FLU
MCID: INF038
MIFTS: 68

Influenza (FLU)

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Genetic diseases, Infectious diseases, Oral diseases, Respiratory diseases, Smell/Taste diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Influenza

Summaries for Influenza

MedlinePlus : 42 What is the flu? The flu, also called influenza, is a respiratory infection caused by viruses. Each year, millions of Americans get sick with the flu. Sometimes it causes mild illness. But it can also be serious or even deadly, especially for people over 65, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. What causes the flu? The flu is caused by flu viruses that spread from person to person. When someone with the flu coughs, sneezes, or talks, they spray tiny droplets. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby. Less often, a person may get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. What are the symptoms of the flu? Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and may include Fever or feeling feverish/chills Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle or body aches Headaches Fatigue (tiredness) Some people may also have vomiting and diarrhea. This is more common in children. Sometimes people have trouble figuring out whether they have a cold or the flu. There are differences between them. The symptoms of a cold usually come on more slowly and are less severe than symptoms of the flu. Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Sometimes people say that they have a "flu" when they really have something else. For example, "stomach flu" isn't the flu; it's gastroenteritis. What other problems can the flu cause? Some people who get the flu will develop complications. Some of these complications can be serious or even life-threatening. They include Bronchitis Ear infection Sinus infection Pneumonia Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis), brain (encephalitis), or muscle tissues (myositis, rhabdomyolysis) The flu also can make chronic health problems worse. For example, people with asthma may have asthma attacks while they have flu. Certain people are more likely to have complications from the flu, including Adults 65 and older Pregnant women Children younger than 5 People with certain chronic health conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease How is the flu diagnosed? To diagnose the flu, health care providers will first do a medical history and ask about your symptoms. There are several tests for the flu. For the tests, your provider will swipe the inside of your nose or the back of your throat with a swab. Then the swab will be tested for the flu virus. Some tests are quick and give results in 15-20 minutes. But these tests are not as accurate as other flu tests. These other tests can give you the results in one hour or several hours. What are the treatments for the flu? Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. But if you have symptoms of flu and are in a high risk group or are very sick or worried about your illness, contact your health care provider. You might need antiviral medicines to treat your flu. Antiviral medicines can make the illness milder and shorten the time you are sick. They also can prevent serious flu complications. They usually work best when you start taking them within 2 days of getting sick. Can the flu be prevented? The best way to prevent the flu is to get flu vaccine every year. But it's also important to have good health habits like covering your cough and washing your hands often. This can help stop the spread of germs and prevent the flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Influenza, also known as flu, is related to avian influenza and swine influenza, and has symptoms including fever, pruritus and snoring. An important gene associated with Influenza is IFITM3 (Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Hops and Fluconazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, t cells and lung.

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in infection, located in respiratory tract, has material basis in Influenzavirus A, has material basis in Influenzavirus B, or has material basis in Influenzavirus C, which are transmitted by droplet spread of oronasal secretions during coughing, sneezing, or talking from an infected person. It is a highly contagious disease that affects birds and mammals and has symptom chills, has symptom fever, has symptom sore throat, has symptom runny nose, has symptom muscle pains, has symptom severe headache, has symptom cough, and has symptom weakness.

CDC : 3 Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk of serious flu complications. There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B. The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people (human influenza viruses) are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year.

PubMed Health : 62 About flu: People often talk about having the flu (influenza) when they come down with a cold. Yet the course of these two illnesses is very different and they also typically have different signs and symptoms. Colds are much more common than the flu. They also start quite slowly, while the viruses that cause the flu strike quickly and cause more severe symptoms – even in people who are otherwise quite healthy. The flu makes you feel very ill quite suddenly. Colds don't usually cause any serious harm, and are often over within a week, with or without treatment. It is a good idea to see a doctor if you have the flu, and it may take some time before you fully recover. But colds and the flu do have one thing in common: The treatment for both focuses on relieving the symptoms. The only medicines that target the flu viruses directly can at most reduce the time you are ill. But a number of things can be done to avoid infection in the first place.

Wikipedia : 74 Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms... more...

Related Diseases for Influenza

Diseases in the Influenza family:

Influenza, Severe

Diseases related to Influenza via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1320)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 avian influenza 35.4 IVNS1ABP ISG15 IRF7 DDX58
2 swine influenza 35.2 TRIM25 MX1 DDX58
3 viral pneumonia 33.6 MX1 IFITM3 DDX58
4 newcastle disease 32.0 IVNS1ABP IRF7 DDX58
5 encephalitis 31.8 XPO1 RSAD2 MX1 DDX58
6 severe acute respiratory syndrome 31.8 MX1 IFNG DDX58
7 stomatitis 31.6 RSAD2 MX1 IFNG IFITM3 DDX58
8 viral infectious disease 31.6 MX1 IVNS1ABP ISG15 IRF7 IFNG DDX58
9 mumps 31.6 MX1 IFNG HLA-DQB1
10 rubella 31.3 IFNG HLA-DQB1 DDX58
11 dengue virus 31.1 RSAD2 IFITM3 IFITM1 DDX58
12 rabies 31.1 MX1 IRF7 DDX58
13 west nile virus 31.0 RSAD2 IFITM3 IFITM1 DDX58
14 hepatitis c virus 30.8 RSAD2 IRF7 IFNG IFITM1 DDX58
15 hepatitis 30.8 RSAD2 IRF7 IFNG DDX58
16 tick-borne encephalitis 30.6 RSAD2 IVNS1ABP DDX58
17 venezuelan equine encephalitis 30.6 XPO1 IRF7 IFNG
18 hepatitis c 30.6 RSAD2 MX1 IRF7 IFNG DDX58
19 rift valley fever 30.6 MX1 IFITM3 IFITM1
20 hepatitis e 30.6 ISG15 IFNG DDX58
21 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.6 MX1 IRF7 IFNG
22 cutaneous lupus erythematosus 30.1 MX1 IRF7 IFNG
23 idiopathic bronchiectasis 29.9 IFNG HLA-DQB1
24 haemophilus influenzae 12.8
25 influenza, severe 12.4
26 haemophilus meningitis 11.6
27 acute necrotizing encephalitis 11.5
28 encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced 4 11.5
29 bacterial meningitis 11.5
30 guillain-barre syndrome 11.5
31 lung disease 11.5
32 epiglottitis 11.5
33 common cold 11.5
34 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 11.5
35 croup 11.4
36 pneumonia 11.4
37 gastroenteritis 11.4
38 subacute thyroiditis 11.4
39 acute diarrhea 11.4
40 acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion 11.4
41 fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 11.4
42 complement component 3 deficiency, autosomal recessive 11.4
43 immunodeficiency 39 11.4
44 specific antibody deficiency 11.2
45 bronchitis 11.2
46 bacterial pneumonia 11.2
47 pontiac fever 11.1
48 ross river fever 11.1
49 haverhill fever 11.1
50 white matter hypoplasia-corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability syndrome 11.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Influenza:



Diseases related to Influenza

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Influenza

UMLS symptoms related to Influenza:


fever, pruritus, snoring, coughing, symptoms, influenza-like symptoms, fever, catarrhal, acute

Drugs & Therapeutics for Influenza

PubMed Health treatment related to Influenza: 62

Many people turn to home remedies like chicken broth and herbal teas to relieve flu symptoms. And getting plenty to drink is also considered to be important. But there is no scientific proof that any of these things helps speed up recovery. So you don't necessarily need to rely on any of the remedies or to drink more fluids than you feel like. A number of freely available products like vitamin supplements or inhalation devices are marketed for the treatment of colds , flus and coughs. But there is no compelling evidence that they are effective against the flu . Painkillers such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, the drug in medicines like Aspirin ) and ibuprofen can relieve pain and lower fever . But children and teenagers should not take ASA because in rare cases this drug can cause a serious brain condition in these age groups. In addition to over-the-counter products, prescription-only medication is also available. The most common of these in Germany is oseltamivir (trade name: Tamiflu). Oseltamivir is prescription-only and needs to be taken within two days after the flu starts. It does not have any effect on the course of the flu infection if you have already had symptoms for longer. Some research suggests that oseltamivir could reduce the period of illness by up to one day. But it often causes nausea and vomiting . It is not clear that it helps to prevent complications. Some people think that antibiotics will help in the treatment of flu. But antibiotics are only effective against bacteria , not against viruses . So antibiotics only help if you have a bacterial infection of the airways as well as a viral infection . Unless there are signs of bacterial infection, there is no point in taking antibiotics.

Drugs for Influenza (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 453)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Hops Approved Phase 4
2
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86386-73-4 3365
3
Coal tar Approved Phase 4 8007-45-2
4
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-83-0 5994
5
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
6
leucovorin Approved Phase 4 58-05-9 6006 143
7
Acenocoumarol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 152-72-7 9052 54676537
8
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
9
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 4 113-92-8, 132-22-9 2725
10
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
11
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
12
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
13
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
14 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
15
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486
16
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
17
Posaconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 171228-49-2 147912
18
Ceftaroline fosamil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 229016-73-3
19 Nutmeg Approved Phase 4
20
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
21
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 22916-47-8 4189
22
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 4 81103-11-9 84029
23
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
24
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
25
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 56-40-6 750
26
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 52-90-4 5862
27
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 4 105827-78-9 86418
28
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
29
Coumarin Experimental Phase 4 91-64-5 323
30
Lactitol Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4, 585-88-6 493591
31
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 4
32 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
33 Pentanedioic acid imidazolyl ethanamide Phase 4
34 Aluminum phosphate Phase 4
35 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
36 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
37 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
38 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
39 Protective Agents Phase 4
40 Anticoagulants Phase 4
41 American Elder Phase 4
42 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
43 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
44 Folic Acid Antagonists Phase 4
45 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
46 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
47 Folate Phase 4
48 Renal Agents Phase 4
49 Iron-Dextran Complex Phase 4
50 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2286)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Adjuvanted Inactivated Vaccine Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Hutterite Children Unknown status NCT02871206 Phase 4
2 Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity of Intramuscular Versus Intradermal Trivalent Inactivated Split Virion Influenza Vaccine in HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men in Bangkok, Thailand Unknown status NCT01538940 Phase 4
3 Immune Response Analysis to Influenza Vaccine in Elderly Aged Over 65 Years Unknown status NCT01289535 Phase 4
4 Study of Immune Responses After Vaccination Against Seasonal Influenza Virus and Against Influenza H1N1-v Pandemic Virus in a Clinical Staff (FLU-HOP) Unknown status NCT01063608 Phase 4
5 Antiviral and Chinese Medicinal Herbs Treatment on Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Pneumonia: Multi-centre, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00936013 Phase 4 oseltamivir;oseltamivir and chinese medicinal herbs
6 The Immunogenicity and Safety of the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Formulation 2013-2014, in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not on Dialysis Unknown status NCT02105519 Phase 4
7 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study Investigating Efficacy and Safety of Arbidol (Umifenovir) in Treatment and Prophylaxis of Influenza and Common Cold. Unknown status NCT01651663 Phase 4 Arbidol (Umifenovir);Arbidol (Umifenovir)
8 Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine,Formulation 2011-2012, in Dialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01512056 Phase 4 AdimFlu-S
9 The Impact of Vitamin on the Clinical Course in Cases Infected by Novel H1N1 Influenza Virus A: a Randomized-controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01127282 Phase 4 Vitamin (vitamin A 15 mg,C 500 mg, E 400IU);Placebo (digestive tablet)
10 Optimizing Influenza Vaccination in Surgical Oncology Patients Unknown status NCT01698177 Phase 4
11 Banlangen Granules Anti-seasonal Influenza Study: a Randomized, Double Blind, Positive and Placebo Controlled,Clinical Study. Unknown status NCT02232945 Phase 4 placebo of oseltamivir phosphate;oseltamivir phosphate;Banlangen (Radix Isatidis) granules;placebo of Banlangen(Radix Isatidis) granules
12 Clinical Study to Generate a Set of Data Characterising Clinical Events, Physiological Responses, and Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Following a Single IM Immunisation With Fluad Seasonal Influenza Vaccine or Placebo in Healthy Adults Unknown status NCT02523287 Phase 4
13 Safety and Efficacy of Intradermal Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Institutionalized Older Adults Unknown status NCT01967368 Phase 4 Intanza;Vaxigrip
14 Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Scleroderma Unknown status NCT01002508 Phase 4
15 Comparison of the Cellular and the Humoral Immunogenicity as Well as the Safety of Different Trivalent Influenza Vaccines in Healthy Adults Between 18 and 60 Years of Age Unknown status NCT01119157 Phase 4
16 A Clinical Study of Biomarkers of Innate and Adaptive Immune Activation Associated With Symptoms and Immune Responses After Administration of a Single Dose of a Quadrivalent Inactivated Split Virus Influenza Vaccine to Healthy Young Adults. Unknown status NCT03160118 Phase 4 Seasonal,quadrivalent,influenza vaccine
17 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effect of Post-exposure Oseltamivir Prophylaxis on Influenza Transmission in Nursing Homes Unknown status NCT01053377 Phase 4 Tamiflu (verum);Tamiflu placebo
18 Cell Immunity Response to Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Unknown status NCT01002716 Phase 4
19 Safety and Immune Response to Adjuvanted A(H1N1)v Influenza Vaccine in HIV-1 Infected and Immunosuppressed Adults Unknown status NCT01017172 Phase 4
20 Safety and Efficacy of Anti-Pandemic H1N1 Vaccination in Rheumatic Diseases Unknown status NCT01151644 Phase 4
21 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Versus Trivalent in Patients With Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT02563184 Phase 4
22 The Effect of Tocilizumab on the Cellular Immune Response to Seasonal Influnza Vaccine in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Unknown status NCT01980836 Phase 4
23 Testing if BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) Vaccination Can Induce Innate Immune Training in Adult People Above 50 Years of Age in Guinea-Bissau Unknown status NCT02953327 Phase 4
24 Efficacy of Systemic Glucocorticoid in the Treatment of Wheezing in Children Unknown status NCT00494624 Phase 4 prednisolone
25 An Open-Label Pilot Study to Compare the Efficacy of Escalating Doses of IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) in the Treatment of Glabellar Rhytids Unknown status NCT01583478 Phase 4
26 Safety and Immunogenicity of Fluzone® Influenza Virus Vaccine (2006-2007 Formulation) Among Healthy Children Immunized in Fall 2005 With Fluzone Vaccine or Placebo Completed NCT00390884 Phase 4
27 A Study to Demonstrate the Efficacy of GSK Biologicals' Influenza Vaccine (Fluarix™) Administered Intramuscularly in Adults Completed NCT00363870 Phase 4
28 A Phase IV, Single-Centre, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the 2013/2014 Formulation of a bioCSL Split Virion, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers Aged 18-60 Years Completed NCT01863433 Phase 4
29 Multicentre Open Label Comparative Parallel-group Randomized Clinical Trial of Clinical Efficiency and Safety of Ergoferon in Treatment of Influenza Completed NCT01804946 Phase 4 Ergoferon;Oseltamivir
30 A Study to Investigate the Incidence of Influenza and Influenza-related Complications, in Adults Between 50-64 Years and Elderly Adults 65 Years and Over Vaccinated With Fluarix™ Completed NCT00377611 Phase 4
31 Direct and Indirect Benefits of Influenza Vaccination in Schools and Households Completed NCT00981513 Phase 4
32 A Phase IV, Single-Centre, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the 2013/2014 Formulation of the Enzira® Vaccine in Two Groups of Healthy Volunteers: 'Adults' (Aged 18 to 59 Years) and 'Older Adults' (Aged 60 Years or Older). Completed NCT01857297 Phase 4
33 Jet Injection for Influenza: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Demonstrate Non Inferiority of Jet Injection vs. Needle and Syringe for Administration of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Completed NCT01688921 Phase 4
34 Annual Study for Serum Collection and Evaluation of Safety and Immunogenicity Among Healthy Children Receiving Fluzone® Influenza Virus Vaccine (2007-2008 Formulation) Completed NCT00561002 Phase 4
35 Immunogenicity and Safety Among Adults of the Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine, Northern Hemisphere 2008-2009 Formulation (Intramuscular Route) Completed NCT00743275 Phase 4
36 Comparative Study of Influenza Vaccines in Adults, FLUVACS-year 4 Completed NCT00538512 Phase 4
37 A Phase III/IV, Stratified, Randomized, Observer Blind, Multicenter Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of a Cell-Based Quadrivalent Subunit Influenza Virus Vaccine Compared to Non-Influenza Comparator Vaccine in Subjects ≥2 to <18 Years of Age Completed NCT03165617 Phase 4
38 Influenza Vaccination for Parents and Other Caregivers in the Pediatric Medical Home Completed NCT00812110 Phase 4 Influenzae vaccine
39 An Open-Label Clinical Trial With Split-virion Influenza A/H1N1 Vaccines in Healthy Elders Completed NCT01004653 Phase 4
40 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Influenza Vaccine Arepanrix™ (GSK2340274A) in Adults 65 Years of Age or Older Completed NCT01114620 Phase 4
41 A Multicenter, Post-marketing Surveillance Study to Monitor the Safety of Novartis Vaccine MF59-adjuvanted Influenza Subunit Vaccine FLUAD® and Sandoz Korea Vaccine MF59-adjuvanted Influenza Subunit Vaccine VANTAFLU® Administered According to the Prescribing Information in Korean Subjects Aged 65 Years or Older at the Time of Vaccination. Completed NCT01222403 Phase 4
42 Protective Mechanisms Against a Pandemic Respiratory Virus: B- Cell, T-cell, and General Immune Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. Year 1, 2009 Completed NCT01987349 Phase 4
43 Annual Study for Serum Collection and Evaluation of Safety and Immunogenicity of Fluzone® Influenza Virus Vaccine (2006-2007 Formulation) Completed NCT00389532 Phase 4
44 A Phase IV, Multicenter, Randomized, Observer-blind, Parallel-arm Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of CSL's Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine (CSL TIV) in Children 5 to Less Than 9 Years of Age. Completed NCT02212106 Phase 4
45 Effectiveness of Selected Non-pharmaceutical Interventions in Reducing Influenza-like Illness Among University Students Completed NCT00448773 Phase 4
46 A Phase IV Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Flumist (Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal) Vaccination in a School-Based Intervention Program Completed NCT00192218 Phase 4
47 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Seasonal (2010-2011) Influenza Vaccine Fluarix™ in Children Previously Vaccinated With GSK Biologicals' H1N1 Vaccine Pandemrix™ Completed NCT01196026 Phase 4
48 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Seasonal (2010-2011) Influenza Vaccine FluarixTM in Adolescents Previously Vaccinated With GSK Biologicals' H1N1 Vaccine PandemrixTM Completed NCT01190215 Phase 4
49 A Single-centered, Open-labeled, Phase 4 Study of 2012-2013 Trivalent Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Completed NCT01736709 Phase 4
50 A Phase IV, Single-Centre, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the 2012/2013 Formulation of the Enzira® Vaccine in Two Groups of Healthy Volunteers: 'Adults' (Aged 18 to 59 Years) and 'Older Adults' (Aged 60 Years or Older) Completed NCT01591837 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Influenza

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Amantadine
Amantadine Hydrochloride
Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor [EPC]
Rimantadine
Rimantadine Hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: influenza, human

Genetic Tests for Influenza

Genetic tests related to Influenza:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Influenza 29 IFITM3

Anatomical Context for Influenza

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Influenza:

40
Testes, T Cells, Lung, B Cells, Heart, Kidney, Brain

Publications for Influenza

Articles related to Influenza:

(show top 50) (show all 30621)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Cell-Based Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine (Flucelvax® Tetra/Flucelvax Quadrivalent®): A Review in the Prevention of Influenza. 61 42
31372959 2019
2
Cost effectiveness of school-located influenza vaccination programs for elementary and secondary school children. 61 42
31234842 2019
3
Seasonal Influenza (Flu). 61 42
31027663 2019
4
A novel type of influenza vaccine: safety and immunogenicity of replication-deficient influenza virus created by deletion of the interferon antagonist NS1. 54 61
20039806 2010
5
Human host factors required for influenza virus replication. 54 61
20027183 2010
6
Apoptosis of lymphocytes and monocytes infected with influenza virus might be the mechanism of combating virus and causing secondary infection by influenza. 54 61
19736294 2009
7
Targeted vs. systematic early antiviral treatment against A(H1N1)v influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors in patients with influenza-like symptoms: clinical and economic impact. 54 61
20029659 2009
8
Pharmacophore model of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors--a systematic review. 54 61
19947162 2009
9
Protective role of interferon-induced Mx GTPases against influenza viruses. 54 61
19618628 2009
10
[Phylogeny for NS1 proteins of influenza B virus]. 54 61
19642394 2009
11
The potential impact of neuraminidase inhibitor resistant influenza. 54 61
18978531 2008
12
Broad influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in humanized mice vaccinated with influenza virus vaccines. 54 61
18713944 2008
13
Heterosubtypic T-cell responses against avian influenza H5 haemagglutinin are frequently detected in individuals vaccinated against or previously infected with human subtypes of influenza. 54 61
19453462 2008
14
[Neuraminidase inhibitors in prophylaxis and treatment of influenza]. 54 61
18839619 2008
15
Performance of six influenza rapid tests in detecting human influenza in clinical specimens. 54 61
17452000 2007
16
[The use of antiviral agents during an (impending) influenza pandemic]. 54 61
17508684 2007
17
Structure and functions of influenza virus neuraminidase. 54 61
17266572 2007
18
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children. 54 61
17253479 2007
19
Resistance to anti-influenza drugs: adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors. 54 61
17140356 2006
20
[Expression of host genes in influenza virus infected cells]. 54 61
17037354 2006
21
Safety of neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza. 54 61
16907649 2006
22
Immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in partially immunized toddlers. 54 61
16950949 2006
23
Professional oral care reduces influenza infection in elderly. 54 61
16325937 2006
24
Influenza virus inhibits RNA polymerase II elongation. 54 61
16624367 2006
25
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults. 54 61
16855962 2006
26
X-ray structure of influenza virus NS1 effector domain. 54 61
16715094 2006
27
[Internal epidemic influenza virus proteins: isolation and investigation]. 54 61
16756174 2006
28
A QSAR study on influenza neuraminidase inhibitors. 54 61
16213733 2006
29
Economics of neuraminidase inhibitor stock piling for pandemic influenza, Singapore. 54 61
16494724 2006
30
Susceptibilities of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses to novel neuraminidase inhibitors. 54 61
16251290 2005
31
Efficacy of the influenza vaccine in patients with malignant lymphoma. 54 61
16303886 2005
32
Zanamivir: an influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor. 54 61
15918777 2005
33
Sialobiology of influenza: molecular mechanism of host range variation of influenza viruses. 54 61
15744059 2005
34
[Expression of host genes in influenza virus infected cells]. 54 61
15745156 2004
35
Prevention of influenza in the general population. 54 61
15534315 2004
36
Interferon resistance promotes oncolysis by influenza virus NS1-deletion mutants. 54 61
15054864 2004
37
Nuclear MxA proteins form a complex with influenza virus NP and inhibit the transcription of the engineered influenza virus genome. 54 61
14752052 2004
38
T-cell responses and hypersensitivity to influenza and egg antigens among adults with asthma immunized with the influenza vaccine. 54 61
13679822 2003
39
Economic evaluations of neuraminidase inhibitors to control influenza. 54 61
19807362 2003
40
[Role of neuraminidase in pathogenesis of influenza]. 54 61
12924095 2003
41
Influenza A and B virus infections in children. 54 61
12539071 2003
42
Treatment and prevention of influenza: Swedish recommendations. 54 61
12685876 2003
43
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children. 54 61
12917931 2003
44
Response to influenza vaccine in children with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. 54 61
12517044 2002
45
Synthesis of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors. 54 61
11899618 2001
46
Analysis of inhibitor binding in influenza virus neuraminidase. 54 61
11274459 2001
47
Comparative binding energy (COMBINE) analysis of influenza neuraminidase-inhibitor complexes. 54 61
11300878 2001
48
The anti-influenza virus agent 4-GU-DANA (zanamivir) inhibits cell fusion mediated by human parainfluenza virus and influenza virus HA. 54 61
11070006 2000
49
Neuraminidase inhibitors: progress in the management of influenza. 54 61
11220989 2000
50
Influenza virus NS1 protein counteracts PKR-mediated inhibition of replication. 54 61
10846107 2000

Variations for Influenza

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Influenza:

6 ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 IFITM3 NM_021034.3(IFITM3):c.42T>C (p.Ser14=)SNV risk factor 31527 rs12252 11:320772-320772 11:320772-320772

Expression for Influenza

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Influenza patients vs. healthy controls: 35 (show all 45)
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 IFI27 interferon, alpha-inducible protein 27 Blood + 6.13 0.000
2 OTOF otoferlin Blood + 5.57 0.000
3 KCTD14 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 14 Blood + 5.45 0.000
4 HESX1 HESX homeobox 1 Blood + 4.33 0.000
5 CMPK2 cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 2, mitochondrial Blood + 4.32 0.000
6 CCNA1 cyclin A1 Blood + 4.26 0.000
7 METTL7B methyltransferase like 7B Blood + 4.12 0.000
8 C1QC complement component 1, q subcomponent, C chain Blood + 4.11 0.000
9 OLFM4 olfactomedin 4 Blood + 3.99 0.000
10 SIGLEC1 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 1, sialoadhesin Blood + 3.98 0.000
11 OLFM1 olfactomedin 1 Blood - 3.92 0.000
12 RSAD2 radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 Blood + 3.86 0.000
13 GPR42 G protein-coupled receptor 42 (gene/pseudogene) Blood + 3.85 0.000
14 RNASE1 ribonuclease, RNase A family, 1 (pancreatic) Blood + 3.83 0.000
15 CEACAM6 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen) Blood + 3.80 0.000
16 KCNE1 potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 1 Blood + 3.73 0.000
17 OAS3 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3, 100kDa Blood + 3.70 0.000
18 TMEM119 transmembrane protein 119 Blood + 3.66 0.000
19 DNAAF1 dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 1 Blood + 3.54 0.000
20 HP haptoglobin Blood + 3.46 0.000
21 PRSS33 protease, serine, 33 Blood - 3.42 0.000
22 IFI44L interferon-induced protein 44-like Blood + 3.42 0.000
23 PPARG peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Blood + 3.38 0.000
24 PID1 phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 Blood - 3.37 0.000
25 SLC26A8 solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger), member 8 Blood + 3.37 0.000
26 IFITM4P interferon induced transmembrane protein 4 pseudogene Blood + 3.31 0.000
27 CNTNAP2 contactin associated protein-like 2 Blood - 3.30 0.000
28 PTGDR2 prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 Blood - 3.28 0.000
29 IFIT1 interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 Blood + 3.28 0.000
30 GPR84 G protein-coupled receptor 84 Blood + 3.25 0.000
31 CACNG6 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6 Blood - 3.22 0.000
32 IL27 interleukin 27 Blood + 3.21 0.000
33 SYN2 synapsin II Blood + 3.20 0.000
34 OAS1 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, 40/46kDa Blood + 3.19 0.000
35 MATK megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase Blood - 3.18 0.000
36 HIST1H4D histone cluster 1, H4d Blood + 3.16 0.000
37 OLIG2 oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 Blood - 3.15 0.000
38 ISG15 ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier Blood + 3.11 0.000
39 IFIT3 interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 Blood + 3.09 0.000
40 EXOC3L1 exocyst complex component 3-like 1 Blood + 3.09 0.000
41 RSPH9 radial spoke head 9 homolog (Chlamydomonas) Blood + 3.08 0.000
42 CD177 CD177 molecule Blood + 3.04 0.000
43 TCN2 transcobalamin II Blood + 3.03 0.000
44 IFI44 interferon-induced protein 44 Blood + 3.03 0.000
45 PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 Blood + 3.01 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Influenza.

Pathways for Influenza

Pathways related to Influenza according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.81 TRIM25 RSAD2 RANBP2 MX2 MX1 KPNA3
2
Show member pathways
13.08 TRIM25 RSAD2 RANBP2 MX2 MX1 KPNA3
3
Show member pathways
12.99 XPO1 TRIM25 RANBP2 MX2 MX1 KPNA3
4
Show member pathways
12.58 XPO1 RANBP2 KPNA3 ISG15 DNAJC3 CPSF4
5
Show member pathways
12.56 TRIM25 ISG15 IRF7 IFNG DDX58
6
Show member pathways
12.4 XPO1 TRIM25 RSAD2 MX1 ISG15 IRF7
7 12.39 TRIM25 RSAD2 IRF7 IFNG DDX58
8
Show member pathways
12.07 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 ISG15 IRF7 IFNG
9
Show member pathways
11.93 TRIM25 RSAD2 RANBP2 MX2 MX1 KPNA3
10
Show member pathways
10.97 MX1 IRF7 DDX58
11 10.76 XPO1 RANBP2 KPNA3
12 10.55 XPO1 RANBP2

GO Terms for Influenza

Cellular components related to Influenza according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytosol GO:0005829 10.07 XPO1 TRIM25 RTRAF RRP1B RANBP2 MX2
2 nuclear pore GO:0005643 9.54 RANBP2 MX2 KPNA3
3 host cell GO:0043657 9.33 XPO1 RANBP2 KPNA3
4 dendritic spine head GO:0044327 9.32 MX2 MX1
5 postsynaptic endocytic zone membrane GO:0098844 8.96 MX2 MX1
6 annulate lamellae GO:0005642 8.62 XPO1 RANBP2

Biological processes related to Influenza according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system process GO:0002376 10.02 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 IRF7 IFITM1 HLA-DQB1
2 innate immune response GO:0045087 9.97 TRIM25 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 ISG15 IRF7
3 viral process GO:0016032 9.93 XPO1 TRIM25 RTRAF RSAD2 RANBP2 KPNA3
4 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.8 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 ISG15 IRF7 IFITM3
5 negative regulation of viral genome replication GO:0045071 9.77 RSAD2 MX1 ISG15 IFITM3 IFITM1
6 mRNA transport GO:0051028 9.76 XPO1 RANBP2 MX2
7 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.73 TRIM25 IRF7 IFNG HLA-DQB1
8 negative regulation of type I interferon production GO:0032480 9.67 TRIM25 ISG15 DDX58
9 negative regulation of viral entry into host cell GO:0046597 9.63 TRIM25 IFITM3 IFITM1
10 response to interferon-gamma GO:0034341 9.61 IFITM3 IFITM1
11 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor secretion GO:1904469 9.61 IFNG DDX58
12 response to virus GO:0009615 9.61 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 IVNS1ABP IRF7 IFNG
13 NLS-bearing protein import into nucleus GO:0006607 9.6 RANBP2 KPNA3
14 mitochondrial fission GO:0000266 9.59 MX2 MX1
15 tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation GO:0006388 9.58 RTRAF CPSF4
16 response to interferon-alpha GO:0035455 9.58 MX2 IFITM3 IFITM1
17 positive regulation of interferon-alpha production GO:0032727 9.57 IRF7 DDX58
18 regulation of synapse structure or activity GO:0050803 9.56 MX2 MX1
19 response to interferon-beta GO:0035456 9.55 IFITM3 IFITM1
20 postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization GO:0098884 9.54 MX2 MX1
21 response to type I interferon GO:0034340 9.52 MX1 ISG15
22 synaptic vesicle budding from presynaptic endocytic zone membrane GO:0016185 9.51 MX2 MX1
23 defense response to virus GO:0051607 9.36 TRIM25 RSAD2 MX2 MX1 ISG15 IRF7

Molecular functions related to Influenza according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.62 XPO1 TRIM25 RTRAF RSAD2 RRP1B RANBP2
2 RNA binding GO:0003723 9.5 XPO1 TRIM25 RTRAF RRP1B RANBP2 DDX58

Sources for Influenza

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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