MCID: INH001
MIFTS: 41

Inhalation Anthrax

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Inhalation Anthrax

MalaCards integrated aliases for Inhalation Anthrax:

Name: Inhalation Anthrax 12 15
Pulmonary Anthrax 12 58 32
Inhalational Anthrax 58 70
Respiratory Anthrax 12 58
Respiratory Anthrax Disease 58
Inhalation Anthrax Disease 58
Wool-Sorters' Disease 12
Woolsorters' Disease 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
inhalational anthrax
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050160
ICD10 32 A22.1
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A22.1
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0155866
Orphanet 58 ORPHA247257
UMLS 70 C0155866

Summaries for Inhalation Anthrax

Disease Ontology : 12 An anthrax disease that results in infection located in lung lymph nodes brought on by breathing in the spores of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The first symptoms of inhalation anthrax are like cold or flu symptoms and can include a sore throat, mild fever and muscle aches. Later symptoms include cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, tiredness and muscle aches.

MalaCards based summary : Inhalation Anthrax, also known as pulmonary anthrax, is related to anthrax disease and gastrointestinal anthrax. An important gene associated with Inhalation Anthrax is ANTXR2 (ANTXR Cell Adhesion Molecule 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Ras signaling pathway and Aquaporin-mediated transport. The drugs Immunoglobulins and Antibodies have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include monocytes, neutrophil and b cells, and related phenotypes are fatigue and fever

Related Diseases for Inhalation Anthrax

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Inhalation Anthrax:



Diseases related to Inhalation Anthrax

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Inhalation Anthrax

Human phenotypes related to Inhalation Anthrax:

58 31 (show all 14)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fatigue 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012378
2 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
3 abnormal sweat gland morphology 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0000971
4 focal autonomic seizure with epigastric sensation/nausea/vomiting/other gastrointestinal phenomena 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0011159
5 hypotension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
6 vomiting 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002013
7 sepsis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100806
8 internal hemorrhage 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011029
9 respiratory distress 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002098
10 confusion 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001289
11 incomprehensible speech 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002546
12 dyspnea 58 Frequent (79-30%)
13 abnormality of the sweat gland 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
14 epigastric auras 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 17)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-103 9.6 PRDX1
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-105 9.6 MAP2K3
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-117 9.6 PRDX1
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-123 9.6 RAPGEF4
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-133 9.6 RAPGEF4
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-135 9.6 PRDX1
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-140 9.6 PRDX1
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-149 9.6 RAPGEF4
9 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-156 9.6 MAP2K3 PRDX1 RAPGEF4
10 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-176 9.6 PRDX1
11 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-187 9.6 PRDX1
12 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-212 9.6 RAPGEF4
13 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-214 9.6 MAP2K3
14 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-36 9.6 PRDX1
15 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-39 9.6 RAPGEF4
16 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-73 9.6 MAP2K3
17 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-75 9.6 PRDX1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Inhalation Anthrax:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.61 ADCY7 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 APLF FURIN MAP2K3
2 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.02 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 PRDX1 RAPGEF3 RAPGEF4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Inhalation Anthrax

Drugs for Inhalation Anthrax (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 16)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
2 Antibodies Phase 4
3 Antitoxins Phase 4
4
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 68-04-2
5
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 77-92-9 311
6
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 56-40-6 750
7 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Citrate Phase 2, Phase 3
9
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 85721-33-1 2764
10 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 1
11 gamma-Globulins Phase 1
12 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 1
13 Immunologic Factors Phase 1
14 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 1
15 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1
16 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Phase 4, Open Label Field Study to Evaluate the Clinical Benefit, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Anthim (Obiltoxaximab) When Used in the Treatment of Suspected, Probable, or Confirmed Cases of Inhalational Anthrax Due to B. Anthracis Not yet recruiting NCT03088111 Phase 4
2 An Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Raxibacumab (Human Monoclonal Antibody to B. Anthracis Protective Antigen) Administered in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT02016963 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Intravenous Dose of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01929226 Phase 1
4 Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), NP-015, in Healthy Volunteers. Completed NCT00448253 Phase 1
5 An Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of ETI-204 Alone and in the Presence of Ciprofloxacin in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01952444 Phase 1 Ciprofloxacin
6 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Single Ascending Dose Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single Intramuscular Doses of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01932437 Phase 1
7 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Repeat Administration of Intravenous ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01932242 Phase 1
8 Evaluation of the Clinical Specificity of the Active Anthrax Detect™ Plus (AAD Plus) Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) Completed NCT04320485
9 A Field Study for the Evaluation of AIGIV Clinical Benefit and Safety in the Treatment of Patients With Inhalational Anthrax in a Broad Exposure Event Scenario Not yet recruiting NCT03569553 AIGIV

Search NIH Clinical Center for Inhalation Anthrax

Genetic Tests for Inhalation Anthrax

Anatomical Context for Inhalation Anthrax

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Inhalation Anthrax:

40
Monocytes, Neutrophil, B Cells

Publications for Inhalation Anthrax

Articles related to Inhalation Anthrax:

(show top 50) (show all 211)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Therapeutic Antibodies for the Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infections-Current Overview and Perspectives. 61
33668613 2021
2
Physiological Responses to Multiple Low-Doses of Bacillus anthracis Spores in the Rabbit Model of Inhalation Anthrax. 61
33114429 2020
3
Teixobactin Provides Protection against Inhalation Anthrax in the Rabbit Model. 61
32971758 2020
4
Anthrax Edema and Lethal Toxins Differentially Target Human Lung and Blood Phagocytes. 61
32698436 2020
5
Monoclonal antibodies against infectious microbes: so long and too little! 61
32164518 2020
6
Detection of Bacillus anthracis in animal tissues using InBios active anthrax detect rapid test lateral flow immunoassay. 61
30776143 2019
7
Zeptomole per milliliter detection and quantification of edema factor in plasma by LC-MS/MS yields insights into toxemia and the progression of inhalation anthrax. 61
30911800 2019
8
Development and Performance of a Checklist for Initial Triage After an Anthrax Mass Exposure Event. 61
30884525 2019
9
Accurate and selective quantification of anthrax protective antigen in plasma by immunocapture and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. 61
30810119 2019
10
An integrated experimental-computational approach for predicting virulence in New Zealand white rabbits and humans following inhalation exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores. 61
31260462 2019
11
Obiltoxaximab (Anthim) for inhalation anthrax. 61
30383733 2018
12
Gene expression profiling of primary human type I alveolar epithelial cells exposed to Bacillus anthracis spores reveals induction of neutrophil and monocyte chemokines. 61
29704667 2018
13
Screening for Anthrax Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis-The New York City Approach. 61
30133374 2018
14
Validated MALDI-TOF-MS method for anthrax lethal factor provides early diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutics. 61
29224733 2018
15
Evaluation of Combination Drug Therapy for Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Inhalation Anthrax in a Murine Model. 61
28696235 2017
16
Protection against inhalation anthrax by immunization with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a stably producing protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. 61
29263873 2017
17
Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event. 61
27983505 2017
18
Evaluation of early immune response-survival relationship in cynomolgus macaques after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed vaccination and Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. 61
27155494 2016
19
Bacillus anthracis spore movement does not require a carrier cell and is not affected by lethal toxin in human lung models. 61
27320392 2016
20
Over-expression, purification, and confirmation of Bacillus anthracis transcriptional regulator NprR. 61
26344899 2016
21
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways. 61
33311732 2016
22
Recent developments in the understanding and use of anthrax vaccine adsorbed: achieving more with less. 61
26942655 2016
23
Obiltoxaximab: First Global Approval. 61
27085536 2016
24
A case report of inhalation anthrax acquired naturally. 61
26939756 2016
25
Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax. 61
26895308 2016
26
Parenteral Administration of Capsule Depolymerase EnvD Prevents Lethal Inhalation Anthrax Infection. 61
26438506 2015
27
Antitoxin Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax: A Systematic Review. 61
26690378 2015
28
Bacillus anthracis Capsular Conjugates Elicit Chimpanzee Polyclonal Antibodies That Protect Mice from Pulmonary Anthrax. 61
26041039 2015
29
Bridging non-human primate correlates of protection to reassess the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed booster schedule in humans. 61
26072016 2015
30
Evaluation of Inhaled Versus Deposited Dose Using the Exponential Dose-Response Model for Inhalational Anthrax in Nonhuman Primate, Rabbit, and Guinea Pig. 61
25545587 2015
31
High-sensitivity MALDI-TOF MS quantification of anthrax lethal toxin for diagnostics and evaluation of medical countermeasures. 61
25673244 2015
32
Epitope-focused peptide immunogens in human use adjuvants protect rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax. 61
25454087 2015
33
Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance. 61
25610847 2015
34
Approval of Raxibacumab for the Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Under the US Food and Drug Administration "Animal Rule". 61
26648915 2015
35
Bacillus anthracis infections--new possibilities of treatment. 61
26094508 2015
36
Comprehensive analysis and selection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed immune correlates of protection in rhesus macaques. 61
25185577 2014
37
Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence. 61
24857756 2014
38
Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant. 61
24554695 2014
39
Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States. 61
24447835 2014
40
Lethal factor and anti-protective antigen IgG levels associated with inhalation anthrax, Minnesota, USA. 61
24447456 2014
41
Two-photon intravital imaging of lungs during anthrax infection reveals long-lasting macrophage-dendritic cell contacts. 61
24478099 2014
42
Evaluation of intravenous anthrax immune globulin for treatment of inhalation anthrax. 61
23979731 2013
43
Protective-antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines confer protection against inhalation anthrax by precluding the establishment of a systemic infection. 61
23787486 2013
44
Constant domains influence binding of mouse-human chimeric antibodies to the capsular polypeptide of Bacillus anthracis. 61
23863605 2013
45
The sepsis model: an emerging hypothesis for the lethality of inhalation anthrax. 61
23742651 2013
46
Systemic use of fluoroquinolone in children. 61
23741232 2013
47
Portable, quantitative detection of Bacillus bacterial spores using surface-enhanced Raman scattering. 61
23409961 2013
48
Recombinant vaccine displaying the loop-neutralizing determinant from protective antigen completely protects rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax. 61
23283638 2013
49
An adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine confers rapid and sustained protection against anthrax in a single-dose regimen. 61
23100479 2013
50
IgG subclass and heavy chain domains contribute to binding and protection by mAbs to the poly γ-D-glutamic acid capsular antigen of Bacillus anthracis. 61
23637599 2013

Variations for Inhalation Anthrax

Expression for Inhalation Anthrax

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Inhalation Anthrax.

Pathways for Inhalation Anthrax

Pathways related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.2 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 MAP2K3 ADCY7
2
Show member pathways
12.05 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 ADCY7
3
Show member pathways
12 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 ADCY7
4
Show member pathways
11.95 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 ADCY7
5
Show member pathways
11.91 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 ADCY7
6 11.83 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 ADCY7
7 11.18 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3
8
Show member pathways
10.82 MAP2K3 FURIN ANTXR2 ANTXR1
9 10.47 MAP2K3 ANTXR2 ANTXR1
10 10.36 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3

GO Terms for Inhalation Anthrax

Cellular components related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome membrane GO:0010008 8.8 FURIN ANTXR2 ANTXR1

Biological processes related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxin transport GO:1901998 8.96 ANTXR2 ANTXR1
2 cAMP-mediated signaling GO:0019933 8.62 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3

Molecular functions related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nucleotide binding GO:0000166 9.43 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3 MKKS MAP2K3 APLF ADCY7
2 cAMP binding GO:0030552 8.62 RAPGEF4 RAPGEF3

Sources for Inhalation Anthrax

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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