MCID: INT042
MIFTS: 37

Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:

Name: Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia 11 14 71 75 31 33
Mlf - [medial Longitudinal Fasciculus] Syndrome 33
Ino - [internuclear Ophthalmoplegia] 33
Bielschowsky-Lutz-Cogan Syndrome 33
Ophthalmoplegia Internuclearis 33
Internuclear Paralysis 33
Lhermitte Syndrome 33

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:538
ICD9CM 34 378.86
MeSH 43 D015835
SNOMED-CT 68 49823009
ICD10 31 H51.2
ICD11 33 377040542
UMLS 71 C0152134

Summaries for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

MalaCards based summary: Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, also known as mlf - [medial longitudinal fasciculus] syndrome, is related to myasthenia gravis and facial paralysis, and has symptoms including ophthalmoplegia, spasm of conjugate gaze and anomalies of divergence. An important gene associated with Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia is AQP4 (Aquaporin 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Oligodendrocyte specification and differentiation, leading to myelin components for CNS. The drugs Dalfampridine and Histamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, pons and brain, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Wikipedia: 75 Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze in which the affected eye... more...

Related Diseases for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Diseases related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 217)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 myasthenia gravis 30.7 MUSK MBP LRP4
2 facial paralysis 30.7 MOG MBP AQP4
3 chiari malformation 30.6 MBP LRP4
4 neuromyelitis optica 30.6 MOG MBP AQP4
5 cranial nerve palsy 30.5 MOG AQP4
6 neuritis 30.5 MOG MBP AQP4
7 multiple sclerosis 30.5 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
8 demyelinating disease 30.4 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
9 optic neuritis 30.4 MOG MBP AQP4
10 abducens palsy 30.3 MUSK MOG AQP4
11 arachnoiditis 30.3 MBP AQP4
12 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 30.3 MOG AQP4
13 papilledema 30.2 MOG AQP4
14 wernicke encephalopathy 30.2 PNMA2 AQP4
15 strabismus 30.2 MUSK MOG CACNA1A AQP4
16 myelitis 30.2 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
17 transverse myelitis 30.2 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
18 chickenpox 30.2 MOG IFNB1 AQP4
19 ptosis 30.2 POLG MUSK LRP4 COLQ
20 ocular motility disease 30.1 POLG MUSK COLQ CACNA1A AQP4
21 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy 30.0 MUSK MBP IFNB1
22 behcet syndrome 30.0 MOG IFNB1 AQP4
23 acute retrobulbar neuritis 30.0 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
24 spinal cord disease 29.9 MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
25 demyelinating polyneuropathy 29.9 MUSK MOG MBP AQP4
26 autoimmune disease 29.7 MUSK MOG MBP IFNB1 AQP4
27 encephalitis 29.6 PNMA2 MOG IFNB1 AQP4
28 migraine with or without aura 1 29.6 POLG CACNA1A AQP4
29 miller fisher syndrome 29.5 PNMA2 MUSK MOG AQP4
30 kearns-sayre syndrome 11.3
31 pathologic nystagmus 10.9
32 exotropia 10.7
33 papillon-lefevre syndrome 10.6
34 brain stem infarction 10.6
35 temporal arteritis 10.5
36 conjugate gaze palsy 10.5
37 dissociated nystagmus 10.5
38 movement disease 10.4
39 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.4
40 stroke, ischemic 10.4
41 systemic lupus erythematosus 1 10.4
42 hydrocephalus 10.4
43 bell's palsy 10.4
44 lupus erythematosus 10.4
45 chiari malformation type ii 10.3
46 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.3
47 meningitis 10.3
48 cogan syndrome 10.3
49 glioma susceptibility 1 10.3
50 horner's syndrome 10.3

Comorbidity relations with Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:



Diseases related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

UMLS symptoms related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:


ophthalmoplegia; spasm of conjugate gaze; anomalies of divergence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.28 AQP4 CACNA1A COLQ IFNB1 LRP4 MBP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Drugs for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 10)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dalfampridine Approved Phase 3 504-24-5 1727
2
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-45-6 774
3
Clemastine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 15686-51-8 26987
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
5 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 3
6
Histamine phosphate Phase 3 51-74-1 134614
7 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 3
8 Histamine Antagonists Phase 3
9 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
10 Potassium Channel Blockers Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clemastine Fumarate as Remyelinating Treatment in Internuclear Ophthalmoparesis and Multiple Sclerosis Recruiting NCT05338450 Phase 3 Clemastine Fumarate;Placebo
2 Study and Treatment of Visual Dysfunction and Motor Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT02391961 Phase 2 Dalfampridine;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Genetic Tests for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Anatomical Context for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Organs/tissues related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:

MalaCards : Eye, Pons, Brain, Thalamus, Cerebellum, Myeloid, Kidney

Publications for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Articles related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia:

(show top 50) (show all 700)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Ocular motility disorders following coronavirus disease-19 vaccination. 62
36383278 2022
2
Clinical Reasoning: A 12-Year-Old Girl With Acute Onset Diplopia, Dizziness and Upbeat Nystagmus. 62
36347627 2022
3
Unilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Following Minor Head Injury. 62
36381451 2022
4
Lesion follows function: video-oculography compared with MRI to diagnose internuclear ophthalmoplegia in patients with multiple sclerosis. 62
36315254 2022
5
COVID-19 provoked internuclear ophthalmoplegia in a child with arrested hydrocephalus. 62
36190082 2022
6
Discordant horizontal-torsional nystagmus: a sign of posterior semicircular canal dysfunction. 62
35543743 2022
7
A Stroke of Vision as One-and-a-Half Syndrome: Is It Time to Update the FAST Criteria and ABCD2 Score? 62
36159351 2022
8
Horner Syndrome and Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Due to Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis. 62
36000760 2022
9
Abducens Nerve Palsy as a Presenting Symptom of Multiple Sclerosis. 62
36017545 2022
10
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia as an Isolated Symptom of Brainstem Wake-up Stroke Responsive to Intravenous Thrombolysis: Evidence from MRI. 62
36017839 2022
11
[A case of cardioembloic stroke with wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) syndrome]. 62
35753783 2022
12
Corticosteroid-induced bradycardia in multiple sclerosis and maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha mutation: A case report. 62
36158012 2022
13
Update on the medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome. 62
35258687 2022
14
Strabismus surgery outcomes for internuclear ophthalmoplegia with exotropia. 62
35438603 2022
15
Teaching Caseimage: Acute unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) rapidly progressing to Exotropic Bilateral INO (EBINO). 62
35434420 2022
16
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Characterizes Multiple Sclerosis Rather Than Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disease. 62
35427281 2022
17
Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting as Wernekinck commissure syndrome: A case report. 62
35102820 2022
18
Titanium T-Plate as a Stabilizing Platform in the Management of Acquired Nystagmus and Oscillopsia Without a Null Zone. 62
35093990 2022
19
[Causes of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease]. 62
34342675 2022
20
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, skew deviation and nystagmus from facial colliculus infarction: small lesion big trouble. 62
35366190 2022
21
Oblique saccades in internuclear ophthalmoplegia. 62
35067725 2022
22
Mild Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: The Diagnostic Role of the Vertical Posterior Canal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in Acute Brainstem Demyelination, a Clinical-Radiologic Correlation. 62
34001732 2022
23
A Rare Neuro-Ophthalmological Condition in a Patient with Lung Adenocarcinoma: The Eight-and-a-Half Syndrome, Case Report and Review of the Literature. 62
35447982 2022
24
Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia associated with etanercept. 62
34353861 2022
25
Post-COVID simultaneous onset of Graves' disease and ocular myasthenia gravis in a patient with a complex ocular motility impairment. 62
35167395 2022
26
Downbeat Nystagmus Associated With Wall-Eyed Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia in Paramedian Pontine Tegmentum Infarction. 62
35234687 2022
27
Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO): what does it mean to be wall-eyed? 62
34836932 2022
28
Transient internuclear ophthalmoplegia following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. 62
36447899 2022
29
Cerebral demyelination with internuclear ophthalmoplegia following wasp sting. 62
34402707 2022
30
Case report: A variant of wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia from unilateral pons infarction. 62
36161185 2022
31
Conservative and Surgical Management of Unilateral and Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO)-A Retrospective Analysis. 62
36420121 2022
32
Disorders of vision in multiple sclerosis. 62
34348598 2022
33
Eight-and-a-Half Syndrome Secondary to Neurotoxoplasmosis: A Rare Case Report. 62
36337230 2022
34
How does a small area cause big syndromes? A case report of a patient with one-and-a-half syndrome and MRI review of the anatomical pathways involved in causing different pontine neuro-ophthalmological syndromes. 62
34786518 2021
35
Rare case of chemotherapy-refractory metastatic vaginal squamous cell carcinoma with complete response to concurrent pembrolizumab and radiotherapy- case report and literature review. 62
34926759 2021
36
I think I have double vision? Or not? Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia following right lacunar infarct. 62
34806694 2021
37
Ophthalmic manifestations of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-associated disorder other than optic neuritis: a systematic review. 62
32998905 2021
38
Seropositive Muscle-Specific Tyrosine Kinase Myasthenia Gravis Presenting as a Late-Onset Isolated Sixth Nerve Palsy: A Case Report and a Brief Review of Subtypes of Myasthenia Gravis. 62
34934570 2021
39
Nystagmus: Diagnosis, Topographic Anatomical Localization and Therapy. 62
34784642 2021
40
An Unusual Case of Isolated Acute Aphasia in Multiple Sclerosis. 62
34722056 2021
41
Eight-and-a-half syndrome: a rare presentation. 62
34479896 2021
42
Wall eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) syndrome as a false localising sign in intracranial haemorrhage due to snake bite. 62
34521743 2021
43
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia in a Child With Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2. 62
34629408 2021
44
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Due to Cryptococcal Meningitis. 62
34629396 2021
45
Wall-Eyed Monocular Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Syndrome in Midbrain Infarction. 62
34507429 2021
46
Eight and a Half Syndrome: A Rare Case of Pontine Infarction. 62
35996790 2021
47
Wall-Eyed Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) in a Patient With a Unilateral Midbrain Infarction. 62
34190210 2021
48
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia as an atypical presentation of lacunar stroke in CADASIL. 62
33387205 2021
49
Exotropic bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm clipping. 62
33080178 2021
50
MRI topography of lesions related to internuclear ophthalmoplegia in patients with multiple sclerosis or ischemic stroke. 62
33793026 2021

Variations for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Expression for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia.

Pathways for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Pathways related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.07 OMG MOG

GO Terms for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Cellular components related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuromuscular junction GO:0031594 9.1 MUSK LRP4 COLQ

Biological processes related to Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of axonogenesis GO:0050771 9.46 MBP LRP4
2 regulation of synaptic assembly at neuromuscular junction GO:0008582 9.26 MUSK COLQ
3 skeletal muscle acetylcholine-gated channel clustering GO:0071340 9.1 MUSK LRP4 COLQ

Sources for Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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