HPRL
MCID: HYP020
MIFTS: 62

Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL)

Categories: Blood diseases, Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hyperprolactinemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hyperprolactinemia:

Name: Hyperprolactinemia 57 12 75 74 37 29 55 6 44 15 17 72
Chiari-Frommel Syndrome 12 75 53 44 72
Hyperprolactinaemia 12 33
Hprl 57 74
Familial Isolated Prolactin Receptor Deficiency 59
Pregnancy-Related a-G Syndrome 12
Familial Hyperprolactinemia 59
Hyperprolactinemia, 40

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
familial hyperprolactinemia
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant; Age of onset: Adult;

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive
autosomal dominant


HPO:

32

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12700
OMIM 57 615555
KEGG 37 H01388
NCIt 50 C113168
SNOMED-CT 68 21170004 85039006
ICD10 33 E22.1
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 E22.1
Orphanet 59 ORPHA397685
MedGen 42 C0020514
UMLS 72 C0008043 C0020514

Summaries for Hyperprolactinemia

OMIM : 57 Hyperprolactinemia unrelated to pregnancy occurs in approximately 0.1 to 0.3% of the general population and may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. Such nonphysiologic hyperprolactinemia is caused mainly by drugs or by tumors in the anterior pituitary gland, primarily prolactinomas (see 102200). However, 10 to 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia who undergo MRI have normal findings (summary by Newey et al., 2013). Patients with hyperprolactinemia may also experience agalactia (Kobayashi et al., 2018). (615555)

MalaCards based summary : Hyperprolactinemia, also known as chiari-frommel syndrome, is related to galactorrhea and mccune-albright syndrome. An important gene associated with Hyperprolactinemia is PRLR (Prolactin Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The drugs Orlistat and Aripiprazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, ovary and bone, and related phenotypes are galactorrhea and oligomenorrhea

Disease Ontology : 12 An acquired metabolic disease that has material basis in the presence of abnormally-high levels of prolactin in the blood.

KEGG : 37
Hyperprolactinemia unrelated to pregnancy is a disorder characterized by excess production of prolactin (PRL) and may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. Such nonphysiological hyperprolactinemia is caused mainly by drugs or by tumors in the anterior pituitary gland, which are usually identifiable by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some cases are due to prolactinomas and lesions in the pituitary stalk. A human germline PRLR mutation has been found in familial isolated hyperprolactinemia.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 74 Hyperprolactinemia: A disorder characterized by increased levels of prolactin in the blood not associated with gestation or the puerperium. HPRL may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea.

Wikipedia : 75 Hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Normal levels... more...

Related Diseases for Hyperprolactinemia

Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 510)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 galactorrhea 32.8 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
2 mccune-albright syndrome 32.1 SST PRL IGF1 GH1
3 hypogonadotropism 31.8 PRL GNRH1
4 amenorrhea 31.3 TRH PRL POMC GNRH1
5 anovulation 31.0 PRL IGF1 GNRH1
6 gigantism 31.0 PRL GH1
7 polycystic ovary syndrome 30.9 PRL IGF1 GNRH1
8 infertility 30.8 PRLR PRL H19 GNRH1
9 ovarian disease 30.7 PRL IGF1 GNRH1
10 hypothyroidism 30.6 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
11 peripartum cardiomyopathy 30.5 PRL DRD2
12 non-functioning pituitary adenoma 30.5 SST GH1
13 schizophreniform disorder 30.4 PRL DRD2
14 adenoma 30.4 SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
15 premenstrual tension 30.4 PRL POMC GNRH1
16 pituitary tumors 30.3 SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
17 abducens nerve disease 30.3 PRL POMC
18 psychotic disorder 30.3 PRL DRD4 DRD2
19 pituitary apoplexy 30.3 PRL POMC GNRH1
20 tic disorder 30.3 DRD4 DRD2
21 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 30.3 SST PRL
22 lymphocytic hypophysitis 30.3 POMC GH1
23 sheehan syndrome 30.2 PRL POMC IGF1
24 hyperinsulinism 30.2 SST IGF1 GH1
25 acth-secreting pituitary adenoma 30.2 PRL POMC
26 hyperthyroidism 30.2 TRH SST PRL GH1
27 hypothalamic disease 30.2 PRL POMC GNRH1 GH1
28 central precocious puberty 30.1 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
29 hyperandrogenism 30.1 PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1
30 tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency 30.1 PRL GH1
31 fasting hypoglycemia 30.0 POMC IGF1
32 delusional disorder 29.9 DRD4 DRD2
33 craniopharyngioma 29.9 TRH PRL IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
34 hypopituitarism 29.9 PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
35 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 29.8 PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
36 fibromyalgia 29.8 PRL IGF1
37 conn's syndrome 29.8 SST PRL POMC GH1
38 breast disease 29.7 PRLR PRL POMC IGF1
39 mood disorder 29.7 POMC DRD4 DRD2
40 anorexia nervosa 29.7 PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
41 fibrous dysplasia 29.7 SST PRL IGF1 GH1
42 insulin-like growth factor i 29.7 SST PRL IGF1 GH1
43 migraine without aura 29.6 PRL DRD4 DRD2
44 personality disorder 29.6 PRL DRD4 DRD2
45 disease of mental health 29.6 POMC DRD4 DRD2
46 acromegaly 29.5 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
47 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 29.5 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
48 empty sella syndrome 29.5 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
49 major depressive disorder 29.4 PRL POMC DRD4 DRD2
50 multiple endocrine neoplasia, type i 29.4 VIP SST PRL

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia:



Diseases related to Hyperprolactinemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hyperprolactinemia

Human phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

59 32 (show all 11)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 galactorrhea 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100829
2 oligomenorrhea 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000876
3 infertility 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000789
4 amenorrhea 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000141
5 hemorrhagic ovarian cyst 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012886
6 osteopenia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000938
7 osteoporosis 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000939
8 menorrhagia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000132
9 female hypogonadism 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000134
10 agalactia 32 very rare (1%) HP:0031109
11 prolactin excess 32 HP:0000870

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Female:
infertility (in some patients)
oligomenorrhea (in some patients)
menorrhagia (in some patients)

Chest Breasts:
galactorrhea (in some patients)
agalactia (in some patients)

Endocrine Features:
elevated prolactin levels

Clinical features from OMIM:

615555

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hyperprolactinemia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.11 DRD2 DRD4 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.06 DRD2 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL PRLR
3 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.03 DRD2 DRD4 POMC PRL PRLR PTHLH
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.92 DRD2 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL PTHLH
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.85 DRD2 IGF1 POMC PRLR PTHLH
6 integument MP:0010771 9.8 DRD2 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL PRLR
7 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.7 DRD2 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL PRLR
8 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 DRD2 DRD4 GNRH1 IGF1 POMC PRL
9 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.17 DRD2 GNRH1 IGF1 PRL PRLR PTHLH

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hyperprolactinemia

Drugs for Hyperprolactinemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 158)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Orlistat Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96829-58-2 3034010
2
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
3
Cabergoline Approved Phase 4 81409-90-7 54746
4
Quinagolide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 97805-50-0, 87056-78-8 105105
5
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
6
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
7
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
8
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
9
Amantadine Approved Phase 4 768-94-5 2130
10
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
11
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
12
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
13
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
14
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
15
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
16 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
17 Appetite Depressants Phase 4
18 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
19 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
20 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
21 Micronutrients Phase 4
22 Trace Elements Phase 4
23 Vitamin D2 Phase 4
24 Vitamins Phase 4
25 Nutrients Phase 4
26 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
27 Ergocalciferols Phase 4
28 Calciferol Phase 4
29 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4
30 Mitogens Phase 4
31 Endothelial Growth Factors Phase 4
32 GABA Agents Phase 4
33 Angiogenesis Inducing Agents Phase 4
34 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
35 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
36 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
37 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
38 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
39 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
40 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
41 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
42 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4
43 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
44 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
45 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
46 Hormones Phase 4
47 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
48 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
49 Paliperidone Palmitate Phase 4
50 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 86)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
2 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia by Aripiprazole Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Open-Label Trial Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
3 The Effect of Weight Loss With Orlistat or Sibutramine Administration , Hypocaloric Diet and Physical Exercise , on AMH Levels, in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Unknown status NCT01475019 Phase 4 Orlistat;Sibutramine
4 Aripiprazole Treatment for Antipsychotic Induced Hyperprolactinaemia in Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Learning Disabilities Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
5 Effect of Treatment With Agonist Dopaminergics on Endometriosic Lesions. Completed NCT00625950 Phase 4
6 Color Doppler Analysıs Of Uterin And Intraovarian Blood Flow Before And After Treatment Wıth Cabergoline In Hyperprolactinemic Patients Completed NCT01957839 Phase 4 cabergoline treatment
7 Open-Label Study of Ziprasidone for the Treatment of Mania in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Completed NCT00181922 Phase 4 ziprasidone (Geodon)
8 Open Label Trial of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of CD in Adolescents Completed NCT00250705 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
9 Augmentation of Clozapine With Paliperidone in the Treatment of Resistant Schizophrenia Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01279213 Phase 4 paliperidone clozapine
10 Evaluation of Growth, Sexual Maturation, and Prolactin-Related Adverse Events in the Pediatric Population Exposed to Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Completed NCT01050582 Phase 4 Risperidone;Other atypical antipsychotic drugs
11 Risperidone Augmentation in Patients With Schizophrenia Partially Responsive to Clozapine Completed NCT00289861 Phase 4 Risperidone;placebo
12 The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Vitamin D-Deficient Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT02460380 Phase 4 Vitamin D3
13 Amantadine Addition to Paliperidone ER or Risperidone Consta Therapy for Prolactin Elevation Terminated NCT00975611 Phase 4 Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP;Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP;Placebo
14 Randomized, Open Label, 8-Week Study of Quetiapine and Risperidone on Quality of Life in Female With Schizophrenia Terminated NCT00498004 Phase 4 Quetiapine, Risperidone
15 The Luveris® In Vitro Fertilization Trial: The Effect of Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone on Follicular Response, Oocyte Quality, and Pregnancy in In-Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles in Women Without Endogenous LH Activity. Terminated NCT00889512 Phase 4 Luveris fixed dose;Luveris increasing dose
16 Therapy With Bromocriptine in Patients With Symptomatic Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia Unknown status NCT00315081 Phase 3 Bromocriptin
17 Study of Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) After Cyproterone Compound Treatment Compared With Oral Contraceptives Pill in Hirsute Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Unknown status NCT00955058 Phase 2, Phase 3 OCP
18 Comparison Between Letrozole and Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling in Women With Clomiphene Resistant Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Unknown status NCT02305693 Phase 3 Letrozole
19 Comparison Between Laproscopic Ovarian Diathermy and Urinary Purified FSH in Women With Clomiphene Citrate Resistant Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02304536 Phase 3 FSH
20 Counteracting Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Youths Completed NCT00799383 Phase 3 Calcium and Vitamin D
21 A Long-term, Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Oral OPC-34712 as Maintenance Treatment in Adults With Schizophrenia Completed NCT01397786 Phase 3 OPC-34712
22 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Three Fixed Doses of OPC-34712 in the Treatment of Adults With Acute Schizophrenia Completed NCT01396421 Phase 3 OPC-34712 [Brexpiprazole] High Dose;Experimental: OPC-34712 [Brexpiprazole] Middle Dose;Experimental: OPC-34712 [Brexpiprazole] Low Dose;Placebo
23 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Fixed-dose OPC-34712 in the Treatment of Adults With Acute Schizophrenia Completed NCT01393613 Phase 3 OPC-34712;OPC-34712;OPC-34712;Placebo
24 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712) as Maintenance Treatment in Adults With Schizophrenia Completed NCT01668797 Phase 3 Brexpiprazole;Placebo
25 Efficacy and Safety of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Acutely Relapsed Patients With Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder With Risperidone as an Active Control Completed NCT00283179 Phase 3 Aripiprazole;Risperidone
26 Induction of Ovulation With Raloxifene or Clomiphene Citrate in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Completed NCT00427700 Phase 3 clomiphene citrate;raloxifene
27 Study On The Effects of Letrozole And Clomiphene Citrate For Induction of Ovulation In Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS) Completed NCT01577017 Phase 3 Letrozole
28 Extended Clomiphene Citrate Regimen Versus Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling for Ovulation Induction in Clomiphene Citrate-resistant Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Completed NCT02381184 Phase 2, Phase 3 clomiphene citrate
29 Letrozole Versus Clomiphene Citrate for Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02551367 Phase 2 Letrozole;Clomiphene citrate;hcg hormone
30 Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy Along With Myo-inositol on High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women Having Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02633462 Phase 2 Myo-inositol
31 The Herbal Medicine Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) as an Adjunctive Therapy to Treat Antipsychotic-induced Hyperprolactinemia in Patients With Schizophrenia: a Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Completed NCT01852331 Phase 2 PGD granules;Placebo
32 Compare the Efficacy of Human Albumin With Cabergoline to Prevent of Ovarian Hyper Stimulation in ART Program Completed NCT01009567 Phase 1, Phase 2 Cabergoline;Control
33 An Open-Label Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents With Autistic Disorder Completed NCT00198055 Phase 2 aripiprazole
34 Phase 2 Study of Recombinant Human Prolactin Efficacy and Safety Completed NCT00438490 Phase 2 Recombinant Human Prolactin
35 Recombinant Human Prolactin for Lactation Induction in Prolactin Deficient Mothers Completed NCT00181623 Phase 2 Recombinant Human Prolactin
36 Comparison of the Effects of Monotherapy With Exenatide or Metformin to Combined Exenatide and Metformin Therapy on Menstrual Cyclicity in Overweight Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Completed NCT00344851 Phase 2 metformin, exenatide or combined (metformin & exenatide )
37 Recombinant Human Prolactin for Lactation Induction in Mothers of Premature Infants Completed NCT00181610 Phase 2 Recombinant Human Prolactin
38 Administration of Kisspeptin in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia Recruiting NCT02956447 Phase 2 Kisspeptin 112-121;Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
39 Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia With the Non-ergoline Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole: A Dose Escalation Study of Efficacy and Tolerability Recruiting NCT03038308 Phase 1, Phase 2 Ropinirole
40 Comparison of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Regulating Menstrual Irregularities and Hyperandrogenism Recruiting NCT03757923 Phase 1, Phase 2 TAB METFORMIN;TAB PIOGLITAZONE
41 Effectiveness and Safety of Bushen Culuan Decoction for Anovulatory Infertility:A Clinical Research of "Same Treatment for Different Diseases" Not yet recruiting NCT03709849 Phase 2 experimental group: Bushen Culuan Decoction and Clomiphene Citrate Tablets placebo;control group: Clomiphene Citrate Tablets and Bushen Culuan Decoction placebo
42 Exploratory Phase 2 Study of Farletuzumab in Resectable Non-functioning Pituitary Adenoma Withdrawn NCT01203618 Phase 2 Farletuzumab
43 Recombinant Human Prolactin for Lactation Induction in Adoptive Mothers Withdrawn NCT00181649 Phase 2 Recombinant human prolactin
44 Luteal Phase Versus Follicular Phase Administration of Clomiphene Citrate in PCOS, A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02024984 Phase 1 Clomiphene Citrate
45 Reducing Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Children With Metformin Completed NCT01231074 Phase 1 Metformin
46 Kisspeptin Administration in the Adult Recruiting NCT00914823 Phase 1 kisspeptin 112-121;GnRH
47 A Phase 1, Single Dose, Open-Label Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of OTL38 Injection for Intraoperative Imaging of Folate Receptor-alpha Positive Pituitary Adenoma Terminated NCT02629549 Phase 1 OTL38
48 Prognostic Value of Pituitary Histopathology and Plasma Hyperprolactinaemia in Predicting the Risk of Glucose Metabolic Disturbances in Patients With Acromegaly. Unknown status NCT02092129
49 Adjunctive Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study Unknown status NCT02013232 Aripiprazole
50 Polymorphism of Extrapituitary Promoter of PRL Gene and Relationships With Serum Prolactin Levels in Acne Vulgaris. Unknown status NCT03186222

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hyperprolactinemia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


2-Bromoergocryptine Mesylate
Bromocriptine
Bromocriptine
cabergoline
Cabergoline
Quinagolide

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hyperprolactinemia

Genetic Tests for Hyperprolactinemia

Genetic tests related to Hyperprolactinemia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Hyperprolactinemia 29 PRLR

Anatomical Context for Hyperprolactinemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hyperprolactinemia:

41
Pituitary, Ovary, Bone, Breast, Testes, Prostate, Thyroid

Publications for Hyperprolactinemia

Articles related to Hyperprolactinemia:

(show top 50) (show all 4820)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Variant Prolactin Receptor in Agalactia and Hyperprolactinemia. 38 8 71
30575453 2018
2
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 38 8
24597877 2014
3
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 38 8
24597878 2014
4
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 38 8
24597879 2014
5
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 38 8
24597880 2014
6
Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. 38 8
24195502 2013
7
Lack of expression of endometrial prolactin in early implantation failure: a pilot study. 8
15218000 2004
8
Hyperprolactinemia associated with psychotropics--a review. 9 38
20521318 2010
9
Comparison of multiple methods for identification of hyperprolactinemia in the presence of macroprolactin. 9 38
19895797 2010
10
Genetic associations of prolactin increase in olanzapine/fluoxetine combination-treated patients. 9 38
19896213 2010
11
HER2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with endocrine function and psychological status in operable and metastatic breast cancer. 9 38
20023245 2009
12
Prolactin and preclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors. 9 38
19451414 2009
13
Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents. 9 38
19339912 2009
14
Medical therapy in patients with acromegaly: predictors of response and comparison of efficacy of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues. 9 38
19158203 2009
15
Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia. 9 38
19059524 2009
16
Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. 9 38
18690463 2008
17
Endocrine manifestations of the rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, autonomic dysregulation, and neural tumor syndrome in childhood. 9 38
18628522 2008
18
Current guidelines and their recommendations for prolactin monitoring in psychosis. 9 38
18477625 2008
19
[Biochemical aspects of modified, transdermal replacement hormone therapy]. 9 38
18411913 2007
20
Fibroblast growth factor-2 in hyperplastic pituitaries of D2R knockout female mice. 9 38
17848635 2007
21
Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia. 9 38
18473017 2007
22
Clinical and laboratory features greatly overlap in patients with macroprolactinemia or monomeric hyperprolactinemia. 9 38
17557033 2007
23
Development of anti-PRL (prolactin) autoantibodies by homologous PRL in rats: a model for macroprolactinemia. 9 38
17303669 2007
24
Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia are distinct entities. 9 38
17558684 2007
25
Atypical antipsychotics and pituitary neoplasms in the WHO database. 9 38
17285098 2007
26
Hyperprolactinemia and immunohistochemical expression of intracellular prolactin and prolactin receptor in primary central nervous system tumors and their relationship with cellular replication. 9 38
18095129 2007
27
[Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment]. 9 38
17253440 2006
28
Drug Insight: prolactin-receptor antagonists, a novel approach to treatment of unresolved systemic and local hyperprolactinemia? 9 38
17024156 2006
29
Clinical and biochemical characteristics of a male patient with a novel homozygous STAT5b mutation. 9 38
16787985 2006
30
Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release. 9 38
16554049 2006
31
Prolactin suppresses GnRH but not TSH secretion. 9 38
16357488 2006
32
Gene therapy in the neuroendocrine system. 9 38
16809929 2006
33
Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after irradiation of nonpituitary brain tumors in adults. 9 38
16144946 2005
34
The dopamine receptor D2 genotype is associated with hyperprolactinemia. 9 38
16169407 2005
35
Possible involvement of prolactin in endocrine-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. 9 38
16011043 2005
36
Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia: association with typical and atypical antipsychotic treatment. 9 38
15554761 2004
37
Symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts: a report of 24 cases. 9 38
15762042 2004
38
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis in men and women with chronic kidney disease. 9 38
15492969 2004
39
Gender differences in systemic lupus erythematosus. 9 38
16115579 2004
40
Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors. 9 38
15638294 2004
41
[Treatment of acne with antiandrogens--an evidence-based review]. 9 38
16295039 2003
42
Macroprolactinemia: a new cause of hyperprolactinemia. 9 38
12890882 2003
43
Hyperprolactinemia in response to antipsychotic drugs: characterization across comparative clinical trials. 9 38
12650682 2003
44
Antifertility effects of fluphenazine in adult male rats. 9 38
12841539 2003
45
[Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of terguride based on dopamine D2 receptor occupancy]. 9 38
12704865 2003
46
Tumoral versus non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents: possible usefulness of the domperidone test. 9 38
12713252 2003
47
An evaluation of patients with hyperprolactinemia: have dynamic tests had their day? 9 38
14604065 2003
48
[Hirsutism and hypertrichosis in adults: investigations and treatment]. 9 38
12223963 2002
49
Effect of transitory hyperprolactinemia on in vitro fertilization of human oocytes. 9 38
11396370 2001
50
Basal, pulsatile, entropic, and 24-hour rhythmic features of secondary hyperprolactinemia due to functional pituitary stalk disconnection mimic tumoral (primary) hyperprolactinemia. 9 38
11297584 2001

Variations for Hyperprolactinemia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR): c.635A> G (p.His212Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs398122522 5:35070276-35070276 5:35070174-35070174
2 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR): c.511C> T (p.Arg171Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic 5:35072709-35072709 5:35072607-35072607
3 PRLR NM_000949.7(PRLR): c.806C> T (p.Pro269Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic 5:35068367-35068367 5:35068265-35068265

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Hyperprolactinemia:

74
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 PRLR p.His212Arg VAR_070895 rs398122522

Expression for Hyperprolactinemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hyperprolactinemia.

Pathways for Hyperprolactinemia

Pathways related to Hyperprolactinemia according to KEGG:

37
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway hsa04151
2 JAK-STAT signaling pathway hsa04630
3 Prolactin signaling pathway hsa04917

Pathways related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.81 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC IGF1
2
Show member pathways
12.6 TRH SST PTHLH PRLR PRL POMC
3
Show member pathways
11.84 POMC IGF1 GH1
4 11.71 VIP PTHLH POMC
5 11.62 PRLR IGF1 GH1
6 11.25 PTHLH IGF1 GH1
7 10.99 VIP IGF1 DRD2
8
Show member pathways
10.91 TRH POMC
9
Show member pathways
10.74 PRLR PRL GH1

GO Terms for Hyperprolactinemia

Cellular components related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.7 SST PTHLH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1
2 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.5 VIP GNRH1 DRD2
3 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.32 VIP TRH SST PTHLH PRLR PRL
4 secretory granule GO:0030141 9.26 TRH POMC
5 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.13 PRLR PRL GH1

Biological processes related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 9.88 SST PTHLH GNRH1 DRD2
2 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.67 PTHLH PRL GNRH1
3 adult walking behavior GO:0007628 9.62 TRH DRD2
4 response to steroid hormone GO:0048545 9.61 SST GNRH1
5 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 9.61 PRL IGF1
6 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.6 PRL GH1
7 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 9.59 DRD4 DRD2
8 positive regulation of receptor internalization GO:0002092 9.58 GH1 DRD2
9 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.57 DRD4 DRD2
10 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.56 DRD4 DRD2
11 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.55 DRD4 DRD2
12 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.55 TRH SST PTHLH POMC GNRH1
13 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.54 TRH GNRH1
14 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.52 DRD4 DRD2
15 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.51 IGF1 GH1
16 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.46 DRD4 DRD2
17 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.43 DRD4 DRD2
18 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.43 TRH GNRH1 DRD2
19 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.4 DRD4 DRD2
20 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.37 DRD4 DRD2
21 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.32 DRD4 DRD2
22 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.23 VIP TRH SST PTHLH POMC GNRH1
23 ovulation cycle GO:0042698 9.18 GNRH1
24 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.13 PRLR PRL GH1

Molecular functions related to Hyperprolactinemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.37 DRD4 DRD2
2 peptide hormone receptor binding GO:0051428 9.32 VIP PTHLH
3 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.28 VIP TRH SST PTHLH PRL POMC
4 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.26 DRD4 DRD2
5 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.16 DRD4 DRD2
6 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.96 PRL GH1

Sources for Hyperprolactinemia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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