Influenza (FLU)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Infectious diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Influenza

Summaries for Influenza

MedlinePlus : 42 What is the flu? The flu, also called influenza, is a respiratory infection caused by viruses. Each year, millions of Americans get sick with the flu. Sometimes it causes mild illness. But it can also be serious or even deadly, especially for people over 65, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. What causes the flu? The flu is caused by flu viruses that spread from person to person. When someone with the flu coughs, sneezes, or talks, they spray tiny droplets. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby. Less often, a person may get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. What are the symptoms of the flu? Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and may include Fever or feeling feverish/chills Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle or body aches Headaches Fatigue (tiredness) Some people may also have vomiting and diarrhea. This is more common in children. Sometimes people have trouble figuring out whether they have a cold or the flu. There are differences between them. The symptoms of a cold usually come on more slowly and are less severe than symptoms of the flu. Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Sometimes people say that they have a "flu" when they really have something else. For example, "stomach flu" isn't the flu; it's gastroenteritis. What other problems can the flu cause? Some people who get the flu will develop complications. Some of these complications can be serious or even life-threatening. They include Bronchitis Ear infection Sinus infection Pneumonia Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis), brain (encephalitis), or muscle tissues (myositis, rhabdomyolysis) The flu also can make chronic health problems worse. For example, people with asthma may have asthma attacks while they have flu. Certain people are more likely to have complications from the flu, including Adults 65 and older Pregnant women Children younger than 5 People with certain chronic health conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease How is the flu diagnosed? To diagnose the flu, health care providers will first do a medical history and ask about your symptoms. There are several tests for the flu. For the tests, your provider will swipe the inside of your nose or the back of your throat with a swab. Then the swab will be tested for the flu virus. Some tests are quick and give results in 15-20 minutes. But these tests are not as accurate as other flu tests. These other tests can give you the results in one hour or several hours. What are the treatments for the flu? Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. But if you have symptoms of flu and are in a high risk group or are very sick or worried about your illness, contact your health care provider. You might need antiviral medicines to treat your flu. Antiviral medicines can make the illness milder and shorten the time you are sick. They also can prevent serious flu complications. They usually work best when you start taking them within 2 days of getting sick. Can the flu be prevented? The best way to prevent the flu is to get flu vaccine every year. But it's also important to have good health habits like covering your cough and washing your hands often. This can help stop the spread of germs and prevent the flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Influenza, also known as flu, is related to avian influenza and swine influenza, and has symptoms including fever, cough and chills. An important gene associated with Influenza is IFITM3 (Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Hops and Zanamivir have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, heart and b cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in infection, located in respiratory tract, has material basis in Influenzavirus A, has material basis in Influenzavirus B, or has material basis in Influenzavirus C, which are transmitted by droplet spread of oronasal secretions during coughing, sneezing, or talking from an infected person. It is a highly contagious disease that affects birds and mammals and has symptom chills, has symptom fever, has symptom sore throat, has symptom runny nose, has symptom muscle pains, has symptom severe headache, has symptom cough, and has symptom weakness.

CDC : 3 Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk of serious flu complications. There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B. The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people (human influenza viruses) are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year.

PubMed Health : 62 About flu: People often talk about having the flu (influenza) when they come down with a cold. Yet the course of these two illnesses is very different and they also typically have different signs and symptoms. Colds are much more common than the flu. They also start quite slowly, while the viruses that cause the flu strike quickly and cause more severe symptoms – even in people who are otherwise quite healthy. The flu makes you feel very ill quite suddenly. Colds don't usually cause any serious harm, and are often over within a week, with or without treatment. It is a good idea to see a doctor if you have the flu, and it may take some time before you fully recover. But colds and the flu do have one thing in common: The treatment for both focuses on relieving the symptoms. The only medicines that target the flu viruses directly can at most reduce the time you are ill. But a number of things can be done to avoid infection in the first place.

Wikipedia : 74 Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms... more...

Related Diseases for Influenza

Diseases in the Influenza family:

Influenza, Severe

Diseases related to Influenza via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1227)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 avian influenza 33.5 KPNA3 IVNS1ABP ISG15 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
2 swine influenza 33.4 TRIM25 MX1 IFNA1 IFITM3 DDX58 CPSF4
3 viral pneumonia 31.9 IFITM3 DDX58
4 newcastle disease 31.9 IVNS1ABP IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
5 encephalitis 31.8 XPO1 RSAD2 DDX58
6 severe acute respiratory syndrome 31.8 TMPRSS2 MX1 IFNA1 DDX58
7 stomatitis 31.5 RSAD2 MX1 IFNA1 IFITM3 IFITM2 DDX58
8 viral infectious disease 31.5 MX1 IVNS1ABP ISG15 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
9 middle east respiratory syndrome 31.3 TRIM25 TMPRSS2 ISG15
10 measles 31.2 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
11 parainfluenza virus type 3 31.0 IFNA1 DDX58
12 rabies 31.0 MX1 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
13 hepatitis 30.9 RSAD2 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
14 dengue virus 30.9 RSAD2 IVNS1ABP IFITM3 IFITM2 IFITM1 DDX58
15 west nile virus 30.8 RSAD2 IFNA1 IFITM3 IFITM2 IFITM1 DDX58
16 hepatitis c 30.7 RSAD2 MX1 IRF7 IFNA1 DDX58
17 hepatitis c virus 30.7 RSAD2 IRF7 IFITM1 DDX58
18 japanese encephalitis 30.7 RSAD2 IVNS1ABP ISG15 IFNA1 DDX58
19 tick-borne encephalitis 30.5 RSAD2 IVNS1ABP IFNA1 DDX58
20 yellow fever 30.5 RSAD2 IRF7 DDX58
21 venezuelan equine encephalitis 30.4 XPO1 IRF7 IFNA1
22 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.4 MX1 IRF7 IFNA1
23 rift valley fever 30.3 MX1 IFITM3 IFITM2 IFITM1
24 childhood type dermatomyositis 30.3 MX1 ISG15 IFNA1
25 ebola hemorrhagic fever 30.3 IFNA1 DDX58
26 cutaneous lupus erythematosus 29.9 MX1 IRF7 IFNA1
27 influenza, severe 11.2
28 pneumonia 11.1
29 lung disease 11.0
30 haemophilus influenzae 11.0
31 acute necrotizing encephalitis 11.0
32 common cold 11.0
33 encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced 4 11.0
34 immunodeficiency 39 11.0
35 hyper-ige recurrent infection syndrome 5, autosomal recessive 11.0
36 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 11.0
37 croup 11.0
38 gastroenteritis 10.9
39 disease by infectious agent 10.9
40 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.9
41 subacute thyroiditis 10.9
42 respiratory failure 10.9
43 acute diarrhea 10.9
44 acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion 10.9
45 pontiac fever 10.8
46 haverhill fever 10.8
47 white matter hypoplasia-corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability syndrome 10.8
48 mda5 deficiency 10.8
49 bacterial pneumonia 10.8
50 encephalopathy 10.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Influenza:

Diseases related to Influenza

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Influenza


  • fever
  • cough
  • chills
  • sore throat
  • weakness
  • runny nose
  • muscle pains
  • severe headache

UMLS symptoms related to Influenza:

fever, pruritus, snoring, coughing, symptoms, influenza-like symptoms, fever, catarrhal, acute

Drugs & Therapeutics for Influenza

PubMed Health treatment related to Influenza: 62

Many people turn to home remedies like chicken broth and herbal teas to relieve flu symptoms. And getting plenty to drink is also considered to be important. But there is no scientific proof that any of these things helps speed up recovery. So you don't necessarily need to rely on any of the remedies or to drink more fluids than you feel like. A number of freely available products like vitamin supplements or inhalation devices are marketed for the treatment of colds , flus and coughs. But there is no compelling evidence that they are effective against the flu . Painkillers such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, the drug in medicines like Aspirin ) and ibuprofen can relieve pain and lower fever . But children and teenagers should not take ASA because in rare cases this drug can cause a serious brain condition in these age groups. In addition to over-the-counter products, prescription-only medication is also available. The most common of these in Germany is oseltamivir (trade name: Tamiflu). Oseltamivir is prescription-only and needs to be taken within two days after the flu starts. It does not have any effect on the course of the flu infection if you have already had symptoms for longer. Some research suggests that oseltamivir could reduce the period of illness by up to one day. But it often causes nausea and vomiting . It is not clear that it helps to prevent complications. Some people think that antibiotics will help in the treatment of flu. But antibiotics are only effective against bacteria , not against viruses . So antibiotics only help if you have a bacterial infection of the airways as well as a viral infection . Unless there are signs of bacterial infection, there is no point in taking antibiotics.

Drugs for Influenza (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 415)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Hops Approved Phase 4
Zanamivir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139110-80-8 60855
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
Certolizumab pegol Approved Phase 4 428863-50-7
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-00-0 712
Coal tar Approved Phase 4 8007-45-2
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86386-73-4 3365
carbamide peroxide Approved Phase 4 124-43-6
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-83-0 5994
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
Acenocoumarol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 152-72-7 9052 54676537
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Methotrexate Approved Phase 4 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 126941
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 4 113-92-8, 132-22-9 2725
19 Vedolizumab Approved Phase 4 943609-66-3
Adalimumab Approved, Experimental Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 151096-09-2, 354812-41-2 152946
Tazobactam Approved Phase 4 89786-04-9 123630
Piperacillin Approved Phase 4 66258-76-2 43672
Posaconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 171228-49-2 147912
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 55185 447043
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 4 118-42-3 3652
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 5754
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4 82419-36-1 4583
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 100986-85-4 149096
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
Lopinavir Approved Phase 4 192725-17-0 92727
Interferon beta-1a Approved, Investigational Phase 4 145258-61-3 6438354
Clavulanate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58001-44-8 5280980
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Phase 4 608141-41-9 11561674
Heparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9005-49-6 772 9812414
Ceftriaxone Approved Phase 4 73384-59-5 5479530 5361919
Dalteparin Approved Phase 4 9005-49-6
Ceftaroline fosamil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 229016-73-3
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
Ticagrelor Approved Phase 4 274693-27-5 9871419
Tinzaparin Approved Phase 4 9041-08-1, 9005-49-6 25244225
47 Nutmeg Approved Phase 4
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 4 81103-11-9 84029
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2115)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impact of Vitamin on the Clinical Course in Cases Infected by Novel H1N1 Influenza Virus A: a Randomized-controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01127282 Phase 4 Vitamin (vitamin A 15 mg,C 500 mg, E 400IU);Placebo (digestive tablet)
2 The Immunogenicity and Safety of the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Formulation 2013-2014, in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not on Dialysis Unknown status NCT02105519 Phase 4
3 Comparison of the Cellular and the Humoral Immunogenicity as Well as the Safety of Different Trivalent Influenza Vaccines in Healthy Adults Between 18 and 60 Years of Age Unknown status NCT01119157 Phase 4
4 Study of Immune Responses After Vaccination Against Seasonal Influenza Virus and Against Influenza H1N1-v Pandemic Virus in a Clinical Staff (FLU-HOP) Unknown status NCT01063608 Phase 4
5 Randomized Open-Label Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity of Cell Culture-Based and Recombinant Unadjuvanted Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines to Conventional Egg-Based Unadjuvanted Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines Among Healthcare Personnel Aged 18-64 Years Unknown status NCT03722589 Phase 4
6 Safety and Efficacy of Intradermal Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Institutionalized Older Adults Unknown status NCT01967368 Phase 4 Intanza;Vaxigrip
7 High Dose Influenza Vaccination and Morbidity & Mortality in U.S. Nursing Homes Unknown status NCT01815268 Phase 4
8 Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Scleroderma Unknown status NCT01002508 Phase 4
9 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Adjuvanted Inactivated Vaccine Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Hutterite Children Unknown status NCT02871206 Phase 4
10 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effect of Post-exposure Oseltamivir Prophylaxis on Influenza Transmission in Nursing Homes Unknown status NCT01053377 Phase 4 Tamiflu (verum);Tamiflu placebo
11 Clinical Study to Generate a Set of Data Characterising Clinical Events, Physiological Responses, and Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Following a Single IM Immunisation With Fluad Seasonal Influenza Vaccine or Placebo in Healthy Adults Unknown status NCT02523287 Phase 4
12 Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity of Intramuscular Versus Intradermal Trivalent Inactivated Split Virion Influenza Vaccine in HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men in Bangkok, Thailand Unknown status NCT01538940 Phase 4
13 Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine,Formulation 2011-2012, in Dialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01512056 Phase 4 AdimFlu-S
14 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study Investigating Efficacy and Safety of Arbidol (Umifenovir) in Treatment and Prophylaxis of Influenza and Common Cold. Unknown status NCT01651663 Phase 4 Arbidol (Umifenovir);Arbidol (Umifenovir)
15 Optimizing Influenza Vaccination in Surgical Oncology Patients Unknown status NCT01698177 Phase 4
16 Antiviral and Chinese Medicinal Herbs Treatment on Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Pneumonia: Multi-centre, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00936013 Phase 4 oseltamivir;oseltamivir and chinese medicinal herbs
17 A Clinical Study of Biomarkers of Innate and Adaptive Immune Activation Associated With Symptoms and Immune Responses After Administration of a Single Dose of a Quadrivalent Inactivated Split Virus Influenza Vaccine to Healthy Young Adults. Unknown status NCT03160118 Phase 4 Seasonal,quadrivalent,influenza vaccine
18 Banlangen Granules Anti-seasonal Influenza Study: a Randomized, Double Blind, Positive and Placebo Controlled,Clinical Study. Unknown status NCT02232945 Phase 4 placebo of oseltamivir phosphate;oseltamivir phosphate;Banlangen (Radix Isatidis) granules;placebo of Banlangen(Radix Isatidis) granules
19 Immune Response Analysis to Influenza Vaccine in Elderly Aged Over 65 Years Unknown status NCT01289535 Phase 4
20 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Influenza Vaccine to Prevent Adverse Vascular Events Unknown status NCT02762851 Phase 4 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine
21 Cell Immunity Response to Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Unknown status NCT01002716 Phase 4
22 Improving Influenza Immunization Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Strategy To Enhance Protection Against A Preventable Cause Of Death In An At Risk Population? Unknown status NCT02936180 Phase 4
23 Immune Response to High-Dose vs. Standard Dose Influenza Vaccine Unknown status NCT02297542 Phase 4
24 Safety and Efficacy of Anti-Pandemic H1N1 Vaccination in Rheumatic Diseases Unknown status NCT01151644 Phase 4
25 Non-specific Effects of Rabies Vaccine on the Incidence of Common Infectious Disease Episodes: a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03656198 Phase 4 Sterile Water Injection
26 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Versus Trivalent in Patients With Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT02563184 Phase 4
27 Safety and Immune Response to Adjuvanted A(H1N1)v Influenza Vaccine in HIV-1 Infected and Immunosuppressed Adults Unknown status NCT01017172 Phase 4
28 Pilot Study to Assess the Effect of Prophylactic Antipyretics on Immune Responses and Rates of Fever After 2013-2014 Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (IIV) in Young Children Completed NCT01946594 Phase 4
29 Efficacy of Influenza Vaccine in HIV Infected Adults Completed NCT00757900 Phase 4
30 Immunologic Response to Influenza Vaccination in Children and Adolescents: A RCT Trial of Influenza Vaccines Completed NCT03614975 Phase 4
31 Demonstrate the Lot-to-lot Consistency of 3 Consecutive Batches and to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of GC FLU®Pre-filled Syringe Injection and 'GC FLU®Injection' Administration. Completed NCT02067117 Phase 4 GC FLU® Injection, GC FLU® Pre-filled Syringe Injection
32 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Early Oseltamivir Treatment of Influenza in Children 1-3 Years of Age Completed NCT00593502 Phase 4 oseltamivir;placebo
33 A Phase 4, Randomized, Single-blind Trial to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of a 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine When Administered Simultaneously With Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Children Aged 3-7years and Healthy Adults 65 Aged 50-65years. Completed NCT02062281 Phase 4
34 A Phase IV, Multi-Center, Active-Controlled, Observer-Blind Study to Evaluate the Safety of a Trivalent Subunit Influenza Vaccine Produced Either in Mammalian Cell Culture (Optaflu®) or in Embryonated Hen Eggs (Agrippal®) in Adults and Elderly With and Without Underlying Medical Conditions, and to Evaluate the Immunogenicity in a Subset of Subjects With Underlying Medical Conditions Completed NCT00560066 Phase 4
35 Tolerability and Immunogenicity Study of Fluval AB Influenza Vaccine (Trivalent, Seasonal, Active Ingredient Content: 15 μg HA/Strain/0.5 mL) in Adults and Elderly Persons Completed NCT01404182 Phase 4
36 Self-Administered Nasal Influenza Vaccine: Immunogenicity and Feasibility of Group Administration Completed NCT01933048 Phase 4 FluMist
37 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety of a New 6:2 Influenza Virus Reassortant in Healthy Adults Completed NCT00873912 Phase 4
38 A Time-Motion Study to Compare Self-vaccination With Intanza® Intradermal Influenza Vaccine to Nurse-administered Vaxigrip® Intramuscular Influenza Vaccine in Small Group Settings of Health Care Workers Completed NCT01665807 Phase 4
39 A Phase 4, Randomized, Single-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity of Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccines in Adult Subjects With Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Certolizumab Pegol or Placebo Completed NCT00993668 Phase 4
40 Tolerability and Immunogenicity Study of Fluval AB Suspension for Injection (Trivalent, Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Active Ingredient Content: 15 ugHA/Strain/0.5mL) in Adult and Elderly Subjects Completed NCT01649713 Phase 4 Fluval AB vaccination
41 PCIRN Evaluation of Pandemic H1N12009 Influenza Vaccine in Adults With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Completed NCT01002040 Phase 4
42 PCIRN Evaluation of Pandemic H1N12009 Influenza Vaccine in Aboriginal Children and Adults Completed NCT01001026 Phase 4
43 PCIRN Evaluation of Pandemic H1N12009 Influenza Vaccine After One andTtwo Doses in Young Children Completed NCT01000831 Phase 4
44 PCIRN Evaluation of Pandemic H1N12009 Influenza Vaccine in Adults, Including Randomized Comparison of Concurrent or Delayed Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Completed NCT01000584 Phase 4
45 Assessment of the Effectiveness of Seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccine Among Children in Senegal Completed NCT00893906 Phase 4
46 Pilot of Cohort of Households for Influenza Monitoring and Evaluation in Seattle (pCHIMES) Completed NCT04141930 Phase 4 Baloxavir Marboxil
47 Pharmacokinetics of Tamiflu® (Oseltamivir) in Patients Receiving CVVHD and/or ECMO Completed NCT01048879 Phase 4
48 Evaluation of the Effects of Age, Prior Exposure, and Previous Vaccination on the B Cell Response to Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Adults and Children Completed NCT03328325 Phase 4
49 Immunological Response to Influenza Vaccination in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A RCT of FluMist vs. Flucelvax Completed NCT03982069 Phase 4
50 The Clinical Trial for Three Consecutive Lots of Influenza Split Vaccine Anflu by Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled Design Completed NCT00556062 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Influenza

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 51 :

Amantadine Hydrochloride
Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor [EPC]
Rimantadine Hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: influenza, human

Genetic Tests for Influenza

Genetic tests related to Influenza:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Influenza 29 IFITM3

Anatomical Context for Influenza

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Influenza:

T Cells, Heart, B Cells, Neutrophil, Bone Marrow, Endothelial, Monocytes

Publications for Influenza

Articles related to Influenza:

(show top 50) (show all 30670)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Influenza, Varicella, and Mumps Outbreaks in US Migrant Detention Centers. 42 61
33119037 2021
Parental Vaccine Hesitancy and Childhood Influenza Vaccination. 42 61
33168671 2020
Comparative evaluation of clinical manifestations and risk of death in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and seasonal influenza: cohort study. 42 61
33323357 2020
IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. 6
22446628 2012
Interferon-induced cell membrane proteins, IFITM3 and tetherin, inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus infection via distinct mechanisms. 6
20943977 2010
Species specificity of the NS1 protein of influenza B virus: NS1 binds only human and non-human primate ubiquitin-like ISG15 proteins. 54 61
20093371 2010
A novel type of influenza vaccine: safety and immunogenicity of replication-deficient influenza virus created by deletion of the interferon antagonist NS1. 61 54
20039806 2010
Apoptosis of lymphocytes and monocytes infected with influenza virus might be the mechanism of combating virus and causing secondary infection by influenza. 61 54
19736294 2009
Targeted vs. systematic early antiviral treatment against A(H1N1)v influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors in patients with influenza-like symptoms: clinical and economic impact. 61 54
20029659 2009
Infection of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice with a human isolate of influenza a virus (H1N1) primes a diverse CD4 T-cell repertoire that includes CD4 T cells with heterosubtypic cross-reactivity to avian (H5N1) influenza virus. 61 54
19386707 2009
The cotranslational maturation program for the type II membrane glycoprotein influenza neuraminidase. 61 54
18849342 2008
Broad influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in humanized mice vaccinated with influenza virus vaccines. 54 61
18713944 2008
Heterosubtypic T-cell responses against avian influenza H5 haemagglutinin are frequently detected in individuals vaccinated against or previously infected with human subtypes of influenza. 54 61
19453462 2008
Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. 54 61
18165234 2008
Conserved surface features form the double-stranded RNA binding site of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from influenza A and B viruses. 61 54
17475623 2007
Performance of six influenza rapid tests in detecting human influenza in clinical specimens. 54 61
17452000 2007
NS1 proteins of avian influenza A viruses can act as antagonists of the human alpha/beta interferon response. 61 54
17182679 2007
Ligand specificity of human surfactant protein D: expression of a mutant trimeric collectin that shows enhanced interactions with influenza A virus. 61 54
15711012 2005
Sialobiology of influenza: molecular mechanism of host range variation of influenza viruses. 61 54
15744059 2005
Involvement of toll-like receptor 3 in the immune response of lung epithelial cells to double-stranded RNA and influenza A virus. 61 54
15579900 2005
Nuclear MxA proteins form a complex with influenza virus NP and inhibit the transcription of the engineered influenza virus genome. 61 54
14752052 2004
T-cell responses and hypersensitivity to influenza and egg antigens among adults with asthma immunized with the influenza vaccine. 61 54
13679822 2003
Identification of Hsp90 as a stimulatory host factor involved in influenza virus RNA synthesis. 61 54
12226087 2002
Cellular transcriptional profiling in influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells: the role of the nonstructural NS1 protein in the evasion of the host innate defense and its potential contribution to pandemic influenza. 61 54
12149435 2002
Internalization-competent influenza hemagglutinin mutants form complexes with clathrin-deficient multivalent AP-2 oligomers in live cells. 61 54
11369772 2001
The anti-influenza virus agent 4-GU-DANA (zanamivir) inhibits cell fusion mediated by human parainfluenza virus and influenza virus HA. 54 61
11070006 2000
Influenza vaccine, anti-influenza drugs, and rapid diagnosis in Japan. 61 54
11810539 2000
The cellular inhibitor of the PKR protein kinase, P58(IPK), is an influenza virus-activated co-chaperone that modulates heat shock protein 70 activity. 61 54
9920933 1999
Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors possessing a novel hydrophobic interaction in the enzyme active site: design, synthesis, and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity. 54 61
16526129 1997
Structure of influenza virus RNP. I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein melts secondary structure in panhandle RNA and exposes the bases to the solvent. 54 61
8039508 1994
Enhancement of anti-influenza A virus cytotoxicity following influenza A virus vaccination in older, chronically ill adults. 54 61
2123886 1990
Evolution of the NS genes of the influenza A viruses. II. Characteristics of the amino acid changes in the NS1 proteins of the influenza A viruses. 61 54
2144065 1990
Novel dual multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and respiratory syncytial virus using the BD MAX open system. 61
33410371 2021
Comparative pathogenicity and environmental transmission of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses. 61
33350337 2021
Emergence and spread of novel H5N8, H5N5 and H5N1 clade highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2020. 61
33400615 2021
Cross-protective immunity of the haemagglutinin stalk domain presented on the surface of Lactococcus lactis against divergent influenza viruses in mice. 61
33372841 2021
Identification of key residues involved in the neuraminidase antigenic variation of H9N2 influenza virus. 61
33467981 2021
A host-based whole genome sequencing study reveals novel risk loci associated with severity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. 61
33393450 2021
The value of the platelet count and platelet indices in differentiation of COVID-19 and influenza pneumonia. 61
33135801 2021
Amazonian Siparuna extracts as potential anti-influenza agents: Metabolic fingerprinting. 61
33429033 2021
COVID-19 and influenza H1N1: A dangerous combination for Pakistan in the upcoming winter season. 61
33230888 2021
Comparison of COVID-19 and influenza in adult patients: Neurological symptoms input. 61
33270276 2021
Low influenza vaccination coverage in subjects with liver cirrhosis. An alert waiting for winter season 2020-2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. 61
33368427 2021
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Risk of adverse maternal and foetal outcomes associated with inactivated influenza vaccination in first trimester of pregnancy. 61
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Understanding the Impact of Resistance to Influenza Antivirals. 61
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Austerity, not influenza, caused the UK's health to deteriorate. Let's not make the same mistake again. 61
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Politics, Pushback, and Pandemics: Challenges to Public Health Orders in the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. 61
33476227 2021

Variations for Influenza

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Influenza:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 IFITM3 NM_021034.3(IFITM3):c.42T>C (p.Ser14=) SNV risk factor 31527 rs12252 11:320772-320772 11:320772-320772

Expression for Influenza

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Influenza patients vs. healthy controls: 35 (show all 45)
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 IFI27 interferon alpha inducible protein 27 Blood + 6.13 0.000
2 OTOF otoferlin Blood + 5.57 0.000
3 KCTD14 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 14 Blood + 5.45 0.000
4 HESX1 HESX homeobox 1 Blood + 4.33 0.000
5 CMPK2 cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 Blood + 4.32 0.000
6 CCNA1 cyclin A1 Blood + 4.26 0.000
7 METTL7B methyltransferase like 7B Blood + 4.12 0.000
8 C1QC complement C1q C chain Blood + 4.11 0.000
9 OLFM4 olfactomedin 4 Blood + 3.99 0.000
10 SIGLEC1 sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 1 Blood + 3.98 0.000
11 OLFM1 olfactomedin 1 Blood - 3.92 0.000
12 RSAD2 radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 Blood + 3.86 0.000
13 GPR42 G protein-coupled receptor 42 Blood + 3.85 0.000
14 RNASE1 ribonuclease A family member 1, pancreatic Blood + 3.83 0.000
15 CEACAM6 CEA cell adhesion molecule 6 Blood + 3.80 0.000
16 KCNE1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 1 Blood + 3.73 0.000
17 OAS3 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3 Blood + 3.70 0.000
18 TMEM119 transmembrane protein 119 Blood + 3.66 0.000
19 DNAAF1 dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 Blood + 3.54 0.000
20 HP haptoglobin Blood + 3.46 0.000
21 PRSS33 serine protease 33 Blood - 3.42 0.000
22 IFI44L interferon induced protein 44 like Blood + 3.42 0.000
23 PPARG peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma Blood + 3.38 0.000
24 PID1 phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 Blood - 3.37 0.000
25 SLC26A8 solute carrier family 26 member 8 Blood + 3.37 0.000
26 IFITM4P interferon induced transmembrane protein 4 pseudogene Blood + 3.31 0.000
27 CNTNAP2 contactin associated protein 2 Blood - 3.30 0.000
28 PTGDR2 prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 Blood - 3.28 0.000
29 IFIT1 interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 Blood + 3.28 0.000
30 GPR84 G protein-coupled receptor 84 Blood + 3.25 0.000
31 CACNG6 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 6 Blood - 3.22 0.000
32 IL27 interleukin 27 Blood + 3.21 0.000
33 SYN2 synapsin II Blood + 3.20 0.000
34 OAS1 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 Blood + 3.19 0.000
35 MATK megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase Blood - 3.18 0.000
36 H4C4 H4 clustered histone 4 Blood + 3.16 0.000
37 OLIG2 oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 Blood - 3.15 0.000
38 ISG15 ISG15 ubiquitin like modifier Blood + 3.11 0.000
39 IFIT3 interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 Blood + 3.09 0.000
40 EXOC3L1 exocyst complex component 3 like 1 Blood + 3.09 0.000
41 RSPH9 radial spoke head component 9 Blood + 3.08 0.000
42 CD177 C