NPH
MCID: HYD061
MIFTS: 50

Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure (NPH)

Categories: Mental diseases, Nephrological diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:

Name: Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure 57
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 12 54 59 37 6 15
Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure 44 73
Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure 54
Hydrocephalus Normal Pressure 55
Chronic Adult Hydrocephalus 59
Low Pressure Hydrocephalus 12
Nph 59

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
normal pressure hydrocephalus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: Adult;

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive


HPO:

32
hydrocephalus, normal-pressure:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare neurological diseases


External Ids:

OMIM 57 236690
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1572
ICD10 33 G91.2
MeSH 44 D006850
SNOMED-CT 68 30753002 69663004
Orphanet 59 ORPHA314928
UMLS via Orphanet 74 C0020258
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 G91.2
MedGen 42 C0020258
KEGG 37 H01676
UMLS 73 C0020258

Summaries for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

NINDS : 54 Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain's ventricles, or cavities. It occurs if the normal flow of CSF throughout the brain and spinal cord is blocked in some way. This causes the ventricles to enlarge, putting pressure on the brain. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can occur in people of any age, but it is most common in the elderly. It may result from a subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, infection, tumor, or complications of surgery. However, many people develop NPH even when none of these factors are present. In these cases the cause of the disorder is unknown. Symptoms of NPH include progressive mental impairment and dementia, problems with walking, and impaired bladder control. The person also may have a general slowing of movements or may complain that his or her feet feel "stuck." Because these symptoms are similar to those of other disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the disorder is often misdiagnosed. Many cases go unrecognized and are never properly treated. Doctors may use a variety of tests, including brain scans (CT and/or MRI), a spinal tap or lumbar catheter, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuropsychological tests, to help them diagnose NPH and rule out other conditions. 

MalaCards based summary : Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure, also known as normal pressure hydrocephalus, is related to hydrocephalus and binswanger's disease. An important gene associated with Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure is PMPCA (Peptidase, Mitochondrial Processing Alpha Subunit), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Alzheimers Disease Pathway. The drugs Citalopram and Muscarinic Antagonists have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and spinal cord, and related phenotypes are gait disturbance and bowel incontinence

Wikipedia : 76 Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), also called communicating hydrocephalus and malresorptive... more...

Description from OMIM: 236690

Related Diseases for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Diseases related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 112)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hydrocephalus 30.7 MAPT APOE PTGDS SFMBT1
2 binswanger's disease 29.9 APOE MAPT
3 intracranial hypotension 29.8 OGG1 PTGDS
4 brain injury 29.6 APOE MAPT
5 pick disease of brain 29.5 APOE MAPT
6 cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cst3-related 29.4 APOE MAPT
7 communicating hydrocephalus 27.9 SFMBT1 PTGDS OGG1 MS4A6A MAPT FRMD4A
8 tremor, hereditary essential, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus 12.5
9 nephronophthisis 11.6
10 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2 11.2
11 joubert syndrome with oculorenal anomalies 11.2
12 nephrotic syndrome, type 1 11.0
13 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1 11.0
14 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 3 11.0
15 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 4 11.0
16 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 5 11.0
17 alzheimer disease 10.6
18 dementia 10.6
19 diabetes mellitus 10.5
20 hypoglycemia 10.5
21 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 10.3
22 arachnoid cysts 10.3
23 cerebral atrophy 10.2
24 encephalopathy 10.2
25 subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy 10.2
26 frontotemporal dementia 10.1
27 vascular dementia 10.1
28 intracranial hypertension 10.1
29 frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 10.1
30 vaccinia 10.1
31 hyperglycemia 10.1
32 multiple sclerosis 10.1
33 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.1
34 schizophrenia 10.1
35 hydrocephalus, congenital, 1 10.1
36 hydrocephalus due to congenital stenosis of aqueduct of sylvius 10.1
37 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.1
38 ischemia 10.1
39 syringomyelia 10.1
40 lupus erythematosus 10.1
41 depression 10.1
42 simultanagnosia 10.0 APOE MAPT
43 posterior cortical atrophy 10.0 APOE MAPT
44 familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 10.0 APOE MAPT
45 huntington disease 10.0
46 aging 10.0
47 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.0
48 sleep apnea 10.0
49 apraxia 10.0
50 polyneuropathy 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:



Diseases related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Neuro:
gait disturbance
psychomotor retardation
mild dementia
urinary or fecal incontinence

H E E N T:
normal-pressure hydrocephalus


Clinical features from OMIM:

236690

Human phenotypes related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:

32 (show all 6)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 gait disturbance 32 HP:0001288
2 bowel incontinence 32 HP:0002607
3 global developmental delay 32 HP:0001263
4 dementia 32 HP:0000726
5 urinary incontinence 32 HP:0000020
6 normal pressure hydrocephalus 32 HP:0002343

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Drugs for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 18)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
2 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
3 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
4 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
5 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
6 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
7 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
8 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
9
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
10
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-66-5 1986
11 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
12 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
14 Natriuretic Agents Phase 3
15 diuretics Phase 3
16 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 3
17 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
18 Mitogens

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 44)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy and Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) in Overactive Bladder Patients Completed NCT00902421 Phase 4 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors;Antimuscarinics
2 ShuntCheck Versus Radionuclide in Evaluating Shunt Function in Symptomatic NPH Patients Completed NCT01323764 Phase 4
3 ShuntCheck Accuracy in Detecting Shunt Obstruction Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Patients Withdrawn NCT00793416 Phase 4
4 Clinical Value of Noninvasive Intracranial Pressure Measurement Unknown status NCT02130219 Phase 2, Phase 3
5 PET Imaging of Brain Amyloid in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Completed NCT01053312 Phase 3 [18F] Flutemetamol
6 A Precision and Accuracy Study of the Codman Valve Position Verification (VPV) System. Completed NCT00196196 Phase 3
7 Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Brain Amyloid in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Terminated NCT01092546 Phase 3 [18F]Flutemetamol
8 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Treatment by Acetazolamide Terminated NCT02163330 Phase 3 Acetazolamide;sugar pill
9 Study to Evaluate Efficacy of Shunt Operation for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Completed NCT00221091 Phase 2
10 Acetazolamide for Treating NPH in Shunt-candidates Patients Recruiting NCT03779594 Phase 2 Acetazolamide
11 Computerised Testing of Cognitive Response to Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Unknown status NCT01618500
12 European Study on Prediction of Outcome in Patients With Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Unknown status NCT00874198 Not Applicable
13 Transcranial and Rapid Magnetic Stimulation for Gait Apraxia Due to Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Cerebral Ischemia Unknown status NCT00494689
14 Predictive Value of Flow MRI in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Surgery Completed NCT01815775 Early Phase 1
15 A Trial of High and Low Pressure Level Settings on a Programmable Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Valve for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Completed NCT01570257 Not Applicable
16 Prognostic Value of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Completed NCT00600795
17 Computerized Neuropsychology in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) Completed NCT01265251
18 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Registry Completed NCT00233701
19 A Randomized Cross-over Study for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Completed NCT01798641 Not Applicable
20 A Study Comparing Shunt Placement Versus Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in the Treatment of Hydrocephalus Completed NCT01115270
21 Vascular Risk Factors in INPH-patients Completed NCT01850914
22 Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome in Hydrocephalus Completed NCT02016352 Not Applicable
23 Improved Analysis Methods for Infusion Tests Completed NCT01319136
24 Intracranial Pressure Waves Via Lumbar Puncture Completed NCT01374048
25 Value of Radionuclide Cisternography Completed NCT02876614
26 Comparison of Continuous Noninvasive and Invasive Intracranial Pressure Measurement--Celda Infusion Subprotocol Completed NCT01976559 Not Applicable
27 The Brain Structure and Neural Network Changing the Before and After Ventriculo-peritoneal Shunting in the Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients Recruiting NCT03092804
28 CPT-3 in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Recruiting NCT03521518
29 Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Versus Ventriculo-peritoneal Shunting in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Recruiting NCT03245138 Not Applicable
30 Effects of Physical Training in iNPH Recruiting NCT02659111 Not Applicable
31 Novel Parameters for the Prediction of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting Efficacy in Patients With iNPH Recruiting NCT02495610 Not Applicable
32 A Placebo-Controlled Effectiveness in INPH Shunting (PENS) Trial Recruiting NCT03350750 Not Applicable
33 NSI Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Biomarker Study Recruiting NCT03654014 Not Applicable
34 Estimation of Intracranial Pressure Using Non-invasive Fundus Videos Recruiting NCT03382860
35 Flow MRI in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Active, not recruiting NCT01909960 Not Applicable
36 Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Hydrocephalus Active, not recruiting NCT02230124 Not Applicable
37 Using Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics to Optimize Treatment of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Enrolling by invitation NCT03076723 Not Applicable
38 Brain Network Activation in Patients With Movement Disorders Not yet recruiting NCT03269201
39 Factors Predicting Response to Shunting in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Terminated NCT00613886 Not Applicable
40 Conservative Versus Surgical Management of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) Terminated NCT00727142 Not Applicable
41 ETV Versus Shunt Surgery in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Terminated NCT00946127
42 Prognostic Value of Aβ Imaging in NPH Prior to Shunt Placement Terminated NCT01834625
43 Anterior Pituitary Function in Patients With Hydrocephalus Terminated NCT00149721 Not Applicable
44 Head Circumference Growth in Children Who Develop Multiple Sclerosis Later in Life Withdrawn NCT01377805

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hydrocephalus, normal pressure

Genetic Tests for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Anatomical Context for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:

41
Brain, Testes, Spinal Cord, Pituitary, Bone, Cortex, Thalamus

Publications for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Articles related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:

(show top 50) (show all 1064)
# Title Authors Year
1
Letter: Lumboperitoneal Shunts for the Treatment of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Comparison of Small-Lumen Abdominal Catheters to Gravitational Add-On Valves in a Single Center. ( 30395341 )
2019
2
In Reply: Lumboperitoneal Shunts for the Treatment of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Comparison of Small-Lumen Abdominal Catheters to Gravitational Add-On Valves in a Single Center. ( 30476334 )
2019
3
Cognitive disorders in normal pressure hydrocephalus with initial parkinsonism in comparison with de novo Parkinson's disease. ( 30091839 )
2019
4
Comparative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid metabolites in Alzheimer's disease and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in a Japanese cohort. ( 29387418 )
2018
5
Relationship between gait parameters and MR imaging in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients after shunt surgery. ( 29413784 )
2018
6
The subjective experience of patients undergoing shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29981467 )
2018
7
Computerized gait analysis with inertial sensor in the management of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29962192 )
2018
8
Shunt Intervention for Possible Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Improves Patient Outcomes: A Nationwide Hospital-Based Survey in Japan. ( 29942280 )
2018
9
Postural control before and after cerebrospinal fluid shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29975875 )
2018
10
Lyme Meningoencephalitis Masquerading as Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 29872598 )
2018
11
Progression of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology and Cell Counts in a Patient with Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 29376849 )
2018
12
Brain comorbidities in normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29222955 )
2018
13
Changes of cerebrospinal fluid protein concentrations and gait patterns in geriatric normal pressure hydrocephalus patients after ventriculoperitoneal shunting surgery. ( 29408782 )
2018
14
Concurrent Alzheimer's pathology in patients with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29444559 )
2018
15
An elderly patient with Alzheimer's Disease, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Traumatic Brain Injury: presented with behavioral symptoms similar to behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia. ( 30475083 )
2018
16
Gulliver's world: Persistent lilliputian hallucinations as manifestation of Charles Bonnet syndrome in a case of cataract and normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 30405266 )
2018
17
Parkinsonian Patient with Comorbid Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus : Clinical Usefulness of Diagnosis Supported by Neurological Findings. ( 30298345 )
2018
18
Loss of perivascular aquaporin-4 in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 30306658 )
2018
19
Efficacy and safety of programmable compared with fixed anti-siphon devices for treating idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in adults - SYGRAVA: study protocol for a randomized trial. ( 30333067 )
2018
20
Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus and obstructive sleep apnea are frequently associated: A prospective cohort study. ( 30340088 )
2018
21
Letter to the Editor Regarding "The Quest for Predicting Sustained Shunt Response in Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus: An Analysis of the Callosal Angle's Utility". ( 30347573 )
2018
22
In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "The Quest for Predicting Sustained Shunt Response in Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus: An Analysis of the Callosal Angle's Utility". ( 30347574 )
2018
23
Diffusional Kurtosis along the Corticospinal Tract in Adult Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 30385473 )
2018
24
Pathogenesis of idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A review of knowledge. ( 30409528 )
2018
25
EEG Resting-State Networks Responsible for Gait Disturbance Features in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 30417664 )
2018
26
Development of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the "Grading scale for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus": cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity. ( 30427509 )
2018
27
Structural correlates of cognitive impairment in normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 30428124 )
2018
28
Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Superior Thalamic Radiation and Cerebrospinal Fluid Distribution in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 30461106 )
2018
29
Apathy and right caudate perfusion in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a case-control study. ( 30474244 )
2018
30
Comparison of the CSF dynamics between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and healthy volunteers. ( 30497143 )
2018
31
Outcomes and complications of different surgical treatments for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30497150 )
2018
32
Accuracy and safety of 1-day external lumbar drainage of CSF for shunt selection in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 30497157 )
2018
33
Abnormal Gray Matter Structural Networks in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 30498441 )
2018
34
Absence of Disproportionately Enlarged Subarachnoid Space Hydrocephalus, a Sharp Callosal Angle, or Other Morphologic MRI Markers Should Not Be Used to Exclude Patients with Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus from Shunt Surgery. ( 30523139 )
2018
35
Changes in sensorimotor-related thalamic diffusion properties and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics predict gait responses to tap test in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29736847 )
2018
36
Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 29741669 )
2018
37
Serious adverse events following Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus surgery. ( 29772402 )
2018
38
A case of normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as ventriculoperitoneal shunt-responsive dementia and choreodystonia. ( 29799110 )
2018
39
Delayed Intraventricular Pneumocephalus Following Shunting for Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 29803572 )
2018
40
S-[18F]THK-5117-PET and [11C]PIB-PET Imaging in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in Relation to Confirmed Amyloid-β Plaques and Tau in Brain Biopsies. ( 29865068 )
2018
41
Undiagnosed Cryptococcus gattii meningitis leading to subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection in a patient with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus: case report and literature review. ( 29866070 )
2018
42
18F-FDG PET-CT pattern in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29876274 )
2018
43
Normal pressure hydrocephalus and the predictive value of presurgical tests. ( 29898073 )
2018
44
Gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus: characteristics and effects of the CSF tap test. ( 29898079 )
2018
45
Brain comorbidities in normal pressure hydrocephalus and their impact on the cerebrospinal fluid tap test? ( 29984896 )
2018
46
Brain comorbidities in normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29984900 )
2018
47
Asymmetric hearing loss and chronic dizziness in a patient with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 29991994 )
2018
48
Cisterno-lumbar gradient of complement fractions in geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus. ( 30003878 )
2018
49
Clinimetric Properties and Minimal Clinically Important Differences for a Battery of Gait, Balance, and Cognitive Examinations for the Tap Test in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ( 30010977 )
2018
50
White Matter Changes in Corpus Callosum in a Patient with Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? ( 30069111 )
2018

Variations for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 PMPCA NM_015160.2(PMPCA): c.1066G> A (p.Gly356Ser) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs768643552 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 139313082: 139313082
2 PMPCA NM_015160.2(PMPCA): c.1066G> A (p.Gly356Ser) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs768643552 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 136418630: 136418630
3 PMPCA NM_015160.2(PMPCA): c.1129G> A (p.Ala377Thr) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs753611141 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 136418847: 136418847
4 PMPCA NM_015160.2(PMPCA): c.1129G> A (p.Ala377Thr) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs753611141 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 139313299: 139313299

Expression for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure.

Pathways for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Pathways related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.46 APOE HCRT MAPT NPY
2 10.61 APOE MAPT

GO Terms for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

Biological processes related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 feeding behavior GO:0007631 8.96 HCRT NPY
2 central nervous system neuron development GO:0021954 8.62 MAPT NPY

Molecular functions related to Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 8.96 HCRT NPY
2 lipoprotein particle binding GO:0071813 8.62 APOE MAPT

Sources for Hydrocephalus, Normal-Pressure

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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