HPE
MCID: HLP001
MIFTS: 65

Holoprosencephaly (HPE)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Fetal diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Holoprosencephaly

MalaCards integrated aliases for Holoprosencephaly:

Name: Holoprosencephaly 39 12 77 25 54 55 60 38 56 45 15 41
Holoprosencephaly Sequence 12 30 6
Hpe 54 60

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

60
holoprosencephaly
Inheritance: Multigenic/multifactorial,Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Europe); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:



Summaries for Holoprosencephaly

NINDS : 55 Holoprosencephaly is a disorder caused by the failure of the prosencephalon (the embryonic forebrain) to sufficiently divide into the double lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. The result is a single-lobed brain structure and severe skull and facial defects. In most cases of holoprosencephaly, the malformations are so severe that babies die before birth. In less severe cases, babies are born with normal or near-normal brain development and facial deformities that may affect the eyes, nose, and upper lip. There are three classifications of holoprosencephaly. Alobar, in which the brain has not divided at all, is usually associated with severe facial deformities. Semilobar, in which the brain's hemispheres have somewhat divided, causes an intermediate form of the disorder. Lobar, in which there is considerable evidence of separate brain hemispheres, is the least severe form. In some cases of lobar holoprosencephaly the baby's brain may be nearly normal. The least severe of the facial anomalies is the median cleft lip (premaxillary agenesis). The most severe is cyclopia, an abnormality characterized by a single eye located in the area normally occupied by the root of the nose, and a missing nose or a proboscis (a tubular-shaped nose) located above the eye. The least common facial anomaly is ethmocephaly, in which a proboscis separates closely-set eyes. Cebocephaly, another facial anomaly, is characterized by a small, flattened nose with a single nostril situated below incomplete or underdeveloped closely-set eyes.

MalaCards based summary : Holoprosencephaly, also known as holoprosencephaly sequence, is related to holoprosencephaly 1 and holoprosencephaly 7. An important gene associated with Holoprosencephaly is FGFR1 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Hedgehog signaling pathway and Pathways in cancer. Affiliated tissues include Primitive Streak, brain and eye, and related phenotypes are abnormal facial shape and holoprosencephaly

Disease Ontology : 12 A congenital nervous system abnormality characterized by failed or incomplete separation of the forebrain early in gestation; it is accompanied by a spectrum of characteristic craniofacial anomalies.

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development in which the brain doesn't properly divide into the right and left hemispheres. The condition can also affect development of the head and face. There are 4 types of holoprosencephaly, distinguished by severity. From most to least severe, the 4 types are alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In general, the severity of any facial defects corresponds to the severity of the brain defect. The most severely affected people have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye. In the less severe forms, the brain is only partially divided, and the eyes usually are set close together. Other signs and symptoms often include intellectual disability and pituitary gland problems. Holoprosencephaly can be caused by mutations in any of at least 14 different genes; chromosome abnormalities; or agents that can cause birth defects (teratogens). It may also be a feature of several unique genetic syndromes. In many cases, the exact cause is unknown. Life expectancy for people with this condition varies, and treatment depends on the symptoms and severity in each person.

Wikipedia : 77 Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo)... more...

GeneReviews: NBK1530

Related Diseases for Holoprosencephaly

Diseases in the Holoprosencephaly family:

Holoprosencephaly 3 Holoprosencephaly 4
Holoprosencephaly 2 Holoprosencephaly 1
Holoprosencephaly 6 Holoprosencephaly 8
Holoprosencephaly 5 Holoprosencephaly 7
Holoprosencephaly 9 Holoprosencephaly 11
Nonsyndromic Holoprosencephaly

Diseases related to Holoprosencephaly via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 175)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 holoprosencephaly 1 34.2 GAS1 HPE1 LSS SHH SIX3
2 holoprosencephaly 7 34.2 NODAL PTCH1
3 holoprosencephaly 5 34.1 TGIF1 ZIC1 ZIC2
4 holoprosencephaly 4 34.1 SHH TGIF1 ZIC1 ZIC2
5 holoprosencephaly 8 34.0 DISP1 HPE8 TGIF1
6 holoprosencephaly, recurrent infections, and monocytosis 33.9 GLI2 PTCH1 SIX3
7 agnathia-otocephaly complex 33.8 FGF8 GLI2 NODAL SHH
8 hartsfield syndrome 33.7 FGF8 FGFR1
9 semilobar holoprosencephaly 33.3 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
10 alobar holoprosencephaly 33.3 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FOXH1 GAS1 GLI2
11 midline interhemispheric variant of holoprosencephaly 33.2 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FOXH1 GAS1 GLI2
12 microform holoprosencephaly 33.2 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
13 lobar holoprosencephaly 33.2 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
14 septopreoptic holoprosencephaly 33.1 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FOXH1 GAS1 GLI2
15 patau syndrome 30.6 NODAL SIX3 ZIC2
16 pituitary stalk interruption syndrome 30.3 CDON SHH TGIF1
17 chromosome 18p deletion syndrome 30.3 NODAL SHH SIX3 ZIC2
18 neural tube defects 29.5 MNX1 PTCH1 ZIC1 ZIC2
19 holoprosencephaly 3 12.5
20 holoprosencephaly 2 12.5
21 nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly 12.5
22 holoprosencephaly 9 12.5
23 holoprosencephaly, semilobar, with craniosynostosis 12.5
24 holoprosencephaly 11 12.4
25 holoprosencephaly 6 12.3
26 brachial amelia, cleft lip, and holoprosencephaly 12.3
27 holoprosencephaly caudal dysgenesis 12.1
28 holoprosencephaly with fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence 12.1
29 holoprosencephaly ectrodactyly cleft lip palate 11.9
30 pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome 11.9
31 steinfeld syndrome 11.8
32 morse-rawnsley-sargent syndrome 11.6
33 dysgnathia complex 11.4
34 lambotte syndrome 11.4
35 schizencephaly 11.3
36 solitary median maxillary central incisor 11.3
37 chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome 11.2
38 corpus callosum, agenesis of 11.1
39 heterotaxy, visceral, 1, x-linked 11.0
40 hypoglossia with situs inversus 11.0
41 hydrocephalus, congenital, 3, with brain anomalies 11.0
42 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability turner type 11.0
43 cerebellar agenesis 11.0
44 ring chromosome 18 11.0
45 x-linked intellectual disability, turner type 11.0
46 acquired schizencephaly 10.5 SHH SIX3
47 greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome 10.5 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
48 bardet-biedl syndrome 17 10.4 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
49 cleft lip 10.4
50 tooth size 10.4 FGF8 SHH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Holoprosencephaly:



Diseases related to Holoprosencephaly

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Holoprosencephaly

Human phenotypes related to Holoprosencephaly:

60 33 (show top 50) (show all 95)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 abnormal facial shape 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001999
2 holoprosencephaly 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001360
3 single median maxillary incisor 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0006315
4 median cleft lip and palate 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0008501
5 bilateral cleft lip 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100336
6 diabetes mellitus 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000819
7 seizures 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001250
8 muscular hypotonia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001252
9 spasticity 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001257
10 muscle weakness 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001324
11 global developmental delay 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001263
12 microcephaly 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000252
13 gastroesophageal reflux 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002020
14 cognitive impairment 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100543
15 hypoglycemia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001943
16 dystonia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001332
17 depressed nasal ridge 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000457
18 microphthalmia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000568
19 choanal atresia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000453
20 reduced number of teeth 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0009804
21 hypotelorism 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000601
22 iris coloboma 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000612
23 aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0007370
24 anophthalmia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000528
25 anosmia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000458
26 hyposmia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004409
27 cyclopia 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0009914
28 macrocephaly 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000256
29 hypertelorism 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000316
30 short neck 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000470
31 frontal bossing 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002007
32 hydrocephalus 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000238
33 ptosis 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000508
34 constipation 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002019
35 chorea 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002072
36 respiratory insufficiency 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002093
37 scoliosis 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002650
38 macrotia 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000400
39 anteverted nares 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000463
40 thick eyebrow 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000574
41 optic atrophy 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000648
42 feeding difficulties in infancy 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008872
43 proteinuria 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000093
44 retinopathy 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000488
45 arrhythmia 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011675
46 joint hyperflexibility 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0005692
47 epicanthus 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000286
48 abnormal form of the vertebral bodies 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003312
49 cryptorchidism 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000028
50 failure to thrive in infancy 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001531

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Holoprosencephaly:

47 (show all 18)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.41 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
2 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.39 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
3 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.38 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.36 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
5 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.35 CDON DHCR7 FGF8 FGFR1 GAS1 GLI2
6 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.35 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
7 cellular MP:0005384 10.34 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 GAS1 GLI2
8 embryo MP:0005380 10.34 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
9 nervous system MP:0003631 10.27 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1
10 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.26 DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
11 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.2 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 GAS1
12 muscle MP:0005369 10.14 DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GLI2
13 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 10.1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1 GLI2 PTCH1
14 respiratory system MP:0005388 10.07 CDON DHCR7 DISP1 FGF8 FOXH1 GAS1
15 normal MP:0002873 10.06 DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GLI2 MNX1
16 skeleton MP:0005390 10.03 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
17 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.47 CDON DISP1 FGF8 FGFR1 FOXH1 GAS1
18 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 9.35 NODAL PTCH1 SHH SIX3 TGIF1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Holoprosencephaly

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Study of the Experiences and Needs of Parents Continuing a Pregnancy Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Holopresencephaly Completed NCT00005016
2 Genetic Analysis of Left-Right Axis Formations Completed NCT00341133
3 Clinical and Genetic Studies on Holoprosencephaly Recruiting NCT00088426
4 A Study of the Genetic Analysis of Brain Disorders Recruiting NCT00645645

Search NIH Clinical Center for Holoprosencephaly

Cochrane evidence based reviews: holoprosencephaly

Genetic Tests for Holoprosencephaly

Genetic tests related to Holoprosencephaly:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Holoprosencephaly Sequence 30 FOXH1 NODAL

Anatomical Context for Holoprosencephaly

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Holoprosencephaly:

42
Brain, Eye, Pituitary, Bone, Heart, Cerebellum, Spleen
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Holoprosencephaly:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Primitive Streak Primitive Streak Affected by disease

Publications for Holoprosencephaly

Articles related to Holoprosencephaly:

(show top 50) (show all 875)
# Title Authors Year
1
Integrated clinical and omics approach to rare diseases: novel genes and oligogenic inheritance in holoprosencephaly. ( 30508070 )
2019
2
Alobar holoprosencephaly detected in a 9-week embryo. ( 30625294 )
2019
3
Case report: a novel mutation in ZIC2 in an infant with microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, and arachnoid cyst. ( 30855487 )
2019
4
Nasal fistula, epidermal cyst and hypernatremia in a girl presenting holoprosencephaly due to a rare ZIC2 point mutation. ( 30894326 )
2019
5
Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting in Alobar Holoprosencephaly: Does it Work Even When Patient Has No Sign of Raised Intracranial Pressure? ( 30896515 )
2019
6
Functions of TGIF homeodomain proteins and their roles in normal brain development and holoprosencephaly. ( 29749689 )
2018
7
Clinical and Demographic Evaluation of a Holoprosencephaly Cohort From the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. ( 29663664 )
2018
8
Extracephalic manifestations of nonchromosomal, nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly. ( 29761634 )
2018
9
Holoprosencephaly in the genomics era. ( 29770992 )
2018
10
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Familial Holoprosencephaly with Endocrine Dysgenesis. ( 29246365 )
2018
11
Semilobar holoprosencephaly with cebocephaly associated with maternal early onset preeclampsia: a case report. ( 29980223 )
2018
12
Loss-of-function mutations in FGF8 can be independent risk factors for holoprosencephaly. ( 29584859 )
2018
13
Nongenetic risk factors for holoprosencephaly: An updated review of the epidemiologic literature. ( 29761639 )
2018
14
Genetic and Rare Disease of the CNS. Part II: Holoprosencephaly (HPE). ( 29665691 )
2018
15
Holoprosencephaly: A clinical genomics perspective. ( 29749690 )
2018
16
Recent advances in understanding inheritance of holoprosencephaly. ( 29785796 )
2018
17
Solitary median maxillary central incisor, holoprosencephaly and congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis in a premature infant: case report. ( 29333838 )
2018
18
Syndromes associated with holoprosencephaly. ( 29770994 )
2018
19
Link between the causative genes of holoprosencephaly: Zic2 directly regulates Tgif1 expression. ( 29391420 )
2018
20
Modeling the complex etiology of holoprosencephaly in mice. ( 29749693 )
2018
21
Management Strategies for Hydrocephalus in Alobar Holoprosencephaly: A Case Report and Discussion. ( 29902800 )
2018
22
Molecular testing in holoprosencephaly. ( 29771000 )
2018
23
Structural insights into the impact of two holoprosencephaly-related mutations on human TGIF1 homeodomain. ( 29355528 )
2018
24
Prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly. ( 29770996 )
2018
25
ZIC2 in Holoprosencephaly. ( 29442327 )
2018
26
Common genetic causes of holoprosencephaly are limited to a small set of evolutionarily conserved driver genes of midline development coordinated by TGF-β, hedgehog, and FGF signaling. ( 29992659 )
2018
27
Alobar holoprosencephaly associated with a rare chromosomal abnormality: Case report and literature review. ( 30024536 )
2018
28
Neuropathology of holoprosencephaly. ( 30182440 )
2018
29
Challenging issues arising in counseling families experiencing holoprosencephaly. ( 30182441 )
2018
30
Cytogenetics and holoprosencephaly: A chromosomal microarray study of 222 individuals with holoprosencephaly. ( 30182442 )
2018
31
Holoprosencephaly flashcards: An updated summary for the clinician. ( 30182444 )
2018
32
Further evidence for complex inheritance of holoprosencephaly: Lessons learned from pre- and postnatal diagnostic testing in Germany. ( 30182445 )
2018
33
Holoprosencephaly from conception to adulthood. ( 30182446 )
2018
34
Low-level parental mosaicism affects the recurrence risk of holoprosencephaly. ( 30197418 )
2018
35
MRI of lobar holoprosencephaly in a cat with hypodipsic hypernatraemia. ( 30263144 )
2018
36
Digynic triploidy in a fetus presenting with semilobar holoprosencephaly. ( 30545546 )
2018
37
SIX3 deletions and incomplete penetrance in families affected by holoprosencephaly. ( 28670735 )
2017
38
Facial Evaluation in Holoprosencephaly. ( 27875510 )
2017
39
Endocytic receptor LRP2/megalin-of holoprosencephaly and renal Fanconi syndrome. ( 28497274 )
2017
40
Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 18p associated with holoprosencephaly: case report. ( 28513240 )
2017
41
Ethanol itself is a holoprosencephaly-inducing teratogen. ( 28441416 )
2017
42
Trisomy 18 and holoprosencephaly. ( 28449414 )
2017
43
Pancreas and gallbladder agenesis in a newborn with semilobar holoprosencephaly, a case report. ( 28525974 )
2017
44
7q Deletion/12q Duplication Is the Possible Cause of an Alobar Holoprosencephaly Case. ( 29456484 )
2017
45
Semi Lobar Holoprosencephaly with Vertebral Segmentation Defects. ( 28883880 )
2017
46
Expanding the FANCO/RAD51C associated phenotype: Cleft lip and palate and lobar holoprosencephaly, two rare findings in Fanconi anemia. ( 29278735 )
2017
47
"Minimal" holoprosencephaly in a 14q deletion syndrome patient. ( 29136354 )
2017
48
Holoprosencephaly. ( 29259929 )
2017
49
BOC is a modifier gene in holoprosencephaly. ( 28677295 )
2017
50
In-depth investigations of adolescents and adults with holoprosencephaly identify unique characteristics. ( 28640243 )
2017

Variations for Holoprosencephaly

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Holoprosencephaly:

6 (show top 50) (show all 1016)
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 MATN4 NM_030590.3(MATN4): c.515G> C (p.Gly172Ala) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882210 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 45304356: 45304356
2 MATN4 NM_030590.3(MATN4): c.515G> C (p.Gly172Ala) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882210 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 43932996: 43932996
3 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.37C> G (p.Arg13Gly) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs779791579 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98270607: 98270607
4 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.37C> G (p.Arg13Gly) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs779791579 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95508325: 95508325
5 CDON NM_016952.4(CDON): c.1855G> C (p.Asp619His) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs141081456 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 125873968: 125873968
6 CDON NM_016952.4(CDON): c.1855G> C (p.Asp619His) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs141081456 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 126004073: 126004073
7 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.1986G> A (p.Ser662=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs114259687 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121743883: 121743883
8 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.1986G> A (p.Ser662=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs114259687 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120986307: 120986307
9 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3048C> T (p.Asp1016=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs140479803 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121746538: 121746538
10 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3048C> T (p.Asp1016=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs140479803 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120988962: 120988962
11 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3590G> A (p.Gly1197Asp) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs114823319 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121747080: 121747080
12 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3590G> A (p.Gly1197Asp) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs114823319 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120989504: 120989504
13 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3469C> T (p.Leu1157=) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs141988240 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121746959: 121746959
14 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3469C> T (p.Leu1157=) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs141988240 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120989383: 120989383
15 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3018C> T (p.Gly1006=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs373880077 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121746508: 121746508
16 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.3018C> T (p.Gly1006=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs373880077 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120988932: 120988932
17 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.2940C> T (p.Ser980=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146811565 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121746430: 121746430
18 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.2940C> T (p.Ser980=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146811565 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120988854: 120988854
19 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4333C> T (p.Leu1445Phe) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146207623 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121747823: 121747823
20 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4333C> T (p.Leu1445Phe) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146207623 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120990247: 120990247
21 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4332G> A (p.Met1444Ile) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146467786 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121747822: 121747822
22 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4332G> A (p.Met1444Ile) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs146467786 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120990246: 120990246
23 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4054A> G (p.Met1352Val) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs149140724 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121747544: 121747544
24 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.4054A> G (p.Met1352Val) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs149140724 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120989968: 120989968
25 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.373A> T (p.Thr125Ser) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs112028242 GRCh37 Chromosome 8, 145700346: 145700346
26 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.373A> T (p.Thr125Ser) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs112028242 GRCh38 Chromosome 8, 144474963: 144474963
27 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.783T> C (p.Pro261=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs151147114 GRCh37 Chromosome 8, 145699936: 145699936
28 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.783T> C (p.Pro261=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs151147114 GRCh38 Chromosome 8, 144474553: 144474553
29 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.1294G> A (p.Val432Met) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs142296407 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121732611: 121732611
30 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.1294G> A (p.Val432Met) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs142296407 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120975035: 120975035
31 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.15C> T (p.Ser5=) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs374587860 GRCh38 Chromosome 8, 144475742: 144475742
32 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.15C> T (p.Ser5=) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs374587860 GRCh37 Chromosome 8, 145701125: 145701125
33 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3423G> A (p.Ala1141=) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs745948150 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98215786: 98215786
34 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3423G> A (p.Ala1141=) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs745948150 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95453504: 95453504
35 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2692G> A (p.Asp898Asn) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs531947455 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98224149: 98224149
36 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2692G> A (p.Asp898Asn) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs531947455 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95461867: 95461867
37 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.1216-6C> A single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs186008764 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98240474: 98240474
38 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.1216-6C> A single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs186008764 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95478192: 95478192
39 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.771C> A (p.Gly257=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs115750264 GRCh37 Chromosome 8, 145699948: 145699948
40 FOXH1 NM_003923.2(FOXH1): c.771C> A (p.Gly257=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs115750264 GRCh38 Chromosome 8, 144474565: 144474565
41 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3606C> T (p.Pro1202=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs138240178 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98211549: 98211549
42 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3606C> T (p.Pro1202=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs138240178 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95449267: 95449267
43 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3567C> T (p.Gly1189=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs62637630 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98211588: 98211588
44 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.3567C> T (p.Gly1189=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs62637630 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95449306: 95449306
45 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2937C> T (p.Asn979=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs58629309 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98220526: 98220526
46 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2937C> T (p.Asn979=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs58629309 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95458244: 95458244
47 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2913T> C (p.Tyr971=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs2229062 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98220550: 98220550
48 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.2913T> C (p.Tyr971=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs2229062 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95458268: 95458268
49 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.1854C> T (p.Cys618=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs62637628 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 98231429: 98231429
50 PTCH1 NM_000264.4(PTCH1): c.1854C> T (p.Cys618=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs62637628 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 95469147: 95469147

Copy number variations for Holoprosencephaly from CNVD:

7 (show all 17)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 27741 1 212100000 222100000 Deletion DISP1 Holoprosencephaly
2 27742 10 53744046 53747423 Deletion DKK1 Holoprosencephaly
3 27743 2 121271336 121449155 Deletion GLI2 Holoprosencephaly
4 27745 1 212100000 222100000 Deletion PATCHED Holoprosencephaly
5 27746 7 155285496 155297728 Deletion SHH Holoprosencephaly
6 27747 1 212100000 222100000 Deletion SIL Holoprosencephaly
7 27748 2 45022540 45025894 Deletion SIX3 Holoprosencephaly
8 27749 1 212100000 222100000 Deletion SMOOTHENED Holoprosencephaly
9 27750 1 212100000 222100000 Deletion TGIF Holoprosencephaly
10 27751 13 99432319 99437020 Deletion ZIC2 Holoprosencephaly
11 80937 13 99432319 99437020 Microdeletion ZIC2 Holoprosencephaly
12 91539 15 31400000 37900000 Deletion Holoprosencephaly
13 93580 15 55800000 65300000 Deletion Holoprosencephaly
14 120908 18 3402071 3448406 Microdeletion TGIF Holoprosencephaly
15 146030 2 45022540 45025894 Microdeletion SIX3 Holoprosencephaly
16 210238 6 29900000 45200000 Gain Holoprosencephaly
17 222729 7 155285496 155297728 Microdeletion SHH Holoprosencephaly

Expression for Holoprosencephaly

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Holoprosencephaly.

Pathways for Holoprosencephaly

Pathways related to Holoprosencephaly according to KEGG:

38
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Hedgehog signaling pathway hsa04340

GO Terms for Holoprosencephaly

Biological processes related to Holoprosencephaly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 heart development GO:0007507 9.98 FGF8 GLI2 NODAL SHH
2 in utero embryonic development GO:0001701 9.97 FGFR1 GLI2 NODAL PTCH1
3 regulation of cell proliferation GO:0042127 9.91 DHCR7 FGFR1 PTCH1 SHH SIX3
4 kidney development GO:0001822 9.89 FGF8 GLI2 SHH
5 positive regulation of neuron differentiation GO:0045666 9.87 CDON FGFR1 GLI2
6 inner ear morphogenesis GO:0042472 9.85 FGF8 FGFR1 ZIC1
7 smoothened signaling pathway GO:0007224 9.84 CDON GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
8 embryonic limb morphogenesis GO:0030326 9.83 FGFR1 PTCH1 SHH
9 pattern specification process GO:0007389 9.83 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH ZIC1
10 branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis GO:0001658 9.81 FGF8 PTCH1 SHH
11 brain development GO:0007420 9.8 FGFR1 NODAL PTCH1 SIX3 ZIC1 ZIC2
12 cell fate commitment GO:0045165 9.78 FGF8 GAS1 NODAL SHH
13 developmental growth GO:0048589 9.77 GAS1 GLI2 SHH
14 anatomical structure development GO:0048856 9.76 GLI2 SHH SIX3
15 heart looping GO:0001947 9.76 FGF8 FOXH1 NODAL SHH
16 anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis GO:0048646 9.74 GLI2 NODAL SHH
17 hindbrain development GO:0030902 9.73 GLI2 SHH
18 lung morphogenesis GO:0060425 9.73 FGF8 SHH
19 embryonic heart tube development GO:0035050 9.73 FGF8 NODAL
20 embryonic pattern specification GO:0009880 9.73 DISP1 NODAL SHH
21 cell fate specification GO:0001708 9.72 CDON SHH
22 male genitalia development GO:0030539 9.72 FGF8 SHH
23 osteoblast development GO:0002076 9.72 GLI2 SHH
24 pharyngeal system development GO:0060037 9.72 FGF8 PTCH1
25 spinal cord motor neuron differentiation GO:0021522 9.72 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
26 embryonic morphogenesis GO:0048598 9.71 CDON SHH
27 somite development GO:0061053 9.71 PTCH1 SHH
28 aorta morphogenesis GO:0035909 9.71 FGF8 FOXH1
29 digestive tract morphogenesis GO:0048546 9.71 NODAL SHH
30 negative regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway GO:0060766 9.7 FOXH1 NODAL
31 prostate gland development GO:0030850 9.7 PTCH1 SHH
32 striated muscle cell differentiation GO:0051146 9.7 CDON SHH
33 generation of neurons GO:0048699 9.69 FGF8 FGFR1
34 cell proliferation in forebrain GO:0021846 9.69 FGF8 SIX3
35 organ induction GO:0001759 9.68 FGF8 FGFR1
36 positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus GO:0033089 9.68 GLI2 SHH
37 positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development GO:0048643 9.68 CDON SHH
38 lung-associated mesenchyme development GO:0060484 9.67 FGFR1 SHH
39 dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning GO:0021904 9.67 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
40 dorsal/ventral pattern formation GO:0009953 9.67 DISP1 GLI2 PTCH1 SHH
41 forebrain dorsal/ventral pattern formation GO:0021798 9.66 FGF8 SIX3
42 smoothened signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning GO:0060831 9.66 GLI2 PTCH1
43 telencephalon regionalization GO:0021978 9.65 SHH SIX3
44 mammary gland duct morphogenesis GO:0060603 9.65 GLI2 PTCH1
45 anterior/posterior pattern specification GO:0009952 9.65 CDON FOXH1 GLI2 NODAL SHH
46 spinal cord dorsal/ventral patterning GO:0021513 9.64 GLI2 SHH
47 formation of anatomical boundary GO:0048859 9.63 NODAL SHH
48 hindgut morphogenesis GO:0007442 9.62 GLI2 SHH
49 smoothened signaling pathway involved in regulation of cerebellar granule cell precursor cell proliferation GO:0021938 9.62 GLI2 SHH
50 nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of lateral mesoderm left/right asymmetry GO:1900164 9.61 FOXH1 NODAL

Molecular functions related to Holoprosencephaly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific GO:0000981 9.87 FOXH1 GLI2 MNX1 SIX3 TGIF1 ZIC1
2 co-SMAD binding GO:0070410 9.26 FOXH1 TGIF1
3 DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0003700 9.17 FOXH1 GLI2 MNX1 SIX3 TGIF1 ZIC1
4 patched binding GO:0005113 9.16 PTCH1 SHH
5 morphogen activity GO:0016015 8.96 NODAL SHH

Sources for Holoprosencephaly

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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