Hypertension, Essential (EHT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Nephrological diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hypertension, Essential:

Name: Hypertension, Essential 56 13 39
Essential Hypertension 12 74 25 73 29 54 6 43 15 71
Hypertension 56 12 74 25 43 15 17
High Blood Pressure 12 25 36 42 3 62
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential, Susceptibility to 56 29 6
Hypertensive Disease 12 15 71
Primary Hypertension 12 25 17
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to 56 6
Hypertensive Disorder 29 6
Eht 56 73
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 1 56
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 2 56
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 3 56
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 4 56
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 5 56
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 6 56
Hypertension, Essential, Salt-Sensitive 56
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential 56
Hypertension, Susceptibility to 56
Vascular Hypertensive Disorder 12
Hypertension, Essential 1 56
Hypertension, Essential 2 56
Hypertension, Essential 3 56
Hypertension, Essential 4 56
Hypertension, Essential 5 56
Hypertension, Essential 6 56
Idiopathic Hypertension 12
Hyperpiesia 12
Htn 12




multiple genes influence susceptibility to hypertension. candidate genes include angiotensinogen (agt, ), angiotensin receptor-1 (agtr1, ), and beta-3 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (gnb3, ). susceptibility loci include hyt1 and hyt2 .


hypertension, essential:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10763 DOID:10825
OMIM 56 145500
KEGG 36 H01633
ICD9CM 34 401 401-405.99
NCIt 49 C3117 C3478
SNOMED-CT 67 38341003 59621000
ICD10 32 I10 I10-I15
MedGen 41 C0085580
UMLS 71 C0020538 C0085580

Summaries for Hypertension, Essential

MedlinePlus : 42 What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure. Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number. For example, 120/80 means a systolic of 120 and a diastolic of 80. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have it is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. He or she will take two or more readings at separate appointments before making a diagnosis. You have high blood pressure if your readings show that Your systolic is 140 or higher OR Your diastolic is 90 or higher Some providers may consider you to have high blood pressure if you have other heart risk factors and Your systolic is between 130 and 139 OR Your diastolic is between 80 and 89 Blood pressure readings above 180 /120 are dangerously high and require immediate medical attention. For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender. What are the different types of high blood pressure? There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older. Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat that condition or stop taking the medicines that are causing it. Why do I need to worry about high blood pressure? When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure. What are the treatments for high blood pressure? Treatments for high blood pressure include heart-healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. You will work with your provider to come up with a treatment plan. It may include only the lifestyle changes. These changes, such as heart-healthy eating and exercise, can be very effective. But sometimes the changes do not control or lower your high blood pressure. Then you may need to take medicine. There are different types of blood pressure medicines. Some people need to take more than one type. If your high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or medicine, treating that condition or stopping the medicine may lower your blood pressure. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Hypertension, Essential, also known as essential hypertension, is related to renal hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy, and has symptoms including edema, tremor and chest pain. An important gene associated with Hypertension, Essential is PTGIS (Prostaglandin I2 Synthase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways. The drugs Oxytocin and Bromocriptine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and endothelial, and related phenotypes are elevated systolic blood pressure and elevated diastolic blood pressure

Disease Ontology : 12 A hypertension with no known cause. It is the most common type of hypertension.

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. As the heart beats, it forces blood through the arteries to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the rest of the body. The strength of the blood pushing against the artery walls is blood pressure, which is measured in units called millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The top number in a blood pressure reading is the pressure when the heart pumps (systolic blood pressure), and the bottom number is the pressure between heart beats (diastolic blood pressure). In adults, a normal blood pressure measurement is about 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure is considered high when the measurement is 130/80 mmHg or greater. Hypertension usually has no symptoms, and many affected individuals do not know they have the condition. However, hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and eye problems. When blood pressure is elevated, the heart and arteries have to work harder than normal to pump blood through the body. The extra work thickens the muscles of the heart and arteries and hardens or damages artery walls. As a result, the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and other organs is reduced. Damage to the heart caused by the extra work and a lack of oxygen causes heart disease. In addition, damage to the arteries increases the risk of blood clots that block the flow of blood to the heart, causing a heart attack, or to the brain, causing a type of stroke known as an ischemic stroke. Another type of stroke, called a hemorrhagic stroke, can occur when a weakened blood vessel in the brain bursts. Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys impairs their ability to filter waste and remove fluid, leading to kidney failure. Problems with blood flow in the arteries of the eyes can lead to vision loss. In rare cases, dangerously high blood pressure can cause severe headaches, confusion, shortness of breath, chest pain, or nosebleeds. In about 95 percent of cases, the cause of hypertension is unknown. These cases are classified as essential hypertension. When hypertension results from an underlying condition, such as blood vessel defects that reduce blood flow; kidney disorders, which alter the amount of fluids and salts in the body; or problems with hormone-producing glands called the adrenal glands or the thyroid gland, it is classified as secondary hypertension. Hypertension is a key feature of some rare genetic disorders, including familial hyperaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2, Liddle syndrome, and tumors known as paragangliomas.

OMIM : 56 The Pickering school held that blood pressure has a continuous distribution, that multiple genes and multiple environmental factors determine the level of one's blood pressure just as the determination of stature and intelligence is multifactorial, and that 'essential hypertension' is merely the upper end of the distribution (Pickering, 1978). In this view the person with essential hypertension is one who happens to inherit an aggregate of genes determining hypertension (and also is exposed to exogenous factors that favor hypertension). The Platt school took the view that essential hypertension is a simple mendelian dominant trait (Platt, 1963). McDonough et al. (1964) defended the monogenic idea. See McKusick (1960) and Kurtz and Spence (1993) for reviews. Swales (1985) reviewed the Platt-Pickering controversy as an 'episode in recent medical history.' The Pickering point of view appears to be more consistent with the observations. (145500)

CDC : 3 High blood pressure is a common and dangerous condition. Having high blood pressure means the pressure of the blood in your blood vessels is higher than it should be. But you can take steps to control your blood pressure and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. About 1 of 3 U.S. adults-or about 75 million people-have high blood pressure.1 Only about half (54%) of these people have their high blood pressure under control.1 Many youth are also being diagnosed with high blood pressure.2 This common condition increases the risk for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death for Americans.3 Get more quick facts about high blood pressure, or learn more about high blood pressure in the United States. High blood pressure is called the "silent killer" because it often has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not know they have it. That's why it is important to check your blood pressure regularly. The good news is that you can take steps to prevent high blood pressure or to control it if your blood pressure is already high.

KEGG : 36 High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent classic cardiovascular risk factor and accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular mortality, the main cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is generally classified as primary (essential) or secondary. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EH have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Secondary hypertension generally has an earlier age at onset, no family history, and a clear cause such as a renal or endocrine disorder, or an iatrogenic trigger, such as use of oral contraceptives. Blood pressure is a heritable trait; an estimated 30% of variance in blood pressure relates to genetic factors. Understanding of the genetic architecture of traits has progressed in rare mendelian hypertensive phenotypes, such as Gordon's syndrome.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Essential hypertension: A condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause.

Wikipedia : 74 Essential hypertension (also called idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by... more...

Related Diseases for Hypertension, Essential

Diseases in the Familial Hypertension family:

Hypertension, Essential Hypertension, Essential 1
Hypertension, Essential 2 Hypertension, Essential 3
Hypertension, Essential 4 Hypertension, Essential 5
Hypertension, Essential 6 Hypertension, Essential 7
Hypertension, Essential 8 Malignant Essential Hypertension
Malignant Hypertension Benign Essential Hypertension
Benign Secondary Hypertension Malignant Secondary Hypertension
Hypertension Due to Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2857)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal hypertension 35.4 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
2 hypertensive encephalopathy 35.1 NOS3 AGTR1
3 familial hypertension 34.3 AGTR1 AGT
4 polycystic kidney disease 33.8 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
5 cardiovascular system disease 33.8 NOS3 MIR155 ECE1 AGTR1 AGT
6 cerebrovascular disease 33.7 GNB3 F12 AGTR1 AGT
7 chronic kidney disease 33.7 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 INF2 GNB3 COL4A5
8 familial hyperaldosteronism 33.6 MEN1 AGTR1
9 congenital hepatic fibrosis 33.6 PKD1 AGTR1
10 end stage renal disease 33.4 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 INF2 COL4A5 AGTR1
11 diabetes mellitus 33.2 NOS3 MIR155 MEN1 GNB3 CELA2A AGTR1
12 polycystic kidney disease 1 with or without polycystic liver disease 33.2 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3
13 myocardial infarction 33.1 PTGIS NOS3 MIR155 GNB3 AGTR1 AGT
14 coronary heart disease 1 33.0 NOS3 MIR155 CELA2A AGTR1
15 stroke, ischemic 32.9 PTGIS NOS3 GNB3 AGTR1 AGT
16 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 32.7 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 ECE1 AGTR1 AGT
17 pulmonary edema 32.4 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
18 nephrolithiasis 32.3 NOS3 MIR155 MEN1 F12 AGT
19 kidney disease 32.1 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 MIR155 ECE1 COL4A5
20 diastolic heart failure 32.1 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
21 fibromuscular dysplasia 32.1 AGTR1 AGT
22 orthostatic intolerance 32.0 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 ECE1 AGTR1
23 renal artery disease 32.0 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
24 mitral valve disease 32.0 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
25 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 31.9 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
26 oligohydramnios 31.6 INF2 AGTR1 AGT
27 renal dysplasia 31.5 PKD1 AGTR1 AGT
28 multicystic dysplastic kidney 31.4 PKD2 PKD1
29 renovascular hypertension 31.2 PKD1 NOS3 AGTR1
30 acute mountain sickness 31.1 NOS3 AGTR1
31 cerebral arterial disease 30.8 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3
32 meningococcal infection 30.6 AGTR1 AGT ADD1
33 posterior urethral valves 30.5 AGTR1 AGT
34 familial nephrotic syndrome 29.7 INF2 COL4A5
35 hypertension and brachydactyly syndrome 12.6
36 hypertensive heart disease 12.6
37 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 12.6
38 hypertension, diastolic 12.5
39 ocular hypertension 12.5
40 hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure, and alkalosis syndrome 12.5
41 portal hypertension, noncirrhotic 12.5
42 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension 12.5
43 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 4 12.5
44 pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension 12.5
45 hypertensive retinopathy 12.5
46 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 2 12.5
47 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 3 12.5
48 pulmonary hypertension, neonatal 12.5
49 hypertension, essential 3 12.5
50 hypertension, essential 4 12.5

Comorbidity relations with Hypertension, Essential via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 293)

Abducens Nerve Disease Acquired Polycythemia
Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma
Acute Conjunctivitis Acute Cystitis
Acute Ethmoiditis Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Maxillary Sinusitis Acute Myocardial Infarction
Acute Pancreatitis Acute Stress Disorder
Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine Adjustment Disorder
Adrenal Gland Disease Age-Related Hearing Loss
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic Urticaria
Alopecia, Neurologic Defects, and Endocrinopathy Syndrome Angina Pectoris
Anxiety Aortic Aneurysm
Aortic Atherosclerosis Aortic Valve Disease 1
Asthma Atrioventricular Block
Atrophic Gastritis Atypical Depressive Disorder
Auditory System Disease Autonomic Nervous System Disease
Basilar Artery Insufficiency Bipolar Disorder
Bleeding Disorder, Platelet-Type, 11 Blepharitis
Borderline Glaucoma Borderline Personality Disorder
Brain Cancer Brain Compression
Brain Edema Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion
Bronchitis Buerger Disease
Campylobacteriosis Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac Arrhythmia Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Cerebral Arteritis Cerebral Atherosclerosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hypertension, Essential:

Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hypertension, Essential

Human phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 elevated systolic blood pressure 31 HP:0004421
2 elevated diastolic blood pressure 31 HP:0005117
3 elevated mean arterial pressure 31 HP:0004972

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

Cardiovascular Vascular:
elevated systolic blood pressure
elevated diastolic blood pressure
elevated mean arterial pressure

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Hypertension, Essential:

edema, tremor, chest pain, angina pectoris, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.07 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 CELA2A COL4A5 ECE1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 COL4A5 CYP3A5
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.8 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 COL4A5 CYP3A5
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.17 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS3 PKD1 PKD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hypertension, Essential

Drugs for Hypertension, Essential (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1157)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 53477758 439302
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
Carboplatin Approved Phase 4 41575-94-4 10339178 38904 498142
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Ergonovine Approved Phase 4 60-79-7 443884
Cisatracurium Approved Phase 4 96946-41-7
Lymecycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 992-21-2 5280963
Etoricoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 202409-33-4 123619
Ticlopidine Approved Phase 4 55142-85-3 5472
Povidone Approved Phase 4 9003-39-8
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
Lacidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103890-78-4
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Captopril Approved Phase 4 62571-86-2 44093
Nebivolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99200-09-6, 118457-14-0, 152520-56-4 71301
Amiloride Approved Phase 4 2016-88-8, 2609-46-3 16231
Hydralazine Approved Phase 4 86-54-4 3637
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486
Felodipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 72509-76-3 3333
Manidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 89226-50-6
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
Nadolol Approved Phase 4 42200-33-9 39147
Potassium citrate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 866-84-2
Trichlormethiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 133-67-5 5560
Diltiazem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 42399-41-7 39186
Moexipril Approved Phase 4 103775-10-6 91270
AT-101 Approved, Investigational Phase 4 652-67-5, 90141-22-3 12597
Isosorbide Dinitrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 87-33-2 6883
Ranolazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 142387-99-3, 95635-55-5 56959
Infliximab Approved Phase 4 170277-31-3
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
35 Apricot Approved Phase 4
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56180-94-0 441184
Repaglinide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135062-02-1 65981
Insulin aspart Approved Phase 4 116094-23-6 16132418
Insulin glargine Approved Phase 4 160337-95-1
Fenofibrate Approved Phase 4 49562-28-9 3339
Phentermine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 122-09-8 4771
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Magnesium oxide Approved Phase 4 1309-48-4 14792
Orlistat Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96829-58-2 3034010
Riociguat Approved Phase 4 625115-55-1
Ergotamine Approved Phase 4 113-15-5 8223
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Vildagliptin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 274901-16-5 6918537
Glyburide Approved Phase 4 10238-21-8 3488

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 4 Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Antihypertensive Efficacy and Safety of Ramiprin Tab. in Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00366119 Phase 4 Ramipril
2 Phase 4 Study of Effects of ARB Compared With Diuretics in Hypertension Patients With High Cardiovascular Risks Unknown status NCT01011660 Phase 4 Amlodipine, Telmisartan, Amiloride Compound , Simvastatin
3 Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of S-amlodipine+Chlorthalidone Combination Therapy and S-amlodipine+Telmisartan Combination Therapy in Hypertensive Patients Inadequately Controlled With Calcium Channel Blocker Monotherapy Unknown status NCT03226340 Phase 4 S-amlodipine 2.5mg + Chlorthalidone 25mg;S-amlodipine 2.5mg + Telmisartan 40mg
4 Antihypertensive Drug Treatment Decisions Based on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Unknown status NCT00841308 Phase 4
5 Treatment of HYpertension: Morning Versus Evening Unknown status NCT02214498 Phase 4 Enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide;Placebo
6 An Open Label, Pharmacogenetic Study of Bisoprolol Treatment in Patients With Uncontrolled Essential Hypertension (BRAVE) Unknown status NCT02398929 Phase 4 Bisoprolol 2.5 mg;Placebo
7 Ultrasonographic Modification of Liver Steatosis and Visceral Fat Induced by Treatment With Losartan and Simvastatin in Hypertensive Normocholesterolemic Obese Patients Unknown status NCT00669435 Phase 4 Losartan + Simvastatin;Amlodipine + Simvastatin
8 Monotherapy Versus Dual Therapy for Initial Treatment for Hypertension Unknown status NCT00994617 Phase 4 Losartan and hydrochlorothiazide;Hydrochlorothiazide switched over with Losartan at 8 weeks
9 GRK4 Polymorphisms Blood Pressure Response to Candesartan Unknown status NCT01629225 Phase 4 Candesartan
10 Efficacy Study of Nifedipine Controlled-Release Tablets (Xin Ran) to Treat Early Morning Blood Pressure and Central Arterial Pressure Unknown status NCT02357615 Phase 4 nifedipine CR tablets (Xin Ran);Adalat
11 A Randomized Controlled Study of Nifecardia SRFC (Nifedipine) and Adalat OROS (Nifedipine) in the Treatment of Patients With Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00173667 Phase 4 Nifedipine 30 mg GITS
12 Evaluation of Antihypertensive Activity of Valsartan and Amlodipine Compared to Losartan and Amlodipine Through Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Moderate Hypertensive Patients in a Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study Unknown status NCT00716950 Phase 4 valsartan/amlodpine;losartan/amlodpine
13 The Impact of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill for Coronary Heart Disease With Hypertension Patient Heart and Artery Structure and Function Unknown status NCT01825759 Phase 4 danshen dripping pill
14 Marinobufagenin as a Target for DIGIBIND in Hypertensive Patients With End-stage Renal Disease Unknown status NCT00852787 Phase 4 Digoxin immune fab;Placebo
15 Effect of Combined Antihypertensive Therapy on Blood Pressure and Sexual Function in Patients With Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT01238705 Phase 4 Felodipine add Irbesartan;Felodipine add Metoprolol
16 A Morbi-Mortality and Remodeling Study With Valsartan in Patients With Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Unknown status NCT00133328 Phase 4 valsartan
17 Efficacy of L-arginine Treatment on Blood Pressure Control Patients With Stage 1 Hypertension Unknown status NCT02894723 Phase 4
18 Vitamin D Augmentation of Tekturna (Aliskiren) in Hypertension (VDATH) Unknown status NCT01472796 Phase 4 Tekturna(Aliskiren) plus placebo
19 Changes in Central Aortic Pressure, Endothelial Function and Biomarkers in African Americans With Cardiometabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Amlodipine/Olmesartan Versus Hydrochlorothiazide/Losartan Unknown status NCT01271374 Phase 4 amlodipine and olmesartan;losartan and HCTZ
20 Nebivolol Effects on Endothelial Function and Erectile Function in Non-smoking Pre-hypertensive and Newly Diagnosed Stage 1 Hypertensive Men With Erectile Dysfunction. Unknown status NCT01885988 Phase 4 Nebivolol;Sugar Pill
21 The Therapeutic Effect of Bromocriptin in Patients With Primary Aldosteronism Unknown status NCT00451672 Phase 4 bromocriptine
22 Multicenter Study of Patients With Hypertension Resistant to Patient Identification and Standardization of Therapeutic Unknown status NCT01643434 Phase 4 Spironolactone;Clonidine
23 Use of the Endothelin-1 Antagonist Bosentan in Patients With Established Pulmonary Hypertension and Fibrotic Lung Disease. - A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study. Unknown status NCT00637065 Phase 4 Bosentan;Placebo
24 A 24-week Open-label Clinical Trial to Assess Tolerability and Antihypertensive Effect and in Hemodynamic Parameters and Arterial Stiffness of Fimasartan 60 mg Plus Amlodipine Besylate 5 mg Given Once a Day in Patients With Hypertension in Stadiums 2/3 Unknown status NCT03294070 Phase 4
25 Effect of Allopurinol on Mono and Co-administration With Statins on Platelets Reactivity on Diabetic Patiets Treated With Aspirin and Insulin Unknown status NCT03195153 Phase 4 Atorvastatin 80mg;ALLOPURINOL 300 MG;Atorvastatin 80mg AND allopurinol 300 mg
26 Evaluation of Sildenafil for the Treatment of Moderate Congestive Heart Failure Unknown status NCT00793338 Phase 4 Sildenafil
27 The Effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists on Acute and Chronic Postoperative Pain in Patients Treated for Hypertension. Unknown status NCT02513979 Phase 4 Angiotensin type II receptor antagonists
28 An Open-Label Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Double or Triple Concentrated Intravenous Nicardipine for Treatment of Hypertension in Patients With Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage or Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Unknown status NCT00325793 Phase 4 Nicardipine
29 A Randomized, Open-label, Positive Drug Controlled Clinical Trials to Compare the Efficacy of Nitrendipine and Hydrochlorothiazide , Captopril Plus Hydrochlorothiazide and Beijing Hypotensive No.0 in Tibetan Hypertension Unknown status NCT02217852 Phase 4 Nitrendipine;Hydrochlorothiazide;Captopril,Hydrochlorothiazide;Beijing hypotensive No.0
30 A Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Valsartan and Aliskiren in Combination Versus Tekturna Alone on Hemostatic Biomarkers in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Mild to Moderate Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01095822 Phase 4 Aliskiren + Valsartan
31 Phase 4 Study of Medical Therapy Versus Medical Therapy Plus Renal Artery Stenting in Preventing the Progression of Renal Failure in Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease Unknown status NCT01023373 Phase 4 Medical treatment
32 A Placebo Controlled Double Blinded Crossover Study of the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Guanfacine vs Hydrochlorothiazide in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Associated Hypertension Unknown status NCT02699125 Phase 4 Guanfacine;Hydrochlorothiazide
33 Effect of Coreg CR on BP, Endothelial Function, Exhaled Nitric Oxide, and Nitric Oxide Production and Oxidation Unknown status NCT00732511 Phase 4 carvedilol;metoprolol extended release
34 Effect of Acetaminophen on Postpartum Blood Pressure Control in Preeclampsia With Severe Features Unknown status NCT02911701 Phase 4 Acetaminophen;Ibuprofen
35 Phase IV Study for Effect of Intensive Blood-Pressure Control Using Anti-hypertensive Agents in Essential Hypertension With History of Stroke Unknown status NCT01198496 Phase 4 Losartan, Losartan and HCTZ, Amlodipine , Spironolactone
36 Manidipine Versus Amlodipine in Patients With Hypertension: Effects on Peripheral Edema Evaluated by Bioimpedance Analysis Unknown status NCT03106597 Phase 4 Manidipine 20mg;Amlodipine 10mg
37 Effect of Active Telephone Calls in the Compliance of Hypertensive Patients With Treatment: An Open and Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00813722 Phase 4 amlodipine (calcium chanel blocker) and losartan (at1 antagonist);atenolol (beta blocker) and hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic)
38 Does Aldosterone Cause Hypertension by a Non-Renal Mechanism? Unknown status NCT00553722 Phase 4 Eplerenone;Placebo
39 Effects of Atorvastatin Treatment on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (ALEVENT) Unknown status NCT01503671 Phase 4 Atorvastatin
40 Assessment of the Effect of Moxonidine and Diet on Cardiac, Renal and Endothelial Function in Young Subjects With Abdominal Obesity Unknown status NCT01180231 Phase 4 Moxonidine (Physiotens)
41 Study of Optimal Treatment Plan in Hypertensives With Anti-AT1-Receptor Autoantibody Unknown status NCT00360763 Phase 4 candesartan cilexetil
42 Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate Implanted Event Recorders for the First Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation in High-risk Patients Unknown status NCT01461434 Phase 4
43 Randomized Comparison of Once-daily Fixed combiNation vErsus freE-drug cOmbination of Three aNtihypertensive Agents in arteriaL hYpertension (the ONE&ONLY Trial) Unknown status NCT02710539 Phase 4 perindopril, indapamide , amlodipine;Tripliam (perindopril, indapamide, amlodipine)
44 The Effect of Diane-35 Pretreatment on Endocrine and Clinical Profile for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing In-vitro Fertilization Unknown status NCT01752270 Phase 4 Diane-35 pretreatment;Diane-35 pretreatment
45 Effects of Aliskiren/Amlodipine Versus Amlodipine Monotherapy on Ankle-foot Volume in Hypertensive Patients Unknown status NCT01048047 Phase 4 aliskiren/amlodipine
46 Insulin Resistance and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Older Chinese Adults With Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Cognitive Effects of Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin Treatment in a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02409238 Phase 4 Metformin
47 Addition of Spironolactone in Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension Unknown status NCT00524615 Phase 4 spironolactone
48 Oral Nifedipine Versus Labetalol in Treatment of Postpartum Hypertension Unknown status NCT03449277 Phase 4 Oral Tablet
49 Randomized Trial Comparing Diltiazem and Metoprolol For Atrial Fibrillation Rate Control Unknown status NCT02025465 Phase 4 Metoprolol;Diltiazem
50 Randomized Comparison of Fixed Low-dose Combination of THREE Antihypertensive Drugs Versus Fixed High-dose Combination of Two Antihypertensive Drugs in Arterial Hypertension (the 3D Trial) Unknown status NCT02710552 Phase 4 Tripliam (perindopril, indapamide, amlodipine);Reaptan (perindopril, amlodipine)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hypertension, Essential

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Acebutolol Hydrochloride
Amiloride Hydrochloride
Amlodipine Besylate
Angelica sinensis preparation
Antihypertensives, Other
Benazepril hydrochloride
Bepridil hydrochloride
Betaxolol Hydrochloride
Bisoprolol Fumarate
candesartan cilexetil
Carteolol Hydrochloride
carvedilol phosphate
Chlorothiazide sodium
Clonidine Hydrochloride
coenzyme Q10
Diltiazem Hydrochloride
Diltiazem maleate
Doxazosin Mesylate
Eprosartan mesylate
Esmolol hydrochloride
Ethacrynate Sodium
Ethacrynic Acid
Fish Oils
Fosinopril Sodium
Guanabenz Acetate
Guanadrel sulfate
Guanethidine Monosulfate
Guanfacine Hydrochloride
Losartan Potassium
Methyldopate hydrochloride
metoprolol succinate
Metoprolol Tartrate
Mibefradil Dihydrochloride
Moexipril hydrochloride
Nicardipine hydrochloride
Oil of garlic
Olmesartan medoxomil
Penbutolol Sulfate
Perindopril arginine
Perindopril Erbumine
Prazosin hydrochloride
Propranolol Hydrochloride
Quinapril hydrochloride
terazosin hydrochloride
Timolol Hemihydrate
Timolol Maleate
Verapamil hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hypertension

Genetic Tests for Hypertension, Essential

Genetic tests related to Hypertension, Essential:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Essential Hypertension 29 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 CYP3A5 ECE1 GNB3 NOS3 PTGIS RGS5
2 Hypertensive Disorder 29
3 Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential, Susceptibility to 29

Anatomical Context for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hypertension, Essential:

Heart, Kidney, Endothelial, Liver, Testes, Lung, Brain

Publications for Hypertension, Essential

Articles related to Hypertension, Essential:

(show top 50) (show all 22494)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms in human essential hypertension. 6 56 61 54
8021009 1994
Splicing mutation of the prostacyclin synthase gene in a family associated with hypertension. 56 6 61
12372404 2002
Association of a human G-protein beta3 subunit variant with hypertension. 61 6 56
9425898 1998
Differential binding of transcription factor E2F-2 to the endothelin-converting enzyme-1b promoter affects blood pressure regulation. 56 6
12566389 2003
Human microRNA-155 on chromosome 21 differentially interacts with its polymorphic target in the AGTR1 3' untranslated region: a mechanism for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to phenotypes. 6 46
17668390 2007
Natural selection and population history in the human angiotensinogen gene (AGT): 736 complete AGT sequences in chromosomes from around the world. 6 54 61
15077204 2004
A1166C variant of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with severe hypertension in pregnancy independently of T235 variant of angiotensinogen gene. 54 6 61
15042429 2004
Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension. 6 61 54
10024330 1999
Angiotensinogen gene and hypertension in Chinese. 54 61 6
9421481 1998
Polymorphisms of alpha-adducin and salt sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. 6 54 61
9149697 1997
Association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism with essential hypertension. 6 61 54
9084931 1997
Selectively enhanced cellular signaling by Gi proteins in essential hypertension. G alpha i2, G alpha i3, G beta 1, and G beta 2 are not mutated. 56 54 61
8888689 1996
Molecular basis of human hypertension: role of angiotensinogen. 56 61 54
1394429 1992
Transgenic mice with -6A haplotype of the human angiotensinogen gene have increased blood pressure compared with -6G haplotype. 6 61
20978123 2010
Multiple genes for essential-hypertension susceptibility on chromosome 1q. 56 61
17236131 2007
Implication of chromosome 18 in hypertension by sibling pair and association analyses: putative involvement of the RKHD2 gene. 56 61
17015768 2006
Linkage analysis using co-phenotypes in the BRIGHT study reveals novel potential susceptibility loci for hypertension. 61 56
16826522 2006
Functional variant of CYP4A11 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthase is associated with essential hypertension. 61 56
15611369 2005
Sibpair studies implicate chromosome 18 in essential hypertension. 61 56
15054836 2004
Genome-wide linkage reveals a locus for human essential (primary) hypertension on chromosome 12p. 61 56
12761042 2003
A new essential hypertension susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p24-p25, detected by genomewide search. 56 61
12228842 2002
Identification of 33 polymorphisms in the adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (ALAP) gene and possible association with hypertension. 56 61
11857741 2002
Chromosome 17 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in human essential hypertension. 56 61
11702222 2001
Evidence for linkage between essential hypertension and a putative locus on human chromosome 17. 56 61
10406815 1999
An extreme-sib-pair genome scan for genes regulating blood pressure. 56 61
10330357 1999
Associations of angiotensinogen gene mutations with hypertension and myocardial infarction in a gulf population. 6 61
9831339 1998
Type II diabetes, essential hypertension, and obesity as "syndromes of impaired genetic homeostasis": the "thrifty genotype" hypothesis enters the 21st century. 61 6
9894356 1998
Genetic susceptibility for human familial essential hypertension in a region of homology with blood pressure linkage on rat chromosome 10. 61 56
9328471 1997
A pharmacogenetic approach to blood pressure in Lyon hypertensive rats. A chromosome 2 locus influences the response to a calcium antagonist. 56 61
9329963 1997
Association of the renin gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in a Chinese population. 56 61
9237498 1997
Impaired microvascular dilatation and capillary rarefaction in young adults with a predisposition to high blood pressure. 56 61
9109431 1997
A nucleotide substitution in the promoter of human angiotensinogen is associated with essential hypertension and affects basal transcription in vitro. 6 61
9120024 1997
Variation at the M235T locus of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension: a population-based case-control study from Rochester, Minnesota. 61 6
7649545 1995
Enhanced G protein activation in immortalized lymphoblasts from patients with essential hypertension. 61 56
7635969 1995
Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension. 61 56
8177268 1994
A molecular variant of angiotensinogen associated with preeclampsia. 6 61
8513325 1993
Genetics of essential hypertension. 61 56
8420305 1993
Baroreflex sensitivity and heredity in essential hypertension. 56 61
1735146 1992
Genetic and environmental explanations for the distribution of sodium-lithium countertransport in pedigrees from Rochester, MN. 56 61
2035530 1991
Renal hemodynamics and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normotensive subjects with hypertensive and normotensive parents. 56 61
2017226 1991
Exclusion of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter as a candidate gene in human essential hypertension. 61 56
1846121 1991
Red-cell lithium-sodium countertransport and renal lithium clearance in hypertension. 56 61
3941708 1986
Familial aggregation of red blood cell cation transport systems in Japanese families. 61 56
2411126 1985
Perturbation of sodium-lithium countertransport in red cells. 56 61
6843610 1983
The heterogeneity of essential hypertension. Relation between lithium efflux and sodium content of erythrocytes and a family history of hypertension. 56 61
6126750 1982
Leucocyte membrane sodium transport in normotensive populations: dissociation of abnormalities of sodium efflux from raised blood-pressure. 61 56
6126751 1982
Essential hypertension: sodium-lithium countertransport in erythrocytes from patients and from children having one hypertensive parent. 56 61
7106937 1982
The natriuretic hormone and essential hypertension. 56 61
6123731 1982
Familial abnormality of erythrocyte cation transport in essential hypertension. 56 61
6788127 1981
Abnormal net Na+ and K+ fluxes in erythrocytes of three varieties of genetically hypertensive rats. 61 56
6254018 1980

Variations for Hypertension, Essential

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hypertension, Essential:

6 (show all 35) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 UMOD NM_003361.3(UMOD):c.-1746T>CSNV association 219224 rs13333226 16:20365654-20365654 16:20354332-20354332
2 AGT AGT, -6A HAPLOTYPESNV Pathogenic,risk factor 18069
3 COL4A5 NM_033380.3(COL4A5):c.1871G>A (p.Gly624Asp)SNV Pathogenic 24455 rs104886142 X:107842023-107842023 X:108598793-108598793
4 PKD2 NM_000297.4(PKD2):c.357_364delinsTAGGACG (p.Pro120fs)indel Pathogenic 373955 rs1057518797 4:88929242-88929249 4:88008090-88008097
5 MEN1 NM_000244.3(MEN1):c.669+1deldeletion Pathogenic 374107 rs1057518903 11:64575362-64575362 11:64807890-64807890
6 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.8311G>A (p.Glu2771Lys)SNV Pathogenic 374097 rs1057518897 16:2153747-2153747 16:2103746-2103746
7 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.3520C>T (p.Gln1174Ter)SNV Pathogenic 374102 rs1057518899 16:2161648-2161648 16:2111647-2111647
8 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.209C>T (p.Thr70Met)SNV Pathogenic 633595 1:15788135-15788135 1:15461640-15461640
9 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.253C>A (p.Leu85Met)SNV Pathogenic 633593 1:15789253-15789253 1:15462758-15462758
10 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.361G>A (p.Asp121Asn)SNV Pathogenic 633592 1:15789885-15789885 1:15463390-15463390
11 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.639+1G>CSNV Pathogenic 633594 1:15792640-15792640 1:15466145-15466145
12 MTX2 NM_006554.5(MTX2):c.293_294CT[1] (p.Ser98_Leu99insTer)short repeat Pathogenic 827676 2:177193027-177193028 2:176328299-176328300
13 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.228-21_228-20delinsCindel Pathogenic 1057 rs1553201258 1:173797450-173797451 1:173828312-173828313
14 DARS2 NM_018122.5(DARS2):c.492+2T>CSNV Pathogenic 1062 rs142433332 1:173800770-173800770 1:173831632-173831632
15 F12 NM_000505.3(F12):c.983C>G (p.Thr328Arg)SNV Pathogenic 1170 rs118204456 5:176831232-176831232 5:177404231-177404231
16 CYFIP1 , NIPA1 , NIPA2 , TUBGCP5 GRCh37/hg19 15q11.2(chr15:22765628-23300287)copy number loss Pathogenic 523249 15:22765628-23300287
17 PTGIS NM_000961.4(PTGIS):c.1358+2T>CSNV Pathogenic 7864 rs13306026 20:48127563-48127563 20:49511026-49511026
18 INF2 NM_022489.4(INF2):c.658G>A (p.Glu220Lys)SNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 523533 rs530391015 14:105169782-105169782 14:104703445-104703445
19 MYH9 NM_002473.5(MYH9):c.4271A>G (p.Asp1424Gly)SNV Likely pathogenic 523453 rs867593888 22:36688105-36688105 22:36292059-36292059
20 ECE1 ECE1, -338C-ASNV risk factor 9134
21 ECE1 ECE1, -839T-GSNV risk factor 9135
22 GNB3 GNB3, 825C-TSNV risk factor 16004
23 CYP3A5 CYP3A5, 6986A-GSNV risk factor 5066
24 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.11524T>C (p.Trp3842Arg)SNV Likely pathogenic 374187 rs1057518959 16:2141795-2141795 16:2091794-2091794
25 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.9185T>A (p.Val3062Asp)SNV Likely pathogenic 374044 rs1057518856 16:2152398-2152398 16:2102397-2102397
26 GBA NM_000157.4(GBA):c.1093G>A (p.Glu365Lys)SNV risk factor 199044 rs2230288 1:155206167-155206167 1:155236376-155236376
27 ADD1 NM_176801.2(ADD1):c.1378G>T (p.Gly460Trp)SNV drug response 18274 rs4961 4:2906707-2906707 4:2904980-2904980
28 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.2320G>C (p.Gly774Arg)SNV Likely pathogenic 242442 rs569681869 2:227924184-227924184 2:227059468-227059468
29 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.4217-15T>CSNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 255039 rs200926310 2:227877028-227877028 2:227012312-227012312
30 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.4394G>A (p.Gly1465Asp)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 523324 rs533297350 2:227875157-227875157 2:227010441-227010441
31 PRKAG2 NM_016203.4(PRKAG2):c.590C>G (p.Pro197Arg)SNV Uncertain significance 374128 rs368637364 7:151372600-151372600 7:151675514-151675514
32 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.3055G>C (p.Glu1019Gln)SNV Uncertain significance 374041 rs1057518854 2:227915788-227915788 2:227051072-227051072
33 AGTR1 NM_031850.3(AGTR1):c.*86A>CSNV Benign 18065 rs5186 3:148459988-148459988 3:148742201-148742201
34 AGT NM_000029.4(AGT):c.803T>C (p.Met268Thr)SNV Benign 18068 rs699 1:230845794-230845794 1:230710048-230710048
35 CYP3A5 NM_000777.5(CYP3A5):c.1165C>T (p.Pro389Ser)SNV not provided 585032 rs765108001 7:99250264-99250264 7:99652641-99652641

Copy number variations for Hypertension, Essential from CNVD:

7 (show all 17)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 71427 12 69818942 132349534 Copy number Hypertension
2 109399 17 25800000 31800000 Gain Hypertension
3 112710 17 40930407 78774742 Copy number Hypertension
4 137134 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion ARHGAP15 Hypertension
5 137138 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion GTDC1 Hypertension
6 137142 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion HNMT Hypertension
7 137146 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion KYNU Hypertension
8 137150 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion LOC64702 Hypertension
9 137154 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion LRP1B Hypertension
10 137158 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion NXPH2 Hypertension
11 137162 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion SPOPL Hypertension
12 139337 2 179004449 242951149 Copy number Hypertension
13 195355 5 150157836 180857866 Copy number Hypertension
14 195375 5 150183562 180857866 Copy number Hypertension
15 210789 6 31416574 170899992 Copy number Hypertension
16 211339 6 32582950 170899992 Copy number Hypertension
17 211385 6 32609209 170899992 Copy number Hypertension

Expression for Hypertension, Essential

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Hypertension, Essential patients vs. healthy controls: 35
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 LINC01420 long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1420 Blood + 3.27 0.005
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hypertension, Essential.

Pathways for Hypertension, Essential

Pathways related to Hypertension, Essential according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
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