HPRL
MCID: HYP020
MIFTS: 63

Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL)

Categories: Blood diseases, Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hyperprolactinemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hyperprolactinemia:

Name: Hyperprolactinemia 57 12 73 72 36 29 54 6 44 15 39 17 70
Chiari-Frommel Syndrome 12 73 20 44 70
Hyperprolactinaemia 12 32
Hprl 57 72
Familial Isolated Prolactin Receptor Deficiency 58
Pregnancy-Related a-G Syndrome 12
Familial Hyperprolactinemia 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
familial hyperprolactinemia
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant; Age of onset: Adult;

OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive
autosomal dominant


HPO:

31

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infertility disorders
Rare endocrine diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12700
OMIM® 57 615555
KEGG 36 H01388
SNOMED-CT 67 190468001 85039006
ICD10 32 E22.1
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 E22.1
Orphanet 58 ORPHA397685
MedGen 41 C0020514
UMLS 70 C0008043 C0020514

Summaries for Hyperprolactinemia

OMIM® : 57 Hyperprolactinemia unrelated to pregnancy occurs in approximately 0.1 to 0.3% of the general population and may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. Such nonphysiologic hyperprolactinemia is caused mainly by drugs or by tumors in the anterior pituitary gland, primarily prolactinomas (see 102200). However, 10 to 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia who undergo MRI have normal findings (summary by Newey et al., 2013). Patients with hyperprolactinemia may also experience agalactia (Kobayashi et al., 2018). (615555) (Updated 20-May-2021)

MalaCards based summary : Hyperprolactinemia, also known as chiari-frommel syndrome, is related to galactorrhea and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. An important gene associated with Hyperprolactinemia is PRLR (Prolactin Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The drugs Dopamine and Aripiprazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, breast and bone, and related phenotypes are galactorrhea and oligomenorrhea

Disease Ontology : 12 An acquired metabolic disease that has material basis in the presence of abnormally-high levels of prolactin in the blood.

KEGG : 36 Hyperprolactinemia unrelated to pregnancy is a disorder characterized by excess production of prolactin (PRL) and may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. Such nonphysiological hyperprolactinemia is caused mainly by drugs or by tumors in the anterior pituitary gland, which are usually identifiable by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some cases are due to prolactinomas and lesions in the pituitary stalk. A human germline PRLR mutation has been found in familial isolated hyperprolactinemia.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Hyperprolactinemia: A disorder characterized by increased levels of prolactin in the blood not associated with gestation or the puerperium. HPRL may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea.

Wikipedia : 73 Hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Normal levels... more...

Related Diseases for Hyperprolactinemia

Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 585)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 galactorrhea 32.3 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
2 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 31.4 SHBG PRL INS GNRH1
3 mccune-albright syndrome 31.3 SST PTHLH PRL IGF1 GNAS GH1
4 pituitary tumors 31.0 SST PRL POMC IGF1 GNAS GH1
5 amenorrhea 30.7 TRH SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1
6 hypogonadism 30.7 SHBG PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1
7 gynecomastia 30.7 SHBG PRL POMC GNRH1
8 precocious puberty 30.7 GNRH1 GNAS GH1
9 diabetes insipidus 30.6 PRL POMC INS GH1
10 adenoma 30.4 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GNAS
11 anovulation 30.4 SHBG PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1
12 premenstrual tension 30.4 POMC GNRH1
13 impotence 30.3 VIP SHBG PRL POMC INS GNRH1
14 multiple endocrine neoplasia 30.3 VIP SST POMC GNAS
15 gigantism 30.3 PRL GHRH GH1
16 chromophobe adenoma 30.3 TRH PRLR PRL POMC GH1
17 non-functioning pituitary adenoma 30.3 SST GH1
18 polycystic ovary syndrome 30.2 SHBG PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
19 craniopharyngioma 30.2 TRH PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
20 central precocious puberty 30.1 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
21 hypoglycemia 30.1 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GH1
22 empty sella syndrome 30.1 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
23 abducens nerve disease 30.1 PRL POMC
24 tic disorder 30.1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
25 schizoaffective disorder 30.1 PRL INS HTR2A DRD2
26 bone resorption disease 30.1 PTHLH INS IGF1
27 infertility 30.0 SHBG PRLR PRL INS H19 GNRH1
28 lactocele 30.0 TRH PRL GHRH
29 lymphocytic hypophysitis 30.0 POMC GH1
30 secondary adrenal insufficiency 30.0 INS IGF1
31 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 30.0 TRH SST PTHLH PRL POMC IGF1
32 acth deficiency, isolated 29.9 TRH PRL POMC
33 psychotic disorder 29.9 PRL HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
34 chiasmal syndrome 29.9 SST POMC
35 ovarian cyst 29.9 PRL GNRH1 GNAS
36 acne 29.9 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1
37 tsh producing pituitary tumor 29.9 SST PRL POMC GH1
38 fibromyalgia 29.9 POMC IGF1 HTR2A
39 hyperandrogenism 29.9 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
40 depression 29.9 PRL HTR2C HTR2A
41 constipation 29.8 VIP SST INS GAL
42 migraine without aura 29.8 PRL DRD4 DRD2
43 adrenal adenoma 29.8 POMC INS GNAS
44 tuberous sclerosis 29.8 SST POMC INS IGF1
45 ovarian disease 29.8 SHBG PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
46 leydig cell tumor 29.8 PTHLH PRL GNRH1 GNAS
47 parathyroid adenoma 29.8 PTHLH IGF1 GNAS
48 goiter 29.7 TRH SST PRL INS IGF1 GNAS
49 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 29.7 SST PRL IGF1 GH1
50 neurotic disorder 29.7 POMC INS HTR2A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia:



Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hyperprolactinemia

Human phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

58 31 (show all 11)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 galactorrhea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100829
2 oligomenorrhea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000876
3 infertility 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000789
4 amenorrhea 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000141
5 hemorrhagic ovarian cyst 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012886
6 osteopenia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000938
7 osteoporosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000939
8 menorrhagia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000132
9 female hypogonadism 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000134
10 agalactia 31 very rare (1%) HP:0031109
11 increased circulating prolactin concentration 31 HP:0000870

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Female:
infertility (in some patients)
oligomenorrhea (in some patients)
menorrhagia (in some patients)

Chest Breasts:
galactorrhea (in some patients)
agalactia (in some patients)

Endocrine Features:
elevated prolactin levels

Clinical features from OMIM®:

615555 (Updated 20-May-2021)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

46 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.39 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GHRH GNAS HTR2A
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.36 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GHRH GNAS GNRH1
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.34 DRD2 GAL GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2A
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.29 DRD2 GAL GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2C
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.22 DRD2 GHRH GNAS HTR2C IGF1 INS
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.21 DRD2 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2C IGF1
7 integument MP:0010771 10.14 DRD2 GAL GNAS GNRH1 HTR2C IGF1
8 nervous system MP:0003631 10.13 DRD2 DRD4 GAL GHRH GNAS GNRH1
9 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.97 DRD2 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 INS POMC
10 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.92 DRD2 GNAS GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL
11 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.76 DRD2 GNAS GNRH1 IGF1 INS POMC
12 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.65 DRD2 GAL GHRH GNRH1 IGF1 INS
13 skeleton MP:0005390 9.36 DRD2 GHRH GNAS GNRH1 HTR2A IGF1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hyperprolactinemia

Drugs for Hyperprolactinemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
3
Quinagolide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 87056-78-8, 97805-50-0 105105
4
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
5
Amantadine Approved Phase 4 768-94-5 2130
6
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
7
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
10 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
11 Paliperidone Palmitate Phase 4
12 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
13 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
14 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
15 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
16 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
17 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
18 Hormones Phase 4
19 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
20 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
21 Analgesics Phase 4
22 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
23 Estradiol 3-benzoate Phase 4
24 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4
25
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
26
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 25614-03-3 31101
27
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 471-34-1
28 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3
29 Micronutrients Phase 3
30 Trace Elements Phase 3
31 Nutrients Phase 3
32 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
33
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
34
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2 68-04-2
35
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 57-83-0 5994
36
Licorice Approved Phase 2
37
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 91374-20-8, 91374-21-9 5095 497540
38
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 77-92-9 311
39
Enclomiphene Investigational Phase 2 15690-57-0
40 Anticoagulants Phase 2
41 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 2
42 Citrate Phase 2
43 Chelating Agents Phase 2
44 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
45 Clomiphene Phase 2
46 Estrogens Phase 2
47 Zuclomiphene Phase 2
48 Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 2
49 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
50
Levodopa Approved 59-92-7 6047

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 34)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia by Aripiprazole Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Open-Label Trial Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
2 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
3 Aripiprazole Treatment for Antipsychotic Induced Hyperprolactinaemia in Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Learning Disabilities Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
4 Color Doppler Analysıs Of Uterin And Intraovarian Blood Flow Before And After Treatment Wıth Cabergoline In Hyperprolactinemic Patients Completed NCT01957839 Phase 4 cabergoline treatment
5 Effect of Treatment With Agonist Dopaminergics on Endometriosic Lesions. Completed NCT00625950 Phase 4
6 Amantadine Addition to Paliperidone ER or Risperidone Consta Therapy for Prolactin Elevation Terminated NCT00975611 Phase 4 Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP;Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP;Placebo
7 The Luveris® In Vitro Fertilization Trial: The Effect of Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone on Follicular Response, Oocyte Quality, and Pregnancy in In-Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles in Women Without Endogenous LH Activity. Terminated NCT00889512 Phase 4 Luveris fixed dose;Luveris increasing dose
8 Therapy With Bromocriptine in Patients With Symptomatic Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia Unknown status NCT00315081 Phase 3 Bromocriptin
9 Counteracting Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Youths Completed NCT00799383 Phase 3 Calcium and Vitamin D
10 Effectiveness and Safety of Bushen Culuan Decoction for Anovulatory Infertility:A Clinical Research of "Same Treatment for Different Diseases" Unknown status NCT03709849 Phase 2 experimental group: Bushen Culuan Decoction and Clomiphene Citrate Tablets placebo;control group: Clomiphene Citrate Tablets and Bushen Culuan Decoction placebo
11 The Herbal Medicine Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) as an Adjunctive Therapy to Treat Antipsychotic-induced Hyperprolactinemia in Patients With Schizophrenia: a Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Completed NCT01852331 Phase 2 PGD granules;Placebo
12 Administration of Kisspeptin in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia Recruiting NCT02956447 Phase 2 Kisspeptin 112-121;Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
13 Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia With the Non-ergoline Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole: A Dose Escalation Study of Efficacy and Tolerability Active, not recruiting NCT03038308 Phase 1, Phase 2 Ropinirole
14 Nurse's Role in the Management of Hyperprolactinemia: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04262024 Phase 1 Cabergoline 0.5Mg orally daily for 1 month plus health education by a nurse;Cabergoline 0.5Mg orally daily for 1 month without health education by a nurse
15 Kisspeptin Administration in the Adult Recruiting NCT00914823 Phase 1 kisspeptin 112-121;GnRH
16 Prognostic Value of Pituitary Histopathology and Plasma Hyperprolactinaemia in Predicting the Risk of Glucose Metabolic Disturbances in Patients With Acromegaly. Unknown status NCT02092129
17 Adjunctive Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study Unknown status NCT02013232 Aripiprazole
18 Study on Utilization Of Cabergoline For Compliance With Risk Minimization Activities (SUCRE) Completed NCT01270711 Study Drug
19 Relationship of Metabolic Parameters, Endocrine and Prolactin Levels in Taiwan's Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hyperprolactinemia. Completed NCT01117272
20 The Association Between Dopamine Agonists and Cardiac Valvulopathy, Fibrosis and Other Cardiopulmonary Events Completed NCT01052948
21 Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile in Non-Obese Women With Prolactinoma Treated With Dopamine Agonists Completed NCT00481299
22 Model Driven Computation for Infertility Related Endocrinological Diseases - PAEON Completed NCT02098668
23 Characterization of Macroprolactinemia Completed NCT00436111
24 Changes in Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Antipsychotics After Switching to Quetiapine: a Naturalistic, Prospective, Multicentric Observational Study of 6 Months Follow-up Completed NCT00952757
25 A Retrospective Cohort Study of Hyperprolactinaemia Management in Reproductive Services at University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) Completed NCT03569787
26 Observational Study to Investigate the Prevalence of Cardiac Abnormalities and Valvular Regurgitation in Patients With Prolactinomas Treated Chronically With Cabergoline Completed NCT00460616 Cabergoline
27 Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Adjunctive Aripiprazole for Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia In Premenopausal Women With Schizophrenia Completed NCT01338298 Aripiprazole;Placebo
28 Effects of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs on Bone Metabolism Recruiting NCT03675750
29 Seoul National University Pituitary Disease Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03474601
30 Develop and Implement Methods for Diagnostic and Treatment of Hormonal Disorders in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Active, not recruiting NCT04439747
31 Hyperprolactinemia and Adrenal Steroidogenesis: is There a Link? Not yet recruiting NCT04146389
32 Assessment of the Prevalence of Hyperprolactinemia in Systemic Scleroderma Not yet recruiting NCT04746313
33 Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks and Intracranial Hypotension Suspended NCT02603549
34 Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia Before and After Treatment Withdrawn NCT00699530

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hyperprolactinemia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


2-Bromoergocryptine Mesylate
Bromocriptine
cabergoline

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hyperprolactinemia

Genetic Tests for Hyperprolactinemia

Genetic tests related to Hyperprolactinemia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Hyperprolactinemia 29

Anatomical Context for Hyperprolactinemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hyperprolactinemia:

40
Pituitary, Breast, Bone, Ovary, Thyroid, Brain, Prostate

Publications for Hyperprolactinemia

Articles related to Hyperprolactinemia:

(show top 50) (show all 5031)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Variant Prolactin Receptor in Agalactia and Hyperprolactinemia. 61 6 57
30575453 2018
2
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 61 57
24597879 2014
3
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 57 61
24597877 2014
4
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 57 61
24597880 2014
5
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 57 61
24597878 2014
6
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 57 61
24195502 2013
7
Lack of expression of endometrial prolactin in early implantation failure: a pilot study. 57
15218000 2004
8
Hyperprolactinemia associated with psychotropics--a review. 61 54
20521318 2010
9
Comparison of multiple methods for identification of hyperprolactinemia in the presence of macroprolactin. 61 54
19895797 2010
10
Genetic associations of prolactin increase in olanzapine/fluoxetine combination-treated patients. 61 54
19896213 2010
11
HER2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with endocrine function and psychological status in operable and metastatic breast cancer. 61 54
20023245 2009
12
Prolactin and preclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors. 54 61
19451414 2009
13
Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents. 61 54
19339912 2009
14
Medical therapy in patients with acromegaly: predictors of response and comparison of efficacy of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues. 54 61
19158203 2009
15
Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia. 54 61
19059524 2009
16
Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. 61 54
18690463 2008
17
Endocrine manifestations of the rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, autonomic dysregulation, and neural tumor syndrome in childhood. 61 54
18628522 2008
18
Current guidelines and their recommendations for prolactin monitoring in psychosis. 61 54
18477625 2008
19
[Biochemical aspects of modified, transdermal replacement hormone therapy]. 54 61
18411913 2007
20
Fibroblast growth factor-2 in hyperplastic pituitaries of D2R knockout female mice. 61 54
17848635 2007
21
Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia. 54 61
18473017 2007
22
Clinical and laboratory features greatly overlap in patients with macroprolactinemia or monomeric hyperprolactinemia. 61 54
17557033 2007
23
Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia are distinct entities. 54 61
17558684 2007
24
Development of anti-PRL (prolactin) autoantibodies by homologous PRL in rats: a model for macroprolactinemia. 54 61
17303669 2007
25
Hyperprolactinemia and immunohistochemical expression of intracellular prolactin and prolactin receptor in primary central nervous system tumors and their relationship with cellular replication. 54 61
18095129 2007
26
Atypical antipsychotics and pituitary neoplasms in the WHO database. 54 61
17285098 2007
27
[Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment]. 54 61
17253440 2006
28
Drug Insight: prolactin-receptor antagonists, a novel approach to treatment of unresolved systemic and local hyperprolactinemia? 54 61
17024156 2006
29
Clinical and biochemical characteristics of a male patient with a novel homozygous STAT5b mutation. 61 54
16787985 2006
30
Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release. 54 61
16554049 2006
31
Prolactin suppresses GnRH but not TSH secretion. 61 54
16357488 2006
32
Gene therapy in the neuroendocrine system. 61 54
16809929 2006
33
Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after irradiation of nonpituitary brain tumors in adults. 54 61
16144946 2005
34
The dopamine receptor D2 genotype is associated with hyperprolactinemia. 54 61
16169407 2005
35
Possible involvement of prolactin in endocrine-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. 61 54
16011043 2005
36
Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia: association with typical and atypical antipsychotic treatment. 54 61
15554761 2004
37
Symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts: a report of 24 cases. 61 54
15762042 2004
38
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis in men and women with chronic kidney disease. 61 54
15492969 2004
39
Gender differences in systemic lupus erythematosus. 61 54
16115579 2004
40
Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors. 54 61
15638294 2004
41
[Treatment of acne with antiandrogens--an evidence-based review]. 61 54
16295039 2003
42
Macroprolactinemia: a new cause of hyperprolactinemia. 61 54
12890882 2003
43
Hyperprolactinemia in response to antipsychotic drugs: characterization across comparative clinical trials. 61 54
12650682 2003
44
[Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of terguride based on dopamine D2 receptor occupancy]. 61 54
12704865 2003
45
Antifertility effects of fluphenazine in adult male rats. 61 54
12841539 2003
46
Tumoral versus non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents: possible usefulness of the domperidone test. 54 61
12713252 2003
47
An evaluation of patients with hyperprolactinemia: have dynamic tests had their day? 54 61
14604065 2003
48
[Hirsutism and hypertrichosis in adults: investigations and treatment]. 54 61
12223963 2002
49
Effect of transitory hyperprolactinemia on in vitro fertilization of human oocytes. 61 54
11396370 2001
50
Basal, pulsatile, entropic, and 24-hour rhythmic features of secondary hyperprolactinemia due to functional pituitary stalk disconnection mimic tumoral (primary) hyperprolactinemia. 61 54
11297584 2001

Variations for Hyperprolactinemia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.635A>G (p.His212Arg) SNV Pathogenic 89027 rs398122522 GRCh37: 5:35070276-35070276
GRCh38: 5:35070174-35070174
2 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.511C>T (p.Arg171Ter) SNV Pathogenic 599315 rs376188691 GRCh37: 5:35072709-35072709
GRCh38: 5:35072607-35072607
3 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR):c.806C>T (p.Pro269Leu) SNV Pathogenic 599316 rs754974807 GRCh37: 5:35068367-35068367
GRCh38: 5:35068265-35068265

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

72
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 PRLR p.His212Arg VAR_070895 rs398122522

Expression for Hyperprolactinemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hyperprolactinemia.

Pathways for Hyperprolactinemia

Pathways related to Hyperprolactinemia according to KEGG:

36
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway hsa04151
2 JAK-STAT signaling pathway hsa04630
3 Prolactin signaling pathway hsa04917

Pathways related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 25)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.73 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC INS
2
Show member pathways
13.44 PRLR PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS
3
Show member pathways
13.23 IGF1 HTR2C HTR2A GNRH1 GNAS GHRH
4
Show member pathways
12.94 INS IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS GHRH GH1
5
Show member pathways
12.88 PRLR PRL INS IGF1 GNAS GH1
6
Show member pathways
12.84 SST IGF1 GNAS GHRH GH1 DRD4
7
Show member pathways
12.81 VIP TRH SST PTHLH PRLR PRL
8
Show member pathways
12.71 PRLR PRL IGF1 GNAS GH1
9
Show member pathways
12.38 PRLR PRL INS GH1
10
Show member pathways
12.14 POMC INS IGF1 GH1
11 12.1 VIP SST POMC GNAS DRD2
12 12.05 HTR2C HTR2A GNAS DRD2
13
Show member pathways
12 IGF1 HTR2C HTR2A GNRH1 GNAS
14 11.92 PRLR INS IGF1 GH1
15
Show member pathways
11.82 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
16 11.82 VIP PTHLH POMC GNAS GHRH
17 11.65 HTR2C HTR2A GNAS DRD2
18 11.6 IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS GHRH GH1
19 11.58 PTHLH IGF1 GH1
20 11.44 INS IGF1 GNAS
21 11.42 PRLR PRL INS
22
Show member pathways
11.31 PRLR PRL GH1
23 11.08 HTR2C HTR2A GNAS
24 10.91 IGF1 GNRH1 GNAS GHRH GH1
25 10.65 PRL POMC INS HTR2C DRD2

GO Terms for Hyperprolactinemia

Cellular components related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.85 SST PTHLH PRL POMC INS IGF1
2 dendrite GO:0030425 9.73 HTR2C HTR2A GNRH1 GNAS DRD4 DRD2
3 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.67 VIP GNRH1 GHRH DRD2
4 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.5 VIP TRH SST SHBG PTHLH PRLR
5 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor complex GO:0098666 9.32 HTR2C HTR2A
6 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.26 PRLR PRL INS GH1

Biological processes related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 10.04 SST PTHLH GNRH1 GAL DRD2
2 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.96 SST HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
3 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.86 VIP PTHLH PRLR PRL INS IGF1
4 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.85 IGF1 HTR2A GH1
5 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.85 INS IGF1 GH1
6 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007189 9.83 VIP PTHLH GNAS GHRH
7 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.81 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
8 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.8 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
9 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.8 VIP HTR2C HTR2A
10 response to drug GO:0042493 9.8 SST HTR2C HTR2A GNAS GAL DRD2
11 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.8 VIP TRH PTHLH PRL POMC INS
12 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 9.77 HTR2C HTR2A DRD2
13 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.76 PTHLH PRL GNRH1 GNAS
14 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.73 HTR2C GAL DRD2
15 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.72 GHRH GH1 DRD2
16 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 9.71 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
17 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.7 TRH SST PTHLH POMC INS GNRH1
18 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.67 DRD4 DRD2
19 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.67 INS DRD4 DRD2
20 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.66 DRD4 DRD2
21 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.65 HTR2A DRD2
22 positive regulation of growth hormone secretion GO:0060124 9.65 GHRH DRD2
23 negative regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043267 9.65 VIP HTR2A
24 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.65 INS IGF1 HTR2A
25 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.64 DRD4 DRD2
26 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.63 GHRH DRD2
27 negative regulation of feeding behavior GO:2000252 9.62 TRH INS
28 regulation of appetite GO:0032098 9.61 POMC HTR2C
29 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.61 DRD4 DRD2
30 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.61 PRLR PRL GH1
31 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.6 DRD4 DRD2
32 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.58 DRD4 DRD2
33 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process GO:0010513 9.58 HTR2C HTR2A
34 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.58 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
35 phospholipase C-activating serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007208 9.57 HTR2C HTR2A
36 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.54 IGF1 GHRH GH1
37 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.47 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC INS

Molecular functions related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.69 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
2 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.58 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4
3 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.54 VIP GHRH GAL
4 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.52 HTR2C HTR2A
5 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.49 DRD4 DRD2
6 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.48 DRD4 DRD2
7 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.46 DRD4 DRD2
8 Gq/11-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0001587 9.43 HTR2C HTR2A
9 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.4 VIP TRH SST PTHLH PRL POMC
10 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 9.33 INS IGF1 GNAS
11 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine binding GO:0071886 9.32 HTR2C HTR2A
12 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 9.26 PRL GH1
13 peptide hormone receptor binding GO:0051428 9.13 VIP PTHLH GHRH

Sources for Hyperprolactinemia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....