANKK1
17
Show member pathways
10.85 GABRG2 GABRB2
18
Show member pathways
10.85 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
19 10.81 GABRG2 GABRB2
20
Show member pathways
10.76 MAOA COMT
21 10.69 MAOA COMT
22
Show member pathways
10.53 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2 DRD1

GO Terms for Heroin Dependence

Cellular components related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.33 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A
2 cell projection GO:0042995 10.04 OPRM1 HTR2A GABRG2 DRD1 AUTS2 ANKK1
3 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.02 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A GABRG2
4 synapse GO:0045202 9.95 SLC6A4 PDYN HTR2A GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD2
5 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.85 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 GABRG2 GABRB2
6 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.84 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1
7 axon GO:0030424 9.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR2A GABRG2 DRD2 COMT
8 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.78 OPRD1 GABRG2 GABRB2 COMT
9 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 9.69 GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD2
10 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.67 PDYN OPRD1 DRD2
11 dendrite membrane GO:0032590 9.61 OPRM1 OPRD1 GABRG2
12 dendrite GO:0030425 9.61 PDYN OPRM1 HTR2A GABRG2 DRD4 DRD2
13 GABA-A receptor complex GO:1902711 9.56 GABRG2 GABRB2
14 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.55 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR2A DRD2
15 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.52 SLC6A3 DRD2
16 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.46 OPRM1 OPRD1
17 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A DRD2

Biological processes related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 44)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.2 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD4
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.14 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.88 PDYN HTR2A GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD4
4 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.87 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
5 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.86 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
6 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.85 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
7 memory GO:0007613 9.83 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
8 response to drug GO:0042493 9.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2 DRD1 COMT
9 synapse assembly GO:0007416 9.78 DRD2 DRD1 BDNF
10 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.77 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A
11 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.71 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
12 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.69 HTR2A DRD2
13 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.69 DRD2 DRD1
14 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.68 SLC6A3 DRD2
15 synaptic transmission, GABAergic GO:0051932 9.68 GABRG2 GABRB2
16 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.67 OPRM1 DRD2
17 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.67 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
18 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.67 MAOA COMT
19 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.67 OPRM1 OPRD1 COMT
20 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.66 PDYN OPRM1
21 inhibitory synapse assembly GO:1904862 9.66 GABRG2 GABRB2
22 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.65 MAOA COMT
23 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.65 DRD4 DRD2
24 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.64 HTR2A DRD2
25 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.64 OPRM1 OPRD1
26 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.63 SLC6A3 DRD4
27 monoamine transport GO:0015844 9.63 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
28 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.63 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
29 cellular response to histamine GO:0071420 9.62 GABRG2 GABRB2
30 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.62 DRD2 DRD1
31 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.61 SLC6A3 DRD2
32 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.61 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
33 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 9.58 SLC6A3 DRD2
34 cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron migration GO:0021853 9.58 DRD2 DRD1
35 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.58 SLC6A3 DRD2 DRD1
36 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.57 DRD2 DRD1
37 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.56 DRD4 DRD2
38 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.54 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
39 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.52 DRD4 DRD2
40 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.51 DRD4 DRD2
41 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.43 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
42 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.35 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD1
43 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.33 OPRM1 DRD4 DRD2
44 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 8.92 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1 COMT

Molecular functions related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.88 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
2 GABA-A receptor activity GO:0004890 9.51 GABRG2 GABRB2
3 neurotransmitter transporter activity GO:0005326 9.49 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
4 GABA-gated chloride ion channel activity GO:0022851 9.48 GABRG2 GABRB2
5 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.46 SLC6A4 HTR2A
6 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.46 HTR2A GABRG2 GABRB2 DRD4
7 inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005237 9.43 GABRG2 GABRB2
8 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.37 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
9 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.32 OPRM1 OPRD1
10 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.26 DRD4 DRD2
11 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.13 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
12 dopamine binding GO:0035240 8.92 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1

Sources for Heroin Dependence

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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