HPRL
MCID: HYP020
MIFTS: 64

Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL)

Categories: Blood diseases, Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Hyperprolactinemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hyperprolactinemia:

Name: Hyperprolactinemia 57 11 75 73 28 53 43 14 38 16 71 75
Chiari-Frommel Syndrome 11 19 75 43 71
Hyperprolactinaemia 11 75 31 33
Familial Hyperprolactinemia 58 28 5
Hprl 57 73
Familial Isolated Prolactin Receptor Deficiency 58
Pregnancy-Related a-G Syndrome 11

Characteristics:


Inheritance:

Hyperprolactinemia: Autosomal dominant 57
Familial Hyperprolactinemia: Autosomal dominant 58

Age Of Onset:

Familial Hyperprolactinemia: Adult 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infertility disorders
Rare endocrine diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:12700
OMIM® 57 615555
SNOMED-CT 68 190468001 85039006
ICD10 31 E22.1
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 E22.1
Orphanet 58 ORPHA397685
MedGen 40 C0020514
ICD11 33 1417218455
UMLS 71 C0008043 C0020514

Summaries for Hyperprolactinemia

Orphanet: 58 Familial hyperprolactinemia is a rare, genetic endocrine disorder characterized by persistently high prolactin serum levels (not associated with gestation, puerperium, drug intake or pituitary tumor) in multiple members of a family. Clinically it manifests with signs usually observed in hyperprolactinemia, which are: secondary medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)-negative amenorrhea and galactorrhea in female patients, and hypogonadism and decreased testosterone level-driven sexual dysfunction in male patients. Oligomenorrhea and primary infertility have also been reported in some female patients.

MalaCards based summary: Hyperprolactinemia, also known as chiari-frommel syndrome, is related to galactorrhea and pituitary tumors. An important gene associated with Hyperprolactinemia is PRLR (Prolactin Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and GPCR downstream signalling. The drugs Risperidone and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, ovary and bone, and related phenotypes are galactorrhea and oligomenorrhea

OMIM®: 57 Hyperprolactinemia unrelated to pregnancy occurs in approximately 0.1 to 0.3% of the general population and may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. Such nonphysiologic hyperprolactinemia is caused mainly by drugs or by tumors in the anterior pituitary gland, primarily prolactinomas (see 102200). However, 10 to 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia who undergo MRI have normal findings (summary by Newey et al., 2013). Patients with hyperprolactinemia may also experience agalactia (Kobayashi et al., 2018). (615555) (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: 73 A disorder characterized by increased levels of prolactin in the blood not associated with gestation or the puerperium. HPRL may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea.

Disease Ontology: 11 An acquired metabolic disease that has material basis in the presence of abnormally-high levels of prolactin in the blood.

Wikipedia: 75 Hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Normal levels... more...

Related Diseases for Hyperprolactinemia

Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 710)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 galactorrhea 31.7 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
2 pituitary tumors 31.3 SST PRL IGF1 GNAS GH1
3 mccune-albright syndrome 31.2 SST PRL POMC IGF1 GNAS GHRH
4 amenorrhea 30.9 TRH SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1
5 premature ovarian failure 7 30.7 POMC GH1
6 prolactinoma 30.7 VIP TRH SST SHBG PRLR PRL
7 impotence 30.7 VIP SHBG PRL HTR2C
8 diabetes insipidus 30.7 PRL POMC INS GH1
9 precocious puberty 30.7 GNRH1 GNAS GH1
10 gynecomastia 30.6 SHBG PRL POMC GNRH1 DRD2
11 adenoma 30.6 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GNAS
12 hypogonadism 30.6 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
13 empty sella syndrome 30.5 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
14 acth deficiency, isolated 30.5 TRH PRL POMC
15 anovulation 30.5 SHBG PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 DRD2
16 premenstrual tension 30.5 POMC GNRH1
17 central diabetes insipidus 30.5 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
18 tsh producing pituitary tumor 30.4 SST PRL POMC
19 craniopharyngioma 30.4 TRH PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
20 polycystic ovary syndrome 30.4 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
21 chromophobe adenoma 30.4 TRH PRLR PRL POMC GH1
22 graves disease 1 30.3 TRH SHBG POMC INS
23 infertility 30.3 SHBG PRLR PRL H19 GNRH1
24 multiple endocrine neoplasia 30.3 VIP SST PRL POMC GNAS
25 psychotic disorder 30.2 PRL INS HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
26 lactocele 30.2 TRH PRL GHRH
27 chiasmal syndrome 30.2 SST PRL POMC
28 central precocious puberty 30.2 POMC IGF1 GNRH1
29 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 30.1 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
30 acth-secreting pituitary adenoma 30.1 SST PRL POMC
31 abducens palsy 30.1 PRL POMC
32 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 30.1 TRH SST PRL POMC GHRH GH1
33 ovarian disease 30.1 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
34 prediabetes syndrome 30.1 SHBG INS IGF1 GH1
35 acne 30.0 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1
36 mixed cell adenoma 30.0 PRL IGF1 GNRH1
37 sheehan syndrome 30.0 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GH1
38 leydig cell tumor 29.9 PTHLH PRL GNRH1
39 turner syndrome 29.9 SHBG INS IGF1 GH1
40 nelson syndrome 29.9 SST PRL POMC
41 functioning pituitary adenoma 29.9 TRH SST PRLR PRL POMC IGF1
42 hyperandrogenism 29.9 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
43 tic disorder 29.9 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
44 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 29.9 TRH POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1 GHRH
45 hyperinsulinism 29.9 SST SHBG INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
46 parathyroid adenoma 29.9 PTHLH PRL GNAS
47 paranoid schizophrenia 29.9 PRL HTR2C HTR2A DRD2
48 breast disease 29.9 SHBG PRLR PRL IGF1
49 pituitary adenoma 29.9 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 H19
50 fibromyalgia 29.9 POMC INS IGF1 HTR2A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia:



Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hyperprolactinemia

Human phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

58 30 (show all 11)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 galactorrhea 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0100829
2 oligomenorrhea 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000876
3 infertility 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000789
4 amenorrhea 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000141
5 hemorrhagic ovarian cyst 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0012886
6 osteopenia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000938
7 osteoporosis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000939
8 female hypogonadism 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000134
9 menorrhagia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000132
10 agalactia 30 Very rare (1%) HP:0031109
11 increased circulating prolactin concentration 30 HP:0000870

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Female:
infertility (in some patients)
oligomenorrhea (in some patients)
menorrhagia (in some patients)

Chest Breasts:
galactorrhea (in some patients)
agalactia (in some patients)

Endocrine Features:
elevated prolactin levels

Clinical features from OMIM®:

615555 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

45 (show all 15)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.44 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.41 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.31 DRD2 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS GNRH1
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.3 DRD2 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS GNRH1
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.24 DRD2 GH1 GHRH GNAS HTR2C IGF1
6 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.22 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.18 DRD2 GH1 GNAS GNRH1 IGF1 INS
8 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.16 DRD2 GH1 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 INS
9 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.15 DRD2 GNAS GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL
10 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.11 DRD2 GAL GH1 GHRH GNAS IGF1
11 immune system MP:0005387 10.07 DRD2 GH1 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2C
12 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.01 DRD2 GNAS GNRH1 HTR2A INS PTHLH
13 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.9 DRD2 GAL GH1 GHRH GNRH1 IGF1
14 skeleton MP:0005390 9.7 DRD2 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2A IGF1
15 integument MP:0010771 9.36 DRD2 GAL GNAS GNRH1 HTR2C IGF1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hyperprolactinemia

Drugs for Hyperprolactinemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
3
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
4
Quinagolide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 87056-78-8
5
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
6
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
7
Paliperidone Palmitate Phase 4
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
9 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
10 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
11 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
12 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
13 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
14 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
15 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
16 Hormones Phase 4
17 Estradiol 3-benzoate Phase 4
18 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4
19
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
20
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 3 25614-03-3 31101
21
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 471-34-1
22
Cholecalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 67-97-0, 1406-16-2 5280795 10883523
23 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3
24 Vitamins Phase 3
25 Trace Elements Phase 3
26 Calciferol Phase 3
27 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
28 Micronutrients Phase 3
29
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
30
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2 68-04-2 23431961
31
Clomifene Approved, Investigational Phase 2 911-45-5 2800
32
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 57-83-0 5994
33
Licorice Approved Phase 2
34
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 91374-21-9 5095
35
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 77-92-9 311
36
Enclomiphene Investigational Phase 2 15690-57-0 1548953
37 Estrogens Phase 2
38 Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 2
39 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
40 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 2
41 Anticoagulants Phase 2
42 Zuclomiphene Phase 2
43 Citrate Phase 2
44 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 2
45 Chelating Agents Phase 2
46 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
47 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1
48
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational 9002-64-6
49
Levodopa Approved 59-92-7, 63-84-3 6047
50
Racepinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4, 329-65-7 838 5816

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 32)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia by Aripiprazole Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Open-Label Trial Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
2 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
3 Aripiprazole Treatment for Antipsychotic Induced Hyperprolactinaemia in Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Learning Disabilities Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
4 Effect of Treatment With Agonist Dopaminergics on Endometriosic Lesions. Completed NCT00625950 Phase 4
5 The Luveris® In Vitro Fertilization Trial: The Effect of Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone on Follicular Response, Oocyte Quality, and Pregnancy in In-Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles in Women Without Endogenous LH Activity. Terminated NCT00889512 Phase 4 Luveris fixed dose;Luveris increasing dose
6 Therapy With Bromocriptine in Patients With Symptomatic Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia Unknown status NCT00315081 Phase 3 Bromocriptin
7 Counteracting Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Youths Completed NCT00799383 Phase 3 Calcium and Vitamin D
8 Effectiveness and Safety of Bushen Culuan Decoction for Anovulatory Infertility:A Clinical Research of "Same Treatment for Different Diseases" Unknown status NCT03709849 Phase 2 experimental group: Bushen Culuan Decoction and Clomiphene Citrate Tablets placebo;control group: Clomiphene Citrate Tablets and Bushen Culuan Decoction placebo
9 The Herbal Medicine Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) as an Adjunctive Therapy to Treat Antipsychotic-induced Hyperprolactinemia in Patients With Schizophrenia: a Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Completed NCT01852331 Phase 2 PGD granules;Placebo
10 Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia With the Non-ergoline Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole: A Dose Escalation Study of Efficacy and Tolerability Completed NCT03038308 Phase 1, Phase 2 Ropinirole
11 Administration of Kisspeptin in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia Recruiting NCT02956447 Phase 2 Kisspeptin 112-121;Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
12 Nurse's Role in the Management of Hyperprolactinemia: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT04262024 Phase 1 Cabergoline 0.5Mg orally daily for 1 month plus health education by a nurse;Cabergoline 0.5Mg orally daily for 1 month without health education by a nurse
13 Kisspeptin Administration in the Adult Recruiting NCT00914823 Phase 1 kisspeptin 112-121;GnRH
14 Effects of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs on Bone Metabolism Unknown status NCT03675750
15 Adjunctive Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study Unknown status NCT02013232 Aripiprazole
16 Develop and Implement Methods for Diagnostic and Treatment of Hormonal Disorders in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT04439747
17 Prognostic Value of Pituitary Histopathology and Plasma Hyperprolactinaemia in Predicting the Risk of Glucose Metabolic Disturbances in Patients With Acromegaly. Unknown status NCT02092129
18 Changes in Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Antipsychotics After Switching to Quetiapine: a Naturalistic, Prospective, Multicentric Observational Study of 6 Months Follow-up Completed NCT00952757
19 Relationship of Metabolic Parameters, Endocrine and Prolactin Levels in Taiwan's Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hyperprolactinemia. Completed NCT01117272
20 Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Adjunctive Aripiprazole for Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia In Premenopausal Women With Schizophrenia Completed NCT01338298 Aripiprazole;Placebo
21 Characterization of Macroprolactinemia Completed NCT00436111
22 Model Driven Computation for Infertility Related Endocrinological Diseases - PAEON Completed NCT02098668
23 A Retrospective Cohort Study of Hyperprolactinaemia Management in Reproductive Services at University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) Completed NCT03569787
24 The Association Between Dopamine Agonists and Cardiac Valvulopathy, Fibrosis and Other Cardiopulmonary Events Completed NCT01052948
25 Study on Utilization Of Cabergoline For Compliance With Risk Minimization Activities (SUCRE) Completed NCT01270711 Study Drug
26 Hyperprolactinemia and Adrenal Steroidogenesis: is There a Link? Recruiting NCT04146389
27 Assessment of the Prevalence of Hyperprolactinemia in Systemic Scleroderma Recruiting NCT04746313
28 Prolactin and FGF21 in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting NCT05528393
29 Seoul National University Pituitary Disease Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03474601
30 PROSA: Prolactin, Sex Hormones, Growth and Metabolic Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents on Antipsychotics Not yet recruiting NCT05033119
31 Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks and Intracranial Hypotension Suspended NCT02603549
32 Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia Before and After Treatment Withdrawn NCT00699530

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hyperprolactinemia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


2-Bromoergocryptine Mesylate
Bromocriptine
cabergoline

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hyperprolactinemia

Genetic Tests for Hyperprolactinemia

Genetic tests related to Hyperprolactinemia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Familial Hyperprolactinemia 28 PRLR
2 Hyperprolactinemia 28

Anatomical Context for Hyperprolactinemia

Organs/tissues related to Hyperprolactinemia:

MalaCards : Pituitary, Ovary, Bone, Bone Marrow, Breast, Kidney, Hypothalamus
ODiseA: Blood And Bone Marrow

Publications for Hyperprolactinemia

Articles related to Hyperprolactinemia:

(show top 50) (show all 7063)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Variant Prolactin Receptor in Agalactia and Hyperprolactinemia. 62 57 5
30575453 2018
2
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 62 57
24597877 2014
3
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 62 57
24597880 2014
4
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 62 57
24597879 2014
5
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 62 57
24597878 2014
6
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 62 57
24195502 2013
7
Lack of expression of endometrial prolactin in early implantation failure: a pilot study. 57
15218000 2004
8
Hyperprolactinemia associated with psychotropics--a review. 53 62
20521318 2010
9
Comparison of multiple methods for identification of hyperprolactinemia in the presence of macroprolactin. 53 62
19895797 2010
10
Genetic associations of prolactin increase in olanzapine/fluoxetine combination-treated patients. 53 62
19896213 2010
11
HER2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with endocrine function and psychological status in operable and metastatic breast cancer. 53 62
20023245 2009
12
Pituitary tumours: the prolactinoma. 53 62
19945024 2009
13
Prolactin and preclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors. 53 62
19451414 2009
14
Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents. 53 62
19339912 2009
15
Medical therapy in patients with acromegaly: predictors of response and comparison of efficacy of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues. 53 62
19158203 2009
16
Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia. 53 62
19059524 2009
17
Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. 53 62
18690463 2008
18
Endocrine manifestations of the rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, autonomic dysregulation, and neural tumor syndrome in childhood. 53 62
18628522 2008
19
Current guidelines and their recommendations for prolactin monitoring in psychosis. 53 62
18477625 2008
20
Categorical prevalence and severity of hyperprolactinaemia in two UK cohorts of patients with severe mental illness during treatment with antipsychotics. 53 62
18477621 2008
21
Effect of hyperprolactinaemia on Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in humans. 53 62
18092180 2008
22
Anti-prolactin (PRL) autoantibodies suppress PRL bioactivity in patients with macroprolactinaemia. 53 62
17681026 2008
23
[Biochemical aspects of modified, transdermal replacement hormone therapy]. 53 62
18411913 2007
24
Fibroblast growth factor-2 in hyperplastic pituitaries of D2R knockout female mice. 53 62
17848635 2007
25
Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia. 53 62
18473017 2007
26
Predictors of remission of hyperprolactinaemia after long-term withdrawal of cabergoline therapy. 53 62
17573902 2007
27
WITHDRAWN: Bromocriptine for idiopathic oligo/asthenospermia. 53 62
17636605 2007
28
Clinical and laboratory features greatly overlap in patients with macroprolactinemia or monomeric hyperprolactinemia. 53 62
17557033 2007
29
Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia are distinct entities. 53 62
17558684 2007
30
Development of anti-PRL (prolactin) autoantibodies by homologous PRL in rats: a model for macroprolactinemia. 53 62
17303669 2007
31
Atypical antipsychotics and pituitary neoplasms in the WHO database. 53 62
17285098 2007
32
Hyperprolactinemia and immunohistochemical expression of intracellular prolactin and prolactin receptor in primary central nervous system tumors and their relationship with cellular replication. 53 62
18095129 2007
33
[Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment]. 53 62
17253440 2006
34
Drug Insight: prolactin-receptor antagonists, a novel approach to treatment of unresolved systemic and local hyperprolactinemia? 53 62
17024156 2006
35
Clinical and biochemical characteristics of a male patient with a novel homozygous STAT5b mutation. 53 62
16787985 2006
36
Application of new homologous in vitro bioassays for human lactogens to assess the actual bioactivity of human prolactin isoforms in hyperprolactinaemic patients. 53 62
16886952 2006
37
Macroprolactin: what is it and what is its importance? 53 62
16620360 2006
38
Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release. 53 62
16554049 2006
39
Gene therapy in the neuroendocrine system. 53 62
16809929 2006
40
Prolactin suppresses GnRH but not TSH secretion. 53 62
16357488 2006
41
Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after irradiation of nonpituitary brain tumors in adults. 53 62
16144946 2005
42
The dopamine receptor D2 genotype is associated with hyperprolactinemia. 53 62
16169407 2005
43
[Macroprolactin in subjects with hyperprolactinaemia: clinical observations and relations between free PRL and PRL complexed with IgG]. 53 62
16817144 2005
44
Macroprolactin; high molecular mass forms of circulating prolactin. 53 62
15949152 2005
45
Possible involvement of prolactin in endocrine-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. 53 62
16011043 2005
46
Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia: association with typical and atypical antipsychotic treatment. 53 62
15554761 2004
47
Symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts: a report of 24 cases. 53 62
15762042 2004
48
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis in men and women with chronic kidney disease. 53 62
15492969 2004
49
Gender differences in systemic lupus erythematosus. 53 62
16115579 2004
50
Hyperprolactinaemia and antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenia. 53 62
15006013 2004

Variations for Hyperprolactinemia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

5
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.635A>G (p.His212Arg) SNV Pathogenic
89027 rs398122522 GRCh37: 5:35070276-35070276
GRCh38: 5:35070174-35070174
2 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.511C>T (p.Arg171Ter) SNV Pathogenic
599315 rs376188691 GRCh37: 5:35072709-35072709
GRCh38: 5:35072607-35072607
3 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.806C>T (p.Pro269Leu) SNV Pathogenic
599316 rs754974807 GRCh37: 5:35068367-35068367
GRCh38: 5:35068265-35068265
4 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.1483C>T (p.Pro495Ser) SNV Uncertain Significance
1526078 GRCh37: 5:35065577-35065577
GRCh38: 5:35065475-35065475

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

73
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 PRLR p.His212Arg VAR_070895 rs398122522

Expression for Hyperprolactinemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hyperprolactinemia.

Pathways for Hyperprolactinemia

Pathways related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.44 PRLR PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS
2
Show member pathways
13.34 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GHRH GNAS GNRH1
3 13.24 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC INS
4
Show member pathways
13.21 IGF1 HTR2C HTR2A GNRH1 GNAS GHRH
5
Show member pathways
12.94 GH1 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 IGF1 INS
6
Show member pathways
12.82 PRLR PRL INS IGF1 GH1
7
Show member pathways
12.56 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC HTR2C
8
Show member pathways
12.31 VIP PTHLH GNAS GHRH
9
Show member pathways
12.1 POMC INS IGF1 GH1
10
Show member pathways
11.97 VIP PTHLH POMC GNAS GHRH
11 11.93 PRLR INS IGF1 GH1
12
Show member pathways
11.74 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
13 11.61 IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS GHRH GH1
14
Show member pathways
11.55 HTR2C HTR2A GNAS
15 11.5 POMC INS HTR2C GNRH1 GHRH
16 11.4 PRLR PRL INS
17
Show member pathways
11.36 GNAS DRD4 DRD2
18
Show member pathways
11.3 PRLR PRL GH1
19 11.18 PRLR PRL GAL
20
Show member pathways
11.12 HTR2A HTR2C POMC
21 11.08 HTR2C HTR2A GNAS
22 10.91 IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS GHRH GH1
23 10.85 PRL POMC INS HTR2C DRD2
24 9.73 SST GNRH1

GO Terms for Hyperprolactinemia

Cellular components related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 10.26 SST PTHLH PRL POMC INS IGF1
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.78 VIP TRH SST SHBG PTHLH PRLR
3 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.56 GH1 INS PRL PRLR
4 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor complex GO:0098666 9.46 HTR2C HTR2A

Biological processes related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007189 10.18 VIP PTHLH GNAS GHRH
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.15 VIP SST INS HTR2C HTR2A GNAS
3 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 10.1 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
4 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 10.06 HTR2C HTR2A DRD2
5 positive regulation of cell population proliferation GO:0008284 10.06 GHRH HTR2A IGF1 INS PRL PRLR
6 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 10.01 DRD2 GH1 GHRH
7 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.95 DRD2 GAL HTR2C
8 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 9.93 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
9 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.91 GHRH DRD2
10 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.91 INS IGF1 HTR2A
11 regulation of appetite GO:0032098 9.9 POMC HTR2C
12 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.89 TRH PTHLH PRL POMC INS IGF1
13 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.88 DRD2 DRD4 INS
14 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.87 DRD4 DRD2
15 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.83 DRD4 DRD2
16 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.81 DRD4 DRD2
17 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process GO:0010513 9.8 HTR2C HTR2A
18 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.8 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
19 phospholipase C-activating serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007208 9.78 HTR2C HTR2A
20 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.73 IGF1 GHRH GH1
21 behavior GO:0007610 9.59 HTR2C HTR2A
22 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.47 TRH SST PTHLH POMC INS GNRH1

Molecular functions related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.93 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
2 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.91 VIP GHRH GAL
3 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.8 DRD4 DRD2
4 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.71 DRD4 DRD2
5 Gq/11-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0001587 9.67 HTR2C HTR2A
6 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.65 DRD4 DRD2
7 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.64 VIP TRH SST PTHLH PRL POMC
8 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 9.63 INS IGF1 GNAS
9 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 9.62 GH1 PRL
10 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine binding GO:0071886 9.56 HTR2A HTR2C
11 peptide hormone receptor binding GO:0051428 9.43 VIP PTHLH GHRH

Sources for Hyperprolactinemia

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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