MCID: INH001
MIFTS: 42

Inhalation Anthrax

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Inhalation Anthrax

MalaCards integrated aliases for Inhalation Anthrax:

Name: Inhalation Anthrax 12 15
Inhalational Anthrax 59 73
Respiratory Anthrax 12 59
Pulmonary Anthrax 12 59
Respiratory Anthrax Disease 59
Inhalation Anthrax Disease 59
Wool-Sorters' Disease 12
Woolsorters' Disease 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
inhalational anthrax
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050160
Orphanet 59 ORPHA247257
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 A22.1
UMLS via Orphanet 74 C0155866
ICD10 33 A22.1
UMLS 73 C0155866

Summaries for Inhalation Anthrax

Disease Ontology : 12 An anthrax disease that results in infection located in lung lymph nodes brought on by breathing in the spores of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The first symptoms of inhalation anthrax are like cold or flu symptoms and can include a sore throat, mild fever and muscle aches. Later symptoms include cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, tiredness and muscle aches.

MalaCards based summary : Inhalation Anthrax, also known as inhalational anthrax, is related to anthrax disease and influenza. An important gene associated with Inhalation Anthrax is TLR9 (Toll Like Receptor 9), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway and Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins. The drugs Immunologic Factors and Antibodies have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, lymph node and neutrophil, and related phenotypes are hypotension and fever

Related Diseases for Inhalation Anthrax

Diseases related to Inhalation Anthrax via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anthrax disease 30.6 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 TLR9
2 influenza 10.3
3 pneumonia 10.1
4 cholera 10.0
5 acute respiratory distress syndrome 10.0
6 chronic granulomatous disease 9.7 NCF4 TLR9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Inhalation Anthrax:



Diseases related to Inhalation Anthrax

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Inhalation Anthrax

Human phenotypes related to Inhalation Anthrax:

59 32 (show all 12)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hypotension 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
2 fever 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
3 vomiting 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002013
4 fatigue 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012378
5 respiratory distress 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002098
6 incomprehensible speech 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002546
7 sepsis 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100806
8 internal hemorrhage 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011029
9 confusion 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001289
10 abnormality of the sweat gland 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000971
11 epigastric auras 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011159
12 dyspnea 59 Frequent (79-30%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Inhalation Anthrax

Drugs for Inhalation Anthrax (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 22)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Immunologic Factors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
2 Antibodies Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
3 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
4 Immunoglobulins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
5 Antitoxins Phase 4
6 Antibodies, Blocking Phase 4
7
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 77-92-9 311
8
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 56-40-6 750
9 Citrate Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
10
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 85721-33-1 2764
11
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 1 69-65-8 453 6251
12 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 1
13 gamma-Globulins Phase 1
14 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 1
15 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1
16 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 1
17 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 1
18 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 1
19 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 1
20
Diethylenetriamine Phase 1 111-40-0 8111
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
22 Immunoglobulin G

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 11)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 An Open Label Field Study of Anthim (Obiltoxaximab) in Subjects Exposed to B. Anthracis Not yet recruiting NCT03088111 Phase 4
2 Clinical Benefit, Safety and PK of Raxibacumab in Subjects Exposed to Bacillus Anthracis Not yet recruiting NCT02177721 Phase 4
3 An Open-label, Nonrandomized Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Raxibacumab With Reinjection Completed NCT02016963 Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study of Anthrax Immune Globulin Derived From Human Serum Completed NCT00448253 Phase 1
5 Monoclonal Antibody for Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Completed NCT00138411 Phase 1 Ciprofloxacin 500 mg;ETI-204 (Anthim)
6 Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and PK of ETI-204 Alone and in Presence of Ciprofloxacin in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01952444 Phase 1
7 Safety, Tolerability, and PK of Single IM Doses of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01932437 Phase 1
8 Safety, Tolerability and PK of Repeat Administration of IV ETI-204 Completed NCT01932242 Phase 1
9 A Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and PK of a Single IV Dose of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01929226 Phase 1
10 Dose Escalation Study of Valortim® (MDX-1303) Administered Intravenously (IV) in Healthy, Normal Subjects Completed NCT01265745 Phase 1 Normal Saline for Injection
11 A Field Study Evaluating Clinical Benefit and Safety of AIGIV (ANTHRASIL®) in Inhalational Anthrax Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03569553 AIGIV

Search NIH Clinical Center for Inhalation Anthrax

Genetic Tests for Inhalation Anthrax

Anatomical Context for Inhalation Anthrax

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Inhalation Anthrax:

41
Lung, Lymph Node, Neutrophil, B Cells

Publications for Inhalation Anthrax

Articles related to Inhalation Anthrax:

(show top 50) (show all 177)
# Title Authors Year
1
Obiltoxaximab (Anthim) for inhalation anthrax. ( 30383733 )
2018
2
DUST-BATHING BEHAVIORS OF AFRICAN HERBIVORES AND THE POTENTIAL RISK OF INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX. ( 29053428 )
2018
3
Does anthrax antitoxin therapy have a role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax? ( 29570493 )
2018
4
Evaluation of Combination Drug Therapy for Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Inhalation Anthrax in a Murine Model. ( 28696235 )
2017
5
Protection against inhalation anthrax by immunization with<i>Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi</i>Ty21a stably producing protective antigen of<i>Bacillus anthracis</i>. ( 29263873 )
2017
6
Estimation of Time Period for Effective Human Inhalational Anthrax Treatment Including Antitoxin Therapy. ( 28856066 )
2017
7
Animal-to-Human Dose Translation of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax Under the US FDA Animal Rule. ( 27925405 )
2017
8
Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax. ( 26895308 )
2016
9
A case report of inhalation anthrax acquired naturally. ( 26939756 )
2016
10
Dose-Response Modeling for Inhalational Anthrax in Rabbits Following Single or Multiple Exposures. ( 26889937 )
2016
11
Protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a Bacillus anthracis capsule conjugate vaccine. ( 27329184 )
2016
12
Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax. ( 27431219 )
2016
13
Efficacy Projection of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax across a Range of Disease Severity. ( 27431222 )
2016
14
Parenteral Administration of Capsule Depolymerase EnvD Prevents Lethal Inhalation Anthrax Infection. ( 26438506 )
2015
15
Epitope-focused peptide immunogens in human use adjuvants protect rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax. ( 25454087 )
2015
16
Antitoxin Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax: A Systematic Review. ( 26690378 )
2015
17
Approval of Raxibacumab for the Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Under the US Food and Drug Administration &amp;quot;Animal Rule&amp;quot;. ( 26648915 )
2015
18
Added benefit of raxibacumab to antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax. ( 25487792 )
2015
19
Evaluation of Inhaled Versus Deposited Dose Using the Exponential Dose-Response Model for Inhalational Anthrax in Nonhuman Primate, Rabbit, and Guinea Pig. ( 25545587 )
2015
20
Efficacy of ETI-204 monoclonal antibody as an adjunct therapy in a New Zealand white rabbit partial survival model for inhalational anthrax. ( 25645849 )
2015
21
Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax. ( 25942409 )
2015
22
Lethal factor and anti-protective antigen IgG levels associated with inhalation anthrax, Minnesota, USA. ( 24447456 )
2014
23
Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States. ( 24447835 )
2014
24
Combination therapy with antibiotics and anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is potentially more effective than antibiotics alone in rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. ( 25226075 )
2014
25
Deterministic models of inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white rabbits. ( 24527843 )
2014
26
Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant. ( 24554695 )
2014
27
Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax. ( 24812521 )
2014
28
The sepsis model: an emerging hypothesis for the lethality of inhalation anthrax. ( 23742651 )
2013
29
Evaluation of intravenous anthrax immune globulin for treatment of inhalation anthrax. ( 23979731 )
2013
30
Protective-antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines confer protection against inhalation anthrax by precluding the establishment of a systemic infection. ( 23787486 )
2013
31
Modeling low-dose mortality and disease incubation period of inhalational anthrax in the rabbit. ( 23567649 )
2013
32
Pathology and pathophysiology of inhalational anthrax in a guinea pig model. ( 23357384 )
2013
33
Quantitative models of the dose-response and time course of inhalational anthrax in humans. ( 24058320 )
2013
34
Inhalational anthrax in a vaccinated soldier. ( 23813313 )
2013
35
Recombinant vaccine displaying the loop-neutralizing determinant from protective antigen completely protects rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax. ( 23283638 )
2013
36
Characterization of a therapeutic model of inhalational anthrax using an increase in body temperature in New Zealand white rabbits as a trigger for treatment. ( 22837095 )
2012
37
Sverdlovsk revisited: pulmonary pathology of inhalational anthrax versus anthraxlike Bacillus cereus pneumonia. ( 22372894 )
2012
38
Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol) in naA^ve and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia. ( 22919678 )
2012
39
Differential role of the interleukin-17 axis and neutrophils in resolution of inhalational anthrax. ( 22025514 )
2012
40
Expression of either lethal toxin or edema toxin by Bacillus anthracis is sufficient for virulence in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. ( 22526673 )
2012
41
Dissemination bottleneck in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. ( 22753373 )
2012
42
A three-dose intramuscular injection schedule of anthrax vaccine adsorbed generates sustained humoral and cellular immune responses to protective antigen and provides long-term protection against inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques. ( 22933399 )
2012
43
Lung B cells promote early pathogen dissemination and hasten death from inhalation anthrax. ( 22472773 )
2012
44
Recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine improves survival when administered as a postexposure prophylaxis countermeasure with antibiotic in the New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalation anthrax. ( 22695155 )
2012
45
Efficacy of a capsule conjugate vaccine against inhalational anthrax in rabbits and monkeys. ( 22172509 )
2012
46
A dynamic dose-response model to account for exposure patterns in risk assessment: a case study in inhalation anthrax. ( 21068030 )
2011
47
Key aspects of the molecular and cellular basis of inhalational anthrax. ( 21816231 )
2011
48
Antibody responses to a spore carbohydrate antigen as a marker of nonfatal inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques. ( 21389148 )
2011
49
Post-exposure therapy of inhalational anthrax in the common marmoset. ( 21530184 )
2011
50
Public response to an anthrax attack: reactions to mass prophylaxis in a scenario involving inhalation anthrax from an unidentified source. ( 21819225 )
2011

Variations for Inhalation Anthrax

Expression for Inhalation Anthrax

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Inhalation Anthrax.

Pathways for Inhalation Anthrax

GO Terms for Inhalation Anthrax

Cellular components related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome membrane GO:0010008 8.92 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 NCF4 TLR9

Biological processes related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxin transport GO:1901998 8.96 ANTXR1 ANTXR2
2 reproductive process GO:0022414 8.62 ANTXR1 ANTXR2

Molecular functions related to Inhalation Anthrax according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 8.8 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 TLR9

Sources for Inhalation Anthrax

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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