Aliases & Classifications for Hyperostosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hyperostosis:

Name: Hyperostosis 12 29 55 44 15 73
Hypertrophy of Bone 12
Bone Hypertrophy 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:205
ICD10 33 M89.3 M89.30
MeSH 44 D015576
NCIt 50 C34712
SNOMED-CT 68 13814009
UMLS 73 C0020492

Summaries for Hyperostosis

Disease Ontology : 12 A bone remodeling disease that results in an abnormal growth of located in bone.

MalaCards based summary : Hyperostosis, also known as hypertrophy of bone, is related to endosteal hyperostosis, autosomal dominant and tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 1. An important gene associated with Hyperostosis is SOST (Sclerostin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency. The drugs Everolimus and Sirolimus have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, heart and spinal cord, and related phenotypes are Reduced mammosphere formation and growth/size/body region

Wikipedia : 76 Hyperostosis is an excessive growth of bone. It may lead to exostosis. It occurs in many musculoskeletal... more...

Related Diseases for Hyperostosis

Diseases related to Hyperostosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 239)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosteal hyperostosis, autosomal dominant 33.7 ANKH LRP5 TNFRSF11B
2 tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 1 33.3 FGF23 GALNT3 KL
3 caffey disease 33.3 COL1A1 GALNT3
4 osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis 33.2 LRP5 TNFRSF11B
5 van buchem disease 33.1 COL1A1 KREMEN1 LRP4 LRP5 SOST
6 sclerosteosis 33.0 COL1A1 LRP4 LRP5 SOST
7 sclerosteosis 1 32.9 LRP4 SOST
8 craniodiaphyseal dysplasia 32.2 LRP5 SOST TGFB1
9 sclerosteosis 2 32.0 LRP4 LRP5 SOST
10 hyperphosphatemia 30.4 FGF23 GALNT3 KL
11 familial tumoral calcinosis 30.1 FGF23 GALNT3 KL
12 calcinosis 30.0 ANKH FGF23 GALNT3 KL
13 renal osteodystrophy 29.9 FGF23 SOST TNFRSF11B
14 facial paralysis 29.5 ANKH LRP5 TGFB1
15 bone disease 29.3 COL1A1 FGF23 IGF1 LRP5 SOST TNFRSF11B
16 osteoporosis 29.0 COL1A1 FGF23 IGF1 KL LRP5 SOST
17 diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis 12.7
18 hyperostosis cranialis interna 12.6
19 hyperostosis frontalis interna 12.5
20 calvarial hyperostosis 12.5
21 ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis with tylosis 12.5
22 exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, dyserythropoietic anemia, and calvarial hyperostosis 12.3
23 polyosteolysis-hyperostosis syndrome 12.2
24 dysplastic cortical hyperostosis 12.1
25 sapho syndrome 12.0
26 short stature cranial hyperostosis hepatomegaly 12.0
27 short stature, cranial hyperostosis, hepatomegaly and diabetes 12.0
28 isolated sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis 12.0
29 paget disease of bone 5, juvenile-onset 11.8
30 camurati-engelmann disease 11.7
31 craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant 11.4
32 exostosis 11.3
33 lenz-majewski hyperostotic dwarfism 11.2
34 frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2 11.2
35 tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 2 11.2
36 tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 3 11.2
37 melorheostosis 11.1
38 weleber hecht bigley syndrome 11.1
39 craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant 11.1
40 craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive 11.1
41 weismann-netter syndrome 10.9
42 melorheostosis, isolated 10.9
43 buschke-ollendorff syndrome 10.9
44 raine syndrome 10.9
45 ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of spine 10.9
46 synovitis 10.6
47 dysphagia 10.6
48 spondylitis 10.5
49 spondyloarthropathy 1 10.4
50 osteomyelitis 10.3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hyperostosis:



Diseases related to Hyperostosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hyperostosis

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Hyperostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.1 GALNT3 IGF1 KREMEN1 LRP5 MAP3K7 TGFB1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hyperostosis:

46 (show all 16)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 ANKH COL1A1 COX4I2 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1
2 cellular MP:0005384 10.29 ANKH COL1A1 GALNT3 IGF1 KL LRP4
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.27 ANKH COL1A1 COX4I2 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1
4 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.21 ANKH COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL
5 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.15 ANKH COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL
6 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.14 ANKH COL1A1 GALNT3 KL LRP4 LRP5
7 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.13 COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL LRP4
8 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.13 ANKH COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL
9 immune system MP:0005387 10.13 ANKH COL1A1 COX4I2 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1
10 integument MP:0010771 9.95 COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL LRP4
11 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.89 ANKH COL1A1 IGF1 KL TNFRSF11B
12 muscle MP:0005369 9.87 ANKH COL1A1 GALNT3 IGF1 KL SLC39A14
13 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.81 ANKH COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL
14 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.8 COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL LRP4
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 ANKH COL1A1 COX4I2 FGF23 IGF1 KL
16 skeleton MP:0005390 9.44 ANKH COL1A1 FGF23 GALNT3 IGF1 KL

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hyperostosis

Drugs for Hyperostosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 44)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Everolimus Approved Phase 2 159351-69-6 6442177
2
Sirolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 2 53123-88-9 46835353 6436030 5284616
3
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 22916-47-8 4189
4
Methotrexate Approved Phase 2 59-05-2, 1959-05-2 126941
5
leucovorin Approved Phase 2 58-05-9 6006 143
6
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
7
Tretinoin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2 302-79-4 5538 444795
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
9 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2
10 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2
11 Antifungal Agents Phase 2
12 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
13 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
14 Vitamin B9 Phase 2
15 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
16 Antibodies Phase 2
17 Vitamin B Complex Phase 2
18 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 2
19 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
20 Folate Phase 2
21 Folic Acid Antagonists Phase 2
22 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
23 Antimetabolites Phase 2
24 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Phase 2
26
Pamidronate Approved Phase 1 40391-99-9 4674
27 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 1
28 Diphosphonates Phase 1
29
Sevelamer Approved 52757-95-6
30
Etanercept Approved, Investigational 185243-69-0
31
Alfacalcidol Approved, Nutraceutical 41294-56-8 5282181
32 Hydroxycholecalciferols
33 Vitamins
34 Trace Elements
35 Chelating Agents
36 Micronutrients
37 Analgesics
38 Peripheral Nervous System Agents
39 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
40 Gastrointestinal Agents
41 Anti-Inflammatory Agents
42 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
43 Insulin, Globin Zinc Not Applicable
44 insulin Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 28)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Chronic Insertional Achilles Tendonitis Treated With or Without Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer Completed NCT00950053 Phase 4
2 Autologous Stem Cells in Achilles Tendinopathy Unknown status NCT02064062 Phase 2
3 Study of Sirolimus Therapy for Segmental Overgrowth Caused by Somatic PI3K Activation Completed NCT02428296 Phase 2 Sirolimus
4 Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of AIN457 in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Taking Methotrexate (MTX) Completed NCT00928512 Phase 2 Secukinmab;Placebo
5 Flexible Footwear and Insole in Heel Pain Recruiting NCT03040557 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 An Efficacy and Safety Study of Palovarotene for the Treatment of MO Recruiting NCT03442985 Phase 2 Palovarotene 2.5 mg;Palovarotene 5.0 mg
7 Evaluation of an Acellular Osteochondral Graft for Cartilage LEsions Pilot Trial Terminated NCT01183637 Phase 2
8 Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Patients With Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis (SAPHO) Syndrome Completed NCT02544659 Phase 1 pamidronate disodium
9 Evaluation of Radiculitis Following Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 for Interbody Arthrodesis in Spinal Surgery Unknown status NCT00984672
10 Hypophosphatemic Rickets in Norway Unknown status NCT01057186 Sevelamer
11 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Selected Physical and Kinesiotherapeutic Methods in Patients With Lower Calcaneal Spur Unknown status NCT02934100 Not Applicable
12 Differences in Bone Cell Activity Between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Completed NCT01417455
13 Nottingham Osteoarthritis Biomarker Study 2011 Completed NCT01495455
14 Immune Response in the SAPHO Syndrome Completed NCT01688219
15 Clinical Observation Study With the SBG Stem Completed NCT02338661
16 A Comparison of the Analgesic Efficacies of Ultrasound and Shock Wave Therapy in the Patients With Calcaneal Spur Completed NCT01510249
17 Effects of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Cupping on Plantar Heel Pain Completed NCT02895698 Not Applicable
18 Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Combined With Standard Treatment in the Management of Plantar Fasciitis Completed NCT01439932 Not Applicable
19 Characterize Patients With Moderately Active Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Completed NCT01557322 methotrexate (MTX)
20 The Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Hereditary Multiple Exostoses Completed NCT00474448
21 Effect of Chosen Treatment Methods in Patients With Cervical Spine Osteoarthritis Completed NCT03683602 Not Applicable
22 NGS Strategy Effectiveness in Molecular Diagnosis Completed NCT03557567
23 Natural History, Pathogenesis and Outcome of Melorheostosis A Rare Osteosclerotic Disease Recruiting NCT02504879
24 Genetic and Functional Analysis of Craniometaphyseal Dysplasia (CMD) Recruiting NCT01630460
25 Analysis of a Tapered Porous Coated Stem and a Cementless Hemispherical Acetabular Component Recruiting NCT03168750 Not Applicable
26 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in High Risk Patients for the Development of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) Active, not recruiting NCT03237455 Not Applicable
27 Gene Mutations and Orthopaedic Symptoms Correlation of Multiple Hereditary Exostoses: Multicentre Project Suspended NCT00474331
28 Establishing the Genetic Profile of Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (HME) in Families of BC Terminated NCT00473850

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hyperostosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hyperostosis

Genetic Tests for Hyperostosis

Genetic tests related to Hyperostosis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Hyperostosis 29

Anatomical Context for Hyperostosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hyperostosis:

41
Bone, Heart, Spinal Cord, Brain, Lung, Myeloid, Kidney

Publications for Hyperostosis

Articles related to Hyperostosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1183)
# Title Authors Year
1
Thoracic aortic aneurysm is an independent factor associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. ( 29701101 )
2018
2
Images in Neuroscience: Calvarial hyperostosis associated with multiple intracranial tumours. ( 29428264 )
2018
3
The Natural Course of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in the Thoracic Spine of Adult Males. ( 29657149 )
2018
4
Regional differences in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: a retrospective cohort study from Sweden and Japan. ( 29916957 )
2018
5
Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture in a Patient with Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis after Minimal Trauma: Eight-Year Follow-Up. ( 29682378 )
2018
6
Anterior longitudinal ligament in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: Ossified or displaced? ( 29667228 )
2018
7
Prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) assessed with whole-spine computed tomography in 1479 subjects. ( 29848322 )
2018
8
The surgical management of dysphagia secondary to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. ( 29438856 )
2018
9
L5-S1 Charcot spine induced by diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in chronic tetraplegia: 2 cases. ( 29920334 )
2018
10
Rich table but short life: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and its possible consequences. ( 29672561 )
2018
11
Conditional mouse models support the role of SLC39A14 (ZIP14) in Hyperostosis Cranialis Interna and in bone homeostasis. ( 29621230 )
2018
12
Esophageal incarceration associated with cervical vertebral fracture in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. ( 29935973 )
2018
13
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis-On the Wrong Side? ( 29481728 )
2018
14
Severe hip joint motion restriction in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: A case report. ( 29718882 )
2018
15
Degenerative changes of the thoracic spine do exist in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: a detailed thoracic spine CT analysis. ( 29482347 )
2018
16
Urgent Anterior Cervical Osteophytectomy for an Asymptomatic Cervical Hyperostosis to Overcome Failed Intubation. ( 29868301 )
2018
17
Traumatic spondyloptosis at the thoracolumbar junction in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: A case report. ( 29478625 )
2018
18
Unusual findings on infantile cortical hyperostosis: A case report. ( 29956834 )
2018
19
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is associated with lumbar spinal stenosis requiring surgery. ( 29327302 )
2018
20
Meningioma and Bone Hyperostosis: Expression of Bone Stimulating Factors and Review of the Literature. ( 29729471 )
2018
21
Factors associated with bone metabolism in patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament accompanied with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. ( 29547116 )
2018
22
Cervical Hyperostosis Leading to Dyspnea, Aspiration and Dysphagia: Strategies to Improve Patient Management. ( 29740589 )
2018
23
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Extended to the Lumbar Segment is a Risk Factor of Reoperation in Patients Treated Surgically for Lumbar Stenosis. ( 29481381 )
2018
24
Serum Levels of proinflammatory, antiinflammatory cytokines and RANKL/OPG in synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) Syndrome. ( 29694253 )
2018
25
Bone mineral density changes over time in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the thoracic spine. ( 29649655 )
2018
26
Prevalence of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diagnosed by Whole Spine Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study. ( 29564046 )
2018
27
Giant Bilateral Calvarial Hyperostosis Secondary to Small Unilateral Frontal Meningioma. ( 30271067 )
2018
28
Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis (SAPHO) Syndrome - Two Presentations of the Same Disease? ( 30390722 )
2018
29
Abdominal fat distribution in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ankylosing spondylitis patients compared to controls. ( 30031587 )
2018
30
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in an HLA-B27-Positive Subject. ( 30048388 )
2018
31
Simultaneous occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: a systematic review. ( 30060244 )
2018
32
Prevalence and Distribution of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis on Whole-spine Computed Tomography in Patients With Cervical Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A Multicenter Study. ( 30113323 )
2018
33
The controlled study of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis for the assessment of physical function in elderly populations. ( 30119929 )
2018
34
Serum adiponectin levels in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). ( 30121711 )
2018
35
Management of Airway Obstruction due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report and Literature Review. ( 30146564 )
2018
36
Selective mortality in middle-aged American women with Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH). ( 30153267 )
2018
37
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. Comment on the article by Latourte et al. ( 30192072 )
2018
38
Response to: "Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. Comment on the article by Latourte et al" by Olmedo-Garzón and Ruiz-Ollero. ( 30192080 )
2018
39
Aortic pulsation prevents the development of ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament toward the aorta in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Japanese: Results of chest CT-based cross-sectional study. ( 30232028 )
2018
40
Prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis among elderly subjects referred for radiological investigation in tertiary hospital at Oman. ( 30310709 )
2018
41
Spinal fractures in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: Clinical characteristics by fracture level. ( 30415821 )
2018
42
Airway Management in Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis. ( 30459912 )
2018
43
Increased Bone Mineral Density in Cervical or Thoracic Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH): A Case-Control Study. ( 27712986 )
2018
44
Cervical Alignment of Anterior Cervical Hyperostosis Causing Dysphagia. ( 30095794 )
2018
45
Frontal Sinus Osteoma Accompanied by Intracranial Mucocele and Local Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna. ( 29452329 )
2018
46
Chest pain that does not make the cut: a case study of a surgical patient with Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis and Osteitis syndrome. ( 30239087 )
2018
47
Cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis: A biological approach to diagnosis. ( 30259969 )
2018
48
Diagnostic value of ultrasonography in synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome: A case report. ( 30313072 )
2018
49
Hyperostosis frontalis interna in ancient populations from the Carpathian Basin - A possible relationship between lifestyle and risk of development. ( 30342349 )
2018
50
Infantile cortical hyperostosis manifesting as congenital unilateral proptosis. ( 30503007 )
2018

Variations for Hyperostosis

Expression for Hyperostosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hyperostosis.

Pathways for Hyperostosis

GO Terms for Hyperostosis

Cellular components related to Hyperostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 COL1A1 FGF23 IGF1 KL SOST TGFB1

Biological processes related to Hyperostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.72 FGF23 IGF1 KL TGFB1 TNFRSF11B
2 negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway GO:0090090 9.7 KREMEN1 LRP4 SOST
3 Wnt signaling pathway GO:0016055 9.67 KREMEN1 LRP4 LRP5 SOST
4 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.63 IGF1 LRP4 TGFB1
5 fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0008543 9.61 FGF23 GALNT3 KL
6 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.56 IGF1 LRP5
7 regulation of bone mineralization GO:0030500 9.55 ANKH FGF23
8 phosphate-containing compound metabolic process GO:0006796 9.54 FGF23 TGFB1
9 positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:2000679 9.51 IGF1 TGFB1
10 response to magnesium ion GO:0032026 9.49 FGF23 TNFRSF11B
11 cell activation GO:0001775 9.48 IGF1 TGFB1
12 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.46 ANKH COL1A1 IGF1 TNFRSF11B
13 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 9.43 COL1A1 FGF23 IGF1 LRP5 SOST TGFB1
14 cellular response to parathyroid hormone stimulus GO:0071374 9.4 FGF23 SOST
15 positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0090080 9.26 FGF23 KL
16 negative regulation of ossification GO:0030279 8.92 KREMEN1 LRP4 SOST TGFB1

Molecular functions related to Hyperostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fibroblast growth factor receptor binding GO:0005104 8.62 FGF23 KL

Sources for Hyperostosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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