MCID: HYP063
MIFTS: 51

Hypersplenism

Categories: Blood diseases, Immune diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hypersplenism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hypersplenism:

Name: Hypersplenism 12 55 44 15 73
Hypersplenia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:6376
ICD10 33 D73.1
ICD9CM 35 289.4
MeSH 44 D006971
NCIt 50 C34714
SNOMED-CT 68 58381000
UMLS 73 C0020532

Summaries for Hypersplenism

MalaCards based summary : Hypersplenism, also known as hypersplenia, is related to portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. An important gene associated with Hypersplenism is F2 (Coagulation Factor II, Thrombin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Warfarin and Heparin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spleen, liver and bone, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and hematopoietic system

Wikipedia : 76 Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ)... more...

Related Diseases for Hypersplenism

Diseases related to Hypersplenism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 252)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 portal hypertension 30.9 ALB F2 THPO
2 liver cirrhosis 30.5 ALB F2 SERPINC1 THPO
3 esophageal varix 30.1 ALB F2 SERPINC1
4 hepatitis b 30.0 ALB F2 IFNG
5 pancytopenia 30.0 CSF2 EPO THPO
6 portal vein thrombosis 30.0 F2 SERPINC1
7 purpura 29.9 F2 SERPINC1 THPO
8 endocarditis 29.8 ALB F2 SERPINC1
9 peripheral vascular disease 29.8 ALB F2 SERPINC1
10 schistosomiasis 29.7 ALB F2 IFNG IL4
11 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 29.5 ALB CSF2 EPO IFNG
12 malaria 28.5 ALB CSF2 EPO FOXP3 IFNG IL4
13 splenomegaly 11.5
14 nodular regenerative hyperplasia 11.1
15 hepatocellular carcinoma 10.4
16 thrombocytopenia 10.4
17 antipyrine metabolism 10.3 ALB F2
18 non-a-e hepatitis 10.3 ALB F2
19 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.3 ALB F2
20 abdominal tuberculosis 10.3 ALB F2
21 hepatitis 10.3
22 hepatic tuberculosis 10.2 ALB F2
23 kwashiorkor 10.2 ALB F2
24 hepatic coma 10.2 ALB F2
25 infantile liver failure syndrome 1 10.2 ALB F2
26 calciphylaxis 10.2 ALB EPO
27 ascending cholangitis 10.2 ALB F2
28 chronic graft versus host disease 10.2 ALB IFNG
29 spinal cord infarction 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
30 leech infestation 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
31 intestinal impaction 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
32 alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor deficiency 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
33 intracranial embolism 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
34 fetal erythroblastosis 10.2 ALB EPO
35 giant hemangioma 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
36 prothrombin deficiency, congenital 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
37 sagittal sinus thrombosis 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
38 liver disease 10.2
39 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy 10.2 ALB IFNG
40 miliary tuberculosis 10.2 EPO IFNG
41 polyradiculoneuropathy 10.2 ALB IFNG
42 blue toe syndrome 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
43 tuberculous peritonitis 10.2 ALB IFNG
44 ischemic colitis 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
45 pure red-cell aplasia 10.2 ALB EPO
46 subendocardial myocardial infarction 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
47 fascioliasis 10.2 ALB IFNG
48 sneddon syndrome 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
49 korean hemorrhagic fever 10.2 F2 SERPINC1
50 marantic endocarditis 10.2 F2 SERPINC1

Comorbidity relations with Hypersplenism via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 12)


Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Cystitis Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis
Chronic Congestive Splenomegaly Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Hepatic Encephalopathy
Iron Deficiency Anemia Neutropenia
Portal Hypertension Primary Thrombocytopenia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hypersplenism:



Diseases related to Hypersplenism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hypersplenism

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hypersplenism:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.16 ALB CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.13 CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
3 immune system MP:0005387 10.09 CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
4 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.05 CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG PIK3R1
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.04 ALB CSF2 EPO FOXP3 IFNG IL4
6 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.97 ALB CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG
7 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.91 ALB EPO FOXP3 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1
8 integument MP:0010771 9.88 CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
9 normal MP:0002873 9.8 ALB EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
10 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.63 ALB CSF2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4 SERPINC1
11 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.43 CSF2 F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4 SERPINC1
12 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.1 CSF2 EPO F2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hypersplenism

Drugs for Hypersplenism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486
2
Heparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9005-49-6 772 46507594
3
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
5
Dipyridamole Approved Phase 4 58-32-2 3108
6
Nadroparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4
7
Dalteparin Approved Phase 4 9005-49-6
8 tannic acid Approved Phase 4
9 Liver Extracts Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
10 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
11 Antipyretics Phase 4
12 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
13 Analgesics Phase 4
14 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
15 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
16 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
17 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
18 Anticoagulants Phase 4
19 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
20 Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight Phase 4
21 calcium heparin Phase 4
22 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
23 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
24 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
25 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
26
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 99-66-1 3121
27
Midostaurin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 120685-11-2 104937 9829523
28
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 98-92-0 936
29
Tegafur Approved, Investigational Phase 2 17902-23-7 5386
30
Sorafenib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 284461-73-0 216239 406563
31
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2 59-67-6 938
32
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
33 Staurosporine Experimental Phase 2 62996-74-1
34 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1, Phase 2
35 Antimanic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
36 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
37 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
38 GABA Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
39 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 1, Phase 2
40 Anticonvulsants Phase 1, Phase 2
41 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 2
42 Vitamin B Complex Phase 2
43 Trace Elements Phase 2
44 Nicotinic Acids Phase 2
45 Vitamins Phase 2
46 Micronutrients Phase 2
47 Vitamin B9 Phase 2
48 Vitamin B3 Phase 2
49 Folate Phase 2
50 Antimetabolites Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 15)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Warfarin Prevents Portal Vein Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhotic Patients With Hypersplenism After Laparoscopic Splenectomy Recruiting NCT02238444 Phase 4 Warfarin;Dipyridamole;Aspirin;Low Molecular Weight Heparin
2 ABMSC Infusion Through Hepatic Artery in Portal Hypertension Surgery for the Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis Unknown status NCT01560845 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Valproic Acid (Depakote[Registered Trademark]) to Treat Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) Completed NCT00605657 Phase 1, Phase 2 Valproic Acid
4 Phase 2 Midostaurin in Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis and Mast Cell Leukemia Completed NCT00233454 Phase 2 Midostaurin
5 Sorafenib Plus Tegafur-uracil (UFT) Versus Sorafenib as First Line Systemic Treatment for Patients With Advanced Stage HCC, Unresectable & Not Eligible for Local Ablation and/or TACE Terminated NCT01539018 Phase 2 Sorafenib;sorafenib plus tegafur-uracil
6 Microwave Ablation and Partial Splenic Embolization in the Management of Hypersplenism Unknown status NCT02261584 Not Applicable
7 Study of the Impact of Hypersplenism and Splenectomy on Hepatocarcinogenesis in Patients With Posthepatitic Cirrhosis Unknown status NCT01201655
8 Treatment of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus After Hepatocellular Carcinoma Resection Completed NCT00825669 Not Applicable TACE
9 The Spleen in Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle Cell Thalassemia Completed NCT00971698
10 The Treatment of Hepatocirrhosis and Portal Hypertension Recruiting NCT02778425 Not Applicable
11 Differential Diagnostic of Immune ThrombocytoPenia (ITP) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Recruiting NCT03469661
12 HVPG-guided Laparoscopic Versus Endoscopic Therapy for Variceal Rebleeding in Portal Hypertension: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (CHESS1803) Recruiting NCT03783065 Not Applicable Propranolol
13 The Natural History and Prognostic Factors of Compensated Cirrhosis. Recruiting NCT03144700
14 Hypersplenism in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension Not yet recruiting NCT03269877
15 Gall Bladder Status Among Children With Chronic Haemolytic Anemia Not yet recruiting NCT03533322

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hypersplenism

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hypersplenism

Genetic Tests for Hypersplenism

Anatomical Context for Hypersplenism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hypersplenism:

41
Spleen, Liver, Bone, Bone Marrow, T Cells, B Cells, Spinal Cord

Publications for Hypersplenism

Articles related to Hypersplenism:

(show top 50) (show all 511)
# Title Authors Year
1
Epithelial cyst of spleen presenting as hypersplenism. ( 29386740 )
2018
2
Hypersplenism secondary to splenoportal axis compression by a giant hepatic cyst. ( 29019252 )
2018
3
Partial splenic embolization in the treatment of prolonged thrombocytopenia due to hypersplenism in metastatic cancer patients. ( 29696427 )
2018
4
Portal hypertension and hypersplenism in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: Are they related? ( 29936618 )
2018
5
Incidence and risk factors associated with a high comprehensive complication index score after splenectomy in cirrhotic patients with hypersplenism. ( 29273377 )
2018
6
Laparoscopic splenectomy and subsequent oncologic gastric surgery in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and hypersplenism. ( 29391322 )
2018
7
Spleen Regulates Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Functions Through Regulation of EGF in Cirrhotic Hypersplenism. ( 29721775 )
2018
8
Splenic artery embolization with detachable balloons for hypersplenism. ( 30027780 )
2018
9
Refractoriness to red blood cell transfusion therapy due to hypersplenism. ( 30260482 )
2018
10
Efficacy and safety of partial splenic embolization for hypersplenism in pre- and post-liver transplant patients: A 16-year comparative analysis. ( 30553121 )
2018
11
JOURNAL CLUB: Four-Dimensional Flow MRI-Based Splenic Flow Index for Predicting Cirrhosis-Associated Hypersplenism. ( 28463524 )
2017
12
Partial Splenic Artery Embolization to Treat Hypersplenism Secondary to Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis. ( 28316312 )
2017
13
Successful Treatment of Hypersplenism in Wilson's Disease by Partial Splenic Embolization. ( 28135891 )
2017
14
Postoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma within Milan Criteria and Hypersplenism. ( 28523484 )
2017
15
Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome with atypical presentation of hypersplenism and nephrotic syndrome: a case report. ( 28823249 )
2017
16
Airway management of a paediatric patient with temporomandibular joint ankylosis with extra hepatic portal vein obstruction, splenomegaly, hypersplenism, and obstructive sleep apnoea for shunt surgery: A unique challenge. ( 29217866 )
2017
17
Microwave ablation in the spleen versus partial splenic artery embolisation: A new technique for hypersplenism in cirrhosis. ( 28256406 )
2017
18
Hypersplenism Associated With Late-Presenting Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Rare Combination. Case Report. ( 27227931 )
2016
19
Severe hypersplenism associated to hemophagocytic and lymphoproliferative syndrome secondary to Epstein-Barr virus infection. A report of two cases. ( 27041246 )
2016
20
Laparoscopic splenic artery ligation for hypersplenism in cirrhosis: A case series. ( 27251809 )
2016
21
A Comparative Study of Surgical Splenectomy, Partial Splenic Embolization, and High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Hypersplenism. ( 26839374 )
2016
22
Hypersplenism is correlated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis. ( 26753954 )
2016
23
Partial Splenic Embolization in a Child with Sickle Cell Disease and Hypersplenism. ( 27926404 )
2016
24
Influence of lactulose on interventional therapy for HCC patients with hepatocirrhosis and hypersplenism. ( 26919955 )
2016
25
Invasive group B streptococcal infection in a patient with post splenectomy for hypersplenism secondary to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. ( 27006743 )
2016
26
Simultaneous microwave coagulo-necrotic therapy (MCN) and laparoscopic splenectomy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhotic hypersplenism. ( 27577937 )
2016
27
Hypersplenism: History and current status. ( 27703501 )
2016
28
Risk Factors for Portal Vein System Thrombosis After Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Cirrhotic Patients with Hypersplenism. ( 26953863 )
2016
29
Laparoscopic versus traditional open splenectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with hypersplenism. ( 27465326 )
2016
30
Dameshek W, Miller EB. The megakaryocytes in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a form of hypersplenism. 1946. ( 26744432 )
2016
31
Treatment of Hypersplenism by Partial Splenic Embolization Through Gastric Collaterals. ( 27200164 )
2016
32
Laparoscopic Splenectomy for the Elderly Liver Cirrhotic Patients With Hypersplenism: A Retrospective Comparable Study. ( 26962816 )
2016
33
Hypersplenism in liver disease and SLE revisited: current evidence supports an active rather than passive process. ( 26865982 )
2016
34
Erratum to: Hypersplenism is correlated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis. ( 27146644 )
2016
35
Pancreatic fistula after laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with hypersplenism due to liver cirrhosis: effect of fibrin glue and polyglycolic acid felt on prophylaxis of postoperative complications. ( 27162072 )
2016
36
Effect of partial splenic embolization on the immune function of cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism. ( 27393102 )
2016
37
Comparison of two laparoscopic splenectomy plus pericardial devascularization techniques for management of portal hypertension and hypersplenism. ( 25783835 )
2015
38
Partial splenic embolization of patients with hypersplenism by transradial or transfemoral approach: a prospective randomized controlled trial. ( 26671306 )
2015
39
Simultaneous hepatectomy and splenectomy versus hepatectomy alone for hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism: a meta-analysis. ( 26316782 )
2015
40
Partial Splenic Artery Embolization for the Management of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis. ( 26388645 )
2015
41
Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Spleen for Treatment of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis Patients. ( 26031423 )
2015
42
Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of hypersplenism: A feasible therapeutic option. ( 26034376 )
2015
43
An innovative modification of sandwich embolization technique for simultaneous management of ruptured pseudoaneurysm of branch of splenic artery and hypersplenism syndrome. ( 25900542 )
2015
44
Hypersplenism Treated by Partial Splenic Embolization Using Guglielmi Detachable Coils. ( 26328643 )
2015
45
Splenectomy attenuates murine liver fibrosis with hypersplenism stimulating hepatic accumulation of Ly-6C(lo) macrophages. ( 26022691 )
2015
46
Synchronous splenectomy and hepatectomy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism: A case-control study. ( 25741142 )
2015
47
Laparoscopic splenic vessels ligation as a treatment of hypersplenism and thrombocytopenia in children. ( 26659241 )
2015
48
Successful Splenectomy for Hypersplenism in Wilson's Disease: A Single Center Experience from China. ( 25910248 )
2015
49
Hypersplenism: an independent risk factor for myocardial remodeling in chronic heart failure patients. ( 26131093 )
2015
50
Anaesthetic management of beta thalassemia major with hypersplenism for splenectomy in pediatric age group: Report of four cases. ( 26417142 )
2015

Variations for Hypersplenism

Expression for Hypersplenism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hypersplenism.

Pathways for Hypersplenism

Pathways related to Hypersplenism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 28)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.41 CSF2 EPO F2 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1
2
Show member pathways
13.31 EPO F2 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1 THPO
3
Show member pathways
13.01 ALB CSF2 F2 PIK3R1 SERPINC1 THPO
4 12.63 EPO IFNG IL4 PIK3R1
5
Show member pathways
12.31 CSF2 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1
6
Show member pathways
12.19 CSF2 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1
7
Show member pathways
12.14 CSF2 IFNG IL4
8
Show member pathways
12.07 ALB F2 IFNG IL4
9
Show member pathways
11.89 IFNG IL4 PIK3R1 THPO
10
Show member pathways
11.8 CSF2 EPO IFNG IL4 PIK3R1 THPO
11 11.74 EPO IFNG PIK3R1
12 11.72 CSF2 IFNG PIK3R1
13
Show member pathways
11.72 CSF2 F2 IFNG IL4
14 11.7 EPO IFNG PIK3R1
15 11.64 CSF2 IFNG IL4
16 11.54 CSF2 IFNG IL4
17 11.54 CSF2 EPO IL4 THPO
18
Show member pathways
11.5 FOXP3 IL4 PIK3R1
19
Show member pathways
11.34 CSF2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
20 11.24 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
21 11.16 IFNG IL4
22 11.14 IFNG IL4
23 11.09 CSF2 EPO IFNG IL4 THPO
24 11.04 IFNG IL4
25 11.02 F2 IFNG
26 11.01 CSF2 IFNG IL4
27 10.94 IFNG PIK3R1
28 10.82 CSF2 IL4 PIK3R1 THPO

GO Terms for Hypersplenism

Cellular components related to Hypersplenism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 ALB CSF2 EPO F2 IFNG IL4
2 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.33 ALB F2 SERPINC1
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.23 ALB CSF2 EPO F2 IFNG IL4

Biological processes related to Hypersplenism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.84 ALB EPO IL4 PIK3R1
2 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045892 9.83 CSF2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
3 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.73 CSF2 FOXP3 IFNG IL4
4 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.72 ALB F2 SERPINC1
5 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.69 F2 IFNG THPO
6 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.56 EPO F2
7 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.55 CSF2 EPO F2 IFNG THPO
8 negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045671 9.49 IL4 PIK3R1
9 myeloid dendritic cell differentiation GO:0043011 9.48 CSF2 IL4
10 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.46 FOXP3 IFNG
11 regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030193 9.4 F2 SERPINC1
12 dendritic cell differentiation GO:0097028 9.37 CSF2 IL4
13 negative regulation of interleukin-17 production GO:0032700 9.32 FOXP3 IFNG
14 positive regulation of interleukin-23 production GO:0032747 9.26 CSF2 IFNG
15 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.26 CSF2 EPO IFNG IL4
16 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.1 CSF2 EPO F2 IFNG IL4 THPO

Molecular functions related to Hypersplenism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.26 CSF2 F2 IL4 THPO
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.02 CSF2 EPO IFNG IL4 THPO

Sources for Hypersplenism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....