EHT
MCID: HYP595
MIFTS: 87

Hypertension, Essential (EHT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hypertension, Essential:

Name: Hypertension, Essential 57 13 40
Essential Hypertension 12 75 25 74 29 55 6 44 15 72
Hypertension 57 12 75 25 29 6 44 15 17
High Blood Pressure 12 25 37 43 3 63
Hypertensive Disease 12 15 72
Primary Hypertension 12 25 17
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential, Susceptibility to 57 6
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to 57 6
Eht 57 74
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 1 57
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 2 57
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 3 57
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 4 57
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 5 57
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 6 57
Hypertension, Essential, Salt-Sensitive 57
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential 57
Hypertension, Susceptibility to 57
Vascular Hypertensive Disorder 12
Hypertension, Essential 1 57
Hypertension, Essential 2 57
Hypertension, Essential 3 57
Hypertension, Essential 4 57
Hypertension, Essential 5 57
Hypertension, Essential 6 57
Idiopathic Hypertension 12
Hyperpiesia 12
Htn 12

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
multifactorial

Miscellaneous:
multiple genes influence susceptibility to hypertension. candidate genes include angiotensinogen (agt, ), angiotensin receptor-1 (agtr1, ), and beta-3 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (gnb3, ). susceptibility loci include hyt1 () and hyt2 ().


HPO:

32
hypertension, essential:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10763 DOID:10825
OMIM 57 145500
KEGG 37 H01633
NCIt 50 C3117 C3478
SNOMED-CT 68 38341003 59621000
ICD10 33 I10 I10-I15
MedGen 42 C0085580
UMLS 72 C0020538 C0085580

Summaries for Hypertension, Essential

MedlinePlus : 43 What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure. Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number. For example, 120/80 means a systolic of 120 and a diastolic of 80. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have it is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. He or she will take two or more readings at separate appointments before making a diagnosis. You have high blood pressure if your readings show that Your systolic is 140 or higher OR Your diastolic is 90 or higher Some providers may consider you to have high blood pressure if you have other heart risk factors and Your systolic is between 130 and 139 OR Your diastolic is between 80 and 89 Blood pressure readings above 180 /120 are dangerously high and require immediate medical attention. For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender. What are the different types of high blood pressure? There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older. Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat that condition or stop taking the medicines that are causing it. Why do I need to worry about high blood pressure? When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure. What are the treatments for high blood pressure? Treatments for high blood pressure include heart-healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. You will work with your provider to come up with a treatment plan. It may include only the lifestyle changes. These changes, such as heart-healthy eating and exercise, can be very effective. But sometimes the changes do not control or lower your high blood pressure. Then you may need to take medicine. There are different types of blood pressure medicines. Some people need to take more than one type. If your high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or medicine, treating that condition or stopping the medicine may lower your blood pressure. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Hypertension, Essential, also known as essential hypertension, is related to diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent and congenital hepatic fibrosis, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and edema. An important gene associated with Hypertension, Essential is PTGIS (Prostaglandin I2 Synthase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications. The drugs Guaifenesin and Bromocriptine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and endothelial, and related phenotypes are elevated systolic blood pressure and elevated mean arterial pressure

Disease Ontology : 12 A hypertension with no known cause. It is the most common type of hypertension.

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. As the heart beats, it forces blood through the arteries to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the rest of the body. The strength of the blood pushing against the artery walls is blood pressure, which is measured in units called millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The top number in a blood pressure reading is the pressure when the heart pumps (systolic blood pressure), and the bottom number is the pressure between heart beats (diastolic blood pressure). In adults, a normal blood pressure measurement is about 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure is considered high when the measurement is 130/80 mmHg or greater. Hypertension usually has no symptoms, and many affected individuals do not know they have the condition. However, hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and eye problems. When blood pressure is elevated, the heart and arteries have to work harder than normal to pump blood through the body. The extra work thickens the muscles of the heart and arteries and hardens or damages artery walls. As a result, the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and other organs is reduced. Damage to the heart caused by the extra work and a lack of oxygen causes heart disease. In addition, damage to the arteries increases the risk of blood clots that block the flow of blood to the heart, causing a heart attack, or to the brain, causing a type of stroke known as an ischemic stroke. Another type of stroke, called a hemorrhagic stroke, can occur when a weakened blood vessel in the brain bursts. Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys impairs their ability to filter waste and remove fluid, leading to kidney failure. Problems with blood flow in the arteries of the eyes can lead to vision loss. In rare cases, dangerously high blood pressure can cause severe headaches, confusion, shortness of breath, chest pain, or nosebleeds. In about 95 percent of cases, the cause of hypertension is unknown. These cases are classified as essential hypertension. When hypertension results from an underlying condition, such as blood vessel defects that reduce blood flow; kidney disorders, which alter the amount of fluids and salts in the body; or problems with hormone-producing glands called the adrenal glands or the thyroid gland, it is classified as secondary hypertension. Hypertension is a key feature of some rare genetic disorders, including familial hyperaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2, Liddle syndrome, Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, and tumors known as paragangliomas.

OMIM : 57 The Pickering school held that blood pressure has a continuous distribution, that multiple genes and multiple environmental factors determine the level of one's blood pressure just as the determination of stature and intelligence is multifactorial, and that 'essential hypertension' is merely the upper end of the distribution (Pickering, 1978). In this view the person with essential hypertension is one who happens to inherit an aggregate of genes determining hypertension (and also is exposed to exogenous factors that favor hypertension). The Platt school took the view that essential hypertension is a simple mendelian dominant trait (Platt, 1963). McDonough et al. (1964) defended the monogenic idea. See McKusick (1960) and Kurtz and Spence (1993) for reviews. Swales (1985) reviewed the Platt-Pickering controversy as an 'episode in recent medical history.' The Pickering point of view appears to be more consistent with the observations. (145500)

CDC : 3 High blood pressure is a common and dangerous condition. Having high blood pressure means the pressure of the blood in your blood vessels is higher than it should be. But you can take steps to control your blood pressure and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. About 1 of 3 U.S. adults-or about 75 million people-have high blood pressure.1 Only about half (54%) of these people have their high blood pressure under control.1 Many youth are also being diagnosed with high blood pressure.2 This common condition increases the risk for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death for Americans.3 Get more quick facts about high blood pressure, or learn more about high blood pressure in the United States. High blood pressure is called the "silent killer" because it often has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not know they have it. That's why it is important to check your blood pressure regularly. The good news is that you can take steps to prevent high blood pressure or to control it if your blood pressure is already high.

KEGG : 37
High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent classic cardiovascular risk factor and accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular mortality, the main cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is generally classified as primary (essential) or secondary. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EH have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Secondary hypertension generally has an earlier age at onset, no family history, and a clear cause such as a renal or endocrine disorder, or an iatrogenic trigger, such as use of oral contraceptives. Blood pressure is a heritable trait; an estimated 30% of variance in blood pressure relates to genetic factors. Understanding of the genetic architecture of traits has progressed in rare mendelian hypertensive phenotypes, such as Gordon's syndrome.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 74 Essential hypertension: A condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause.

Wikipedia : 75 Essential hypertension (also called idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by... more...

Related Diseases for Hypertension, Essential

Diseases in the Familial Hypertension family:

Hypertension, Essential Hypertension, Essential 1
Hypertension, Essential 2 Hypertension, Essential 3
Hypertension, Essential 4 Hypertension, Essential 5
Hypertension, Essential 6 Hypertension, Essential 7
Hypertension, Essential 8 Malignant Essential Hypertension
Malignant Hypertension Benign Essential Hypertension
Benign Secondary Hypertension Malignant Secondary Hypertension

Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2868)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 34.5 NOS3 GNB3 CDKN2B-AS1 AGTR1 AGT
2 congenital hepatic fibrosis 33.4 PKD1 AGTR1
3 diabetes mellitus 33.3 NOS3 MIR155 MEN1 CDKN2B-AS1 AGTR1 AGT
4 myocardial infarction 33.2 PTGIS NOS3 GNB3 CDKN2B-AS1 AGTR1 AGT
5 end stage renal failure 33.2 PKD1 COL4A5 AGTR1 AGT
6 aortic coarctation 33.1 NOS3 GNB3 AGTR1 AGT
7 arteries, anomalies of 32.8 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
8 atherosclerosis susceptibility 32.7 PTGIS NOS3 CDKN2B-AS1
9 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 32.6 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 AGT ADD1
10 diastolic heart failure 32.4 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
11 mitral valve disease 32.3 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
12 renal artery disease 32.3 NOS3 AGTR1 AGT
13 orthostatic intolerance 32.1 NOS3 NOS2 ECE1 AGTR1
14 kidney disease 31.9 PKD2 PKD1 NOS3 COL4A5 AGTR1 AGT
15 intracranial aneurysm 31.8 PKD1 NOS3 CDKN2B-AS1
16 multicystic dysplastic kidney 31.6 PKD2 PKD1
17 stroke, ischemic 31.5 PTGIS NOS3 CDKN2B-AS1 AGTR1
18 platelet membrane fluidity 31.2 NOS3 NOS2
19 pediatric hypertension 31.2 AGT ADD1
20 meningococcal infection 30.9 AGTR1 AGT ADD1
21 lymphatic malformations 30.8 PKD2 PKD1
22 coronary heart disease 1 30.4 NOS3 MIR155 CDKN2B-AS1
23 hypertensive heart disease 12.6
24 hypertension and brachydactyly syndrome 12.6
25 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 12.6
26 hypertensive encephalopathy 12.6
27 renal hypertension 12.6
28 hypertension, diastolic 12.5
29 ocular hypertension 12.5
30 hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure, and alkalosis syndrome 12.5
31 portal hypertension, noncirrhotic 12.5
32 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension 12.5
33 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 4 12.5
34 hypertensive retinopathy 12.5
35 pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension 12.5
36 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 2 12.5
37 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 3 12.4
38 pulmonary hypertension, neonatal 12.4
39 hypertension, essential 3 12.4
40 hypertension, essential 4 12.4
41 hypertension, essential 5 12.4
42 hypertension, essential 6 12.4
43 hypertension, essential 1 12.4
44 hypertension, essential 2 12.4
45 hypertension, essential 7 12.4
46 hypertension, essential 8 12.4
47 renal failure, progressive, with hypertension 12.4
48 intracranial hypertension 12.4
49 heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension 12.4
50 pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease 12.3

Comorbidity relations with Hypertension, Essential via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 293)


Abducens Nerve Disease Acquired Polycythemia
Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma
Acute Conjunctivitis Acute Cystitis
Acute Ethmoiditis Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Maxillary Sinusitis Acute Myocardial Infarction
Acute Pancreatitis Acute Stress Disorder
Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine Adjustment Disorder
Adrenal Gland Disease Age-Related Hearing Loss
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic Urticaria
Alopecia, Neurologic Defects, and Endocrinopathy Syndrome Angina Pectoris
Anxiety Aortic Aneurysm
Aortic Atherosclerosis Aortic Valve Disease 1
Asthma Atrioventricular Block
Atrophic Gastritis Atypical Depressive Disorder
Auditory System Disease Autonomic Nervous System Disease
Basilar Artery Insufficiency Bipolar Disorder
Bleeding Disorder, Platelet-Type, 11 Blepharitis
Borderline Glaucoma Borderline Personality Disorder
Brain Cancer Brain Compression
Brain Edema Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion
Bronchitis Buerger Disease
Campylobacteriosis Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac Arrhythmia Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Cerebral Arteritis Cerebral Atherosclerosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hypertension, Essential:



Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hypertension, Essential

Human phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 elevated systolic blood pressure 32 HP:0004421
2 elevated mean arterial pressure 32 HP:0004972
3 elevated diastolic blood pressure 32 HP:0005117

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Cardiovascular Vascular:
elevated systolic blood pressure
elevated mean arterial pressure
elevated diastolic blood pressure

Clinical features from OMIM:

145500

UMLS symptoms related to Hypertension, Essential:


tremor, angina pectoris, edema, chest pain, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.25 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 COL4A5 ECE1 INF2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.21 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 COL4A5 ECE1
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.14 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ECE1 INF2 MEN1
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.1 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 COL4A5 DARS2
5 immune system MP:0005387 10.02 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 ECE1 MEN1 NOS2
6 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS2 NOS3 PKD1
7 muscle MP:0005369 9.7 AGT ATP1B1 ECE1 MEN1 NOS2 NOS3
8 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ECE1 F12 GNB3
9 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.23 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS2 NOS3 PKD1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hypertension, Essential

Drugs for Hypertension, Essential (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1280)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
2
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
3
Orlistat Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96829-58-2 3034010
4
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
5
Cisatracurium Approved Phase 4 96946-41-7
6 fluindione Approved, Investigational Phase 4 957-56-2
7
Methadone Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
8
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
9
Ticlopidine Approved Phase 4 55142-85-3 5472
10
Nitrofurantoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 67-20-9 5353830
11
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 738-70-5 5578
12
Probucol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 23288-49-5 4912
13
Lacidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103890-78-4
14
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
15
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
16
Captopril Approved Phase 4 62571-86-2 44093
17
Nebivolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 152520-56-4, 118457-14-0, 99200-09-6 71301
18
Amiloride Approved Phase 4 2016-88-8, 2609-46-3 16231
19
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
20
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
21
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
22
Felodipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 72509-76-3 3333
23
Manidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 89226-50-6
24
Bendroflumethiazide Approved Phase 4 73-48-3 2315
25
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
26
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
27
Nadolol Approved Phase 4 42200-33-9 39147
28
Trichlormethiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 133-67-5 5560
29
Potassium Citrate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4
30
Diltiazem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 42399-41-7 39186
31
Moexipril Approved Phase 4 103775-10-6 91270
32
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
33
Ranolazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 142387-99-3, 95635-55-5 56959
34
Infliximab Approved Phase 4 170277-31-3
35
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
36
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
37
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
38 Orange Approved Phase 4
39 Apricot Approved Phase 4
40
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56180-94-0 441184
41
Fenofibrate Approved Phase 4 49562-28-9 3339
42
Insulin glargine Approved Phase 4 160337-95-1
43
Repaglinide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135062-02-1 65981
44
Norethindrone Approved Phase 4 68-22-4 6230
45
Phentermine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 122-09-8 4771
46
Esmolol Approved Phase 4 103598-03-4, 81147-92-4 59768
47
Magnesium oxide Approved Phase 4 1309-48-4 14792
48
Carboplatin Approved Phase 4 41575-94-4 10339178 498142 38904
49
Ergotamine Approved Phase 4 113-15-5 8223
50
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 4 Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Antihypertensive Efficacy and Safety of Ramiprin Tab. in Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00366119 Phase 4 Ramipril
2 Phase 4 Study of Effects of ARB Compared With Diuretics in Hypertension Patients With High Cardiovascular Risks Unknown status NCT01011660 Phase 4 Amlodipine, Telmisartan, Amiloride Compound , Simvastatin
3 Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of S-amlodipine+Chlorthalidone Combination Therapy and S-amlodipine+Telmisartan Combination Therapy in Hypertensive Patients Inadequately Controlled With Calcium Channel Blocker Monotherapy Unknown status NCT03226340 Phase 4 S-amlodipine 2.5mg + Chlorthalidone 25mg;S-amlodipine 2.5mg + Telmisartan 40mg
4 Treatment of HYpertension: Morning Versus Evening Unknown status NCT02214498 Phase 4 Enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide;Placebo
5 Antihypertensive Drug Treatment Decisions Based on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Unknown status NCT00841308 Phase 4
6 An Open Label, Pharmacogenetic Study of Bisoprolol Treatment in Patients With Uncontrolled Essential Hypertension (BRAVE) Unknown status NCT02398929 Phase 4 Bisoprolol 2.5 mg;Placebo
7 Ultrasonographic Modification of Liver Steatosis and Visceral Fat Induced by Treatment With Losartan and Simvastatin in Hypertensive Normocholesterolemic Obese Patients Unknown status NCT00669435 Phase 4 Losartan + Simvastatin;Amlodipine + Simvastatin
8 Monotherapy Versus Dual Therapy for Initial Treatment for Hypertension Unknown status NCT00994617 Phase 4 Losartan and hydrochlorothiazide;Hydrochlorothiazide switched over with Losartan at 8 weeks
9 GRK4 Polymorphisms Blood Pressure Response to Candesartan Unknown status NCT01629225 Phase 4 Candesartan
10 Efficacy Study of Nifedipine Controlled-Release Tablets (Xin Ran) to Treat Early Morning Blood Pressure and Central Arterial Pressure Unknown status NCT02357615 Phase 4 nifedipine CR tablets (Xin Ran);Adalat
11 A Randomized Controlled Study of Nifecardia SRFC (Nifedipine) and Adalat OROS (Nifedipine) in the Treatment of Patients With Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00173667 Phase 4 Nifedipine 30 mg GITS
12 Evaluation of Antihypertensive Activity of Valsartan and Amlodipine Compared to Losartan and Amlodipine Through Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Moderate Hypertensive Patients in a Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study Unknown status NCT00716950 Phase 4 valsartan/amlodpine;losartan/amlodpine
13 The Impact of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill for Coronary Heart Disease With Hypertension Patient Heart and Artery Structure and Function Unknown status NCT01825759 Phase 4 danshen dripping pill
14 Marinobufagenin as a Target for DIGIBIND in Hypertensive Patients With End-stage Renal Disease Unknown status NCT00852787 Phase 4 Digoxin immune fab;Placebo
15 Effect of Combined Antihypertensive Therapy on Blood Pressure and Sexual Function in Patients With Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT01238705 Phase 4 Felodipine add Irbesartan;Felodipine add Metoprolol
16 PAracetamol Treatment in Hypertension: Effect on Blood Pressure (PATH-BP) Study Unknown status NCT01997112 Phase 4 Paracetamol;Placebo oral capsule
17 A Morbi-Mortality and Remodeling Study With Valsartan in Patients With Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Unknown status NCT00133328 Phase 4 valsartan
18 Efficacy of L-arginine Treatment on Blood Pressure Control Patients With Stage 1 Hypertension Unknown status NCT02894723 Phase 4
19 Vitamin D Augmentation of Tekturna (Aliskiren) in Hypertension (VDATH) Unknown status NCT01472796 Phase 4 Tekturna(Aliskiren) plus placebo
20 Changes in Central Aortic Pressure, Endothelial Function and Biomarkers in African Americans With Cardiometabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Amlodipine/Olmesartan Versus Hydrochlorothiazide/Losartan Unknown status NCT01271374 Phase 4 amlodipine and olmesartan;losartan and HCTZ
21 Nebivolol Effects on Endothelial Function and Erectile Function in Non-smoking Pre-hypertensive and Newly Diagnosed Stage 1 Hypertensive Men With Erectile Dysfunction. Unknown status NCT01885988 Phase 4 Nebivolol;Sugar Pill
22 The Therapeutic Effect of Bromocriptin in Patients With Primary Aldosteronism Unknown status NCT00451672 Phase 4 bromocriptine
23 Multicenter Study of Patients With Hypertension Resistant to Patient Identification and Standardization of Therapeutic Unknown status NCT01643434 Phase 4 Spironolactone;Clonidine
24 Use of the Endothelin-1 Antagonist Bosentan in Patients With Established Pulmonary Hypertension and Fibrotic Lung Disease. - A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study. Unknown status NCT00637065 Phase 4 Bosentan;Placebo
25 Effect of Allopurinol on Mono and Co-administration With Statins on Platelets Reactivity on Diabetic Patiets Treated With Aspirin and Insulin Unknown status NCT03195153 Phase 4 Atorvastatin 80mg;ALLOPURINOL 300 MG;Atorvastatin 80mg AND allopurinol 300 mg
26 Evaluation of Sildenafil for the Treatment of Moderate Congestive Heart Failure Unknown status NCT00793338 Phase 4 Sildenafil
27 The Effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists on Acute and Chronic Postoperative Pain in Patients Treated for Hypertension. Unknown status NCT02513979 Phase 4 Angiotensin type II receptor antagonists
28 An Open-Label Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Double or Triple Concentrated Intravenous Nicardipine for Treatment of Hypertension in Patients With Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage or Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Unknown status NCT00325793 Phase 4 Nicardipine
29 A Randomized, Open-label, Positive Drug Controlled Clinical Trials to Compare the Efficacy of Nitrendipine and Hydrochlorothiazide , Captopril Plus Hydrochlorothiazide and Beijing Hypotensive No.0 in Tibetan Hypertension Unknown status NCT02217852 Phase 4 Nitrendipine;Hydrochlorothiazide;Captopril,Hydrochlorothiazide;Beijing hypotensive No.0
30 A Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Valsartan and Aliskiren in Combination Versus Tekturna Alone on Hemostatic Biomarkers in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Mild to Moderate Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01095822 Phase 4 Aliskiren + Valsartan
31 Phase 4 Study of Medical Therapy Versus Medical Therapy Plus Renal Artery Stenting in Preventing the Progression of Renal Failure in Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease Unknown status NCT01023373 Phase 4 Medical treatment
32 A Placebo Controlled Double Blinded Crossover Study of the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Guanfacine vs Hydrochlorothiazide in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Associated Hypertension Unknown status NCT02699125 Phase 4 Guanfacine;Hydrochlorothiazide
33 Manidipine Versus Amlodipine in Patients With Hypertension: Effects on Peripheral Edema Evaluated by Bioimpedance Analysis Unknown status NCT03106597 Phase 4 Manidipine 20mg;Amlodipine 10mg
34 Effect of Active Telephone Calls in the Compliance of Hypertensive Patients With Treatment: An Open and Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00813722 Phase 4 amlodipine (calcium chanel blocker) and losartan (at1 antagonist);atenolol (beta blocker) and hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic)
35 Novel Strategy For Perioperative Beta-Blocker Therapy - Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02746575 Phase 4 metoprolol
36 Does Aldosterone Cause Hypertension by a Non-Renal Mechanism? Unknown status NCT00553722 Phase 4 Eplerenone;Placebo
37 Effects of Atorvastatin Treatment on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (ALEVENT) Unknown status NCT01503671 Phase 4 Atorvastatin
38 Assessment of the Effect of Moxonidine and Diet on Cardiac, Renal and Endothelial Function in Young Subjects With Abdominal Obesity Unknown status NCT01180231 Phase 4 Moxonidine (Physiotens)
39 Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate Implanted Event Recorders for the First Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation in High-risk Patients Unknown status NCT01461434 Phase 4
40 Study of Optimal Treatment Plan in Hypertensives With Anti-AT1-Receptor Autoantibody Unknown status NCT00360763 Phase 4 candesartan cilexetil
41 The Effect of Diane-35 Pretreatment on Endocrine and Clinical Profile for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing In-vitro Fertilization Unknown status NCT01752270 Phase 4 Diane-35 pretreatment;Diane-35 pretreatment
42 Effects of Aliskiren/Amlodipine Versus Amlodipine Monotherapy on Ankle-foot Volume in Hypertensive Patients Unknown status NCT01048047 Phase 4 aliskiren/amlodipine
43 Hypotonic Treprostinil Subcutaneous Infusion for Control of Treprostinil Related Site Pain Unknown status NCT01615627 Phase 4 HypotonicTreprostinil Solution;Eutonic Treprostinil Solution
44 Insulin Resistance and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Older Chinese Adults With Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Cognitive Effects of Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin Treatment in a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02409238 Phase 4 Metformin
45 Addition of Spironolactone in Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension Unknown status NCT00524615 Phase 4 spironolactone
46 Randomized Trial Comparing Diltiazem and Metoprolol For Atrial Fibrillation Rate Control Unknown status NCT02025465 Phase 4 Metoprolol;Diltiazem
47 Long Acting Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors as Add-on Therapy for Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension Treated With Prostanoids. Unknown status NCT00705588 Phase 4 Tadalafil;Vardenafil
48 the Study of Using Esophageal Pressure to Guide the PEEP Setting in Abdominal Hypertension Patients Who Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation Unknown status NCT01825304 Phase 4
49 The Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET) Unknown status NCT00122811 Phase 4 Indapamide SR 1.5mg; Perindopril 2-4mg
50 Evaluation of Platelet Effects of Chlorthalidone and Hydrochlorothiazide Unknown status NCT02100462 Phase 4 Chlorthalidone 12.5 mg;Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg;Aspirin 81 mg

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hypertension, Essential

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Acebutolol
Acebutolol
Acebutolol Hydrochloride
Aliskiren
Amiloride
Amiloride
Amiloride Hydrochloride
Amlodipine
Amlodipine
Amlodipine Besylate
Angelica sinensis preparation
Antihypertensives, Other
Atenolol
Atenolol
Azilsartan medoxomil
benazepril
Benazepril
Benazepril hydrochloride
Bendroflumethiazide
Bendroflumethiazide
benzthiazide
Bepridil
Bepridil hydrochloride
Betaxolol
Betaxolol
Betaxolol Hydrochloride
Bisoprolol
Bisoprolol
Bisoprolol Fumarate
Bumetanide
candesartan
candesartan cilexetil
Candesartan cilexetil
Captopril
Carteolol
Carteolol Hydrochloride
carvedilol
Carvedilol
carvedilol phosphate
Chlorothiazide
Chlorothiazide
Chlorothiazide sodium
Chlorthalidone
Cilazapril
Clevidipine
Clonidine
Clonidine
CLONIDINE HCL PWDR
Clonidine Hydrochloride
coenzyme Q10
cyclothiazide
deserpidine
Diltiazem
Diltiazem
Diltiazem Hydrochloride
Diltiazem maleate
DITIAZ
Doxazosin
Doxazosin
Doxazosin Mesylate
Enalapril
Enalaprilat
eplerenone
Eplerenone
eprosartan
Eprosartan
Eprosartan mesylate
esmolol
Esmolol hydrochloride
Ethacrynate Sodium
Ethacrynic Acid
Felodipine
Felodipine
Fish Oils
Fosinopril
Fosinopril
Fosinopril Sodium
Furosemide
Furosemide
Guanabenz
Guanabenz Acetate
guanadrel
Guanadrel sulfate
Guanethidine
Guanethidine Monosulfate
Guanfacine
Guanfacine
Guanfacine Hydrochloride
Hydralazine
Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydroflumethiazide
Indapamide
Indapamide
irbesartan
Irbesartan
Isosorbide dinitrate
Isradipine
Isradipine
Labetalol
Linoleic acid
Lisinopril
Lisinopril
Losartan
Losartan
Losartan Potassium
Methyclothiazide
Methyclothiazide
Methyldopa
Methyldopa
Methyldopate hydrochloride
Metolazone
Metoprolol
Metoprolol
metoprolol succinate
Metoprolol Tartrate
Mibefradil
Mibefradil Dihydrochloride
moexipril
Moexipril
Moexipril hydrochloride
Nadolol
Nadolol
Nebivolol
Nicardipine
Nicardipine
Nicardipine hydrochloride
Nifedipine
Nifedipine
Nisoldipine
Nisoldipine
Oil of garlic
olmesartan
Olmesartan
Olmesartan medoxomil
Penbutolol
Penbutolol Sulfate
Perindopril
Perindopril
Perindopril arginine
Perindopril Erbumine
Pindolol
Pindolol
Polythiazide
Prazosin
Prazosin
Prazosin hydrochloride
Propranolol
Propranolol
Propranolol Hydrochloride
quinapril
Quinapril
Quinapril hydrochloride
quinethazone
Ramipril
Ramipril
Ranitidine
Reserpine
Reserpine
Spironolactone
Spironolactone
SPIRONOLACTONE PWDR
telmisartan
Telmisartan
Terazosin
Terazosin
terazosin hydrochloride
Timolol
Timolol Hemihydrate
Timolol Maleate
Torasemide
torsemide
trandolapril
Trandolapril
Triamterene
Triamterene
Trichlormethiazide
valsartan
Valsartan
Verapamil
Verapamil
Verapamil hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hypertension

Genetic Tests for Hypertension, Essential

Genetic tests related to Hypertension, Essential:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Essential Hypertension 29 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 ATP1B1 CYP3A5 ECE1 GNB3 NOS2 NOS3 PTGIS RGS5
2 Hypertension 29

Anatomical Context for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hypertension, Essential:

41
Heart, Kidney, Endothelial, Liver, Testes, Lung, Brain

Publications for Hypertension, Essential

Articles related to Hypertension, Essential:

(show top 50) (show all 22277)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms in human essential hypertension. 9 38 8 71
8021009 1994
2
Splicing mutation of the prostacyclin synthase gene in a family associated with hypertension. 38 8 71
12372404 2002
3
Association of a human G-protein beta3 subunit variant with hypertension. 38 8 71
9425898 1998
4
Differential binding of transcription factor E2F-2 to the endothelin-converting enzyme-1b promoter affects blood pressure regulation. 8 71
12566389 2003
5
Human microRNA-155 on chromosome 21 differentially interacts with its polymorphic target in the AGTR1 3' untranslated region: a mechanism for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to phenotypes. 88 71
17668390 2007
6
Natural selection and population history in the human angiotensinogen gene (AGT): 736 complete AGT sequences in chromosomes from around the world. 9 38 71
15077204 2004
7
A1166C variant of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with severe hypertension in pregnancy independently of T235 variant of angiotensinogen gene. 9 38 71
15042429 2004
8
Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension. 9 38 71
10024330 1999
9
Angiotensinogen gene and hypertension in Chinese. 9 38 71
9421481 1998
10
Polymorphisms of alpha-adducin and salt sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. 9 38 71
9149697 1997
11
Association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism with essential hypertension. 9 38 71
9084931 1997
12
Selectively enhanced cellular signaling by Gi proteins in essential hypertension. G alpha i2, G alpha i3, G beta 1, and G beta 2 are not mutated. 9 38 8
8888689 1996
13
Molecular basis of human hypertension: role of angiotensinogen. 9 38 8
1394429 1992
14
Transgenic mice with -6A haplotype of the human angiotensinogen gene have increased blood pressure compared with -6G haplotype. 38 71
20978123 2010
15
Multiple genes for essential-hypertension susceptibility on chromosome 1q. 38 8
17236131 2007
16
Implication of chromosome 18 in hypertension by sibling pair and association analyses: putative involvement of the RKHD2 gene. 38 8
17015768 2006
17
Linkage analysis using co-phenotypes in the BRIGHT study reveals novel potential susceptibility loci for hypertension. 38 8
16826522 2006
18
Functional variant of CYP4A11 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthase is associated with essential hypertension. 38 8
15611369 2005
19
Sibpair studies implicate chromosome 18 in essential hypertension. 38 8
15054836 2004
20
Genome-wide linkage reveals a locus for human essential (primary) hypertension on chromosome 12p. 38 8
12761042 2003
21
A new essential hypertension susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p24-p25, detected by genomewide search. 38 8
12228842 2002
22
Identification of 33 polymorphisms in the adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (ALAP) gene and possible association with hypertension. 38 8
11857741 2002
23
Chromosome 17 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in human essential hypertension. 38 8
11702222 2001
24
Evidence for linkage between essential hypertension and a putative locus on human chromosome 17. 38 8
10406815 1999
25
An extreme-sib-pair genome scan for genes regulating blood pressure. 38 8
10330357 1999
26
Associations of angiotensinogen gene mutations with hypertension and myocardial infarction in a gulf population. 38 71
9831339 1998
27
Type II diabetes, essential hypertension, and obesity as "syndromes of impaired genetic homeostasis": the "thrifty genotype" hypothesis enters the 21st century. 38 71
9894356 1998
28
Genetic susceptibility for human familial essential hypertension in a region of homology with blood pressure linkage on rat chromosome 10. 38 8
9328471 1997
29
A pharmacogenetic approach to blood pressure in Lyon hypertensive rats. A chromosome 2 locus influences the response to a calcium antagonist. 38 8
9329963 1997
30
Association of the renin gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in a Chinese population. 38 8
9237498 1997
31
Impaired microvascular dilatation and capillary rarefaction in young adults with a predisposition to high blood pressure. 38 8
9109431 1997
32
A nucleotide substitution in the promoter of human angiotensinogen is associated with essential hypertension and affects basal transcription in vitro. 38 71
9120024 1997
33
Variation at the M235T locus of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension: a population-based case-control study from Rochester, Minnesota. 38 71
7649545 1995
34
Enhanced G protein activation in immortalized lymphoblasts from patients with essential hypertension. 38 8
7635969 1995
35
Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension. 38 8
8177268 1994
36
A molecular variant of angiotensinogen associated with preeclampsia. 38 71
8513325 1993
37
Genetics of essential hypertension. 38 8
8420305 1993
38
Baroreflex sensitivity and heredity in essential hypertension. 38 8
1735146 1992
39
Genetic and environmental explanations for the distribution of sodium-lithium countertransport in pedigrees from Rochester, MN. 38 8
2035530 1991
40
Renal hemodynamics and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normotensive subjects with hypertensive and normotensive parents. 38 8
2017226 1991
41
Exclusion of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter as a candidate gene in human essential hypertension. 38 8
1846121 1991
42
Red-cell lithium-sodium countertransport and renal lithium clearance in hypertension. 38 8
3941708 1986
43
Familial aggregation of red blood cell cation transport systems in Japanese families. 38 8
2411126 1985
44
Perturbation of sodium-lithium countertransport in red cells. 38 8
6843610 1983
45
The heterogeneity of essential hypertension. Relation between lithium efflux and sodium content of erythrocytes and a family history of hypertension. 38 8
6126750 1982
46
Leucocyte membrane sodium transport in normotensive populations: dissociation of abnormalities of sodium efflux from raised blood-pressure. 38 8
6126751 1982
47
Essential hypertension: sodium-lithium countertransport in erythrocytes from patients and from children having one hypertensive parent. 38 8
7106937 1982
48
The natriuretic hormone and essential hypertension. 38 8
6123731 1982
49
Familial abnormality of erythrocyte cation transport in essential hypertension. 38 8
6788127 1981
50
Abnormal net Na+ and K+ fluxes in erythrocytes of three varieties of genetically hypertensive rats. 38 8
6254018 1980