Intestinal Perforation

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Intestinal Perforation

MalaCards integrated aliases for Intestinal Perforation:

Name: Intestinal Perforation 12 44 15 17 70
Perforation of Intestine 12 32


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2074
ICD9CM 34 569.83
MeSH 44 D007416
NCIt 50 C39611
SNOMED-CT 67 56905009
ICD10 32 K63.1
UMLS 70 C0021845

Summaries for Intestinal Perforation

MalaCards based summary : Intestinal Perforation, also known as perforation of intestine, is related to enterocolitis and peritonitis. An important gene associated with Intestinal Perforation is NOD2 (Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain Containing 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are T cell receptor signaling pathway and Th17 cell differentiation. The drugs Amoxicillin and Meropenem have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, colon and liver, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and digestive/alimentary

Related Diseases for Intestinal Perforation

Diseases related to Intestinal Perforation via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 898)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enterocolitis 31.3 TNF IL6 FABP2
2 peritonitis 31.2 TNF IL6 CRP ALB
3 ileus 30.9 TNF IL6 CRP
4 patent ductus arteriosus 1 30.8 VEGFA PRODH CRP ALB
5 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 30.7 TNF NOD2 IL6 FABP2 CRP ALB
6 typhoid fever 30.7 TNF IL6 GPT CRP ALB
7 purpura 30.6 TNF IL6 CRP
8 appendicitis 30.5 TNF IL6 CRP ALB
9 polyarteritis nodosa 30.4 IL6 GPT CRP
10 intussusception 30.4 VEGFA IL6 CRP ALB
11 tuberculous peritonitis 30.3 CRP ALB
12 necrotizing fasciitis 30.2 IL6 CRP ALB
13 brucellosis 30.2 TNF IL6 CRP
14 meckel diverticulum 30.2 KRT7 CRP ATP4A ALB
15 peptic ulcer disease 30.2 TNF ATP4A ATP12A
16 gastroenteritis 30.1 TNF IL6 CRP ALB
17 behcet syndrome 30.1 VEGFA TNF NOD2 IL6 CTLA4 CRP
18 ulcerative colitis 30.1 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
19 intestinal tuberculosis 30.1 TNF NOD2 CRP CD4 ALB
20 mycobacterium tuberculosis 1 30.0 TNF SERPINA3 NOD2 CD4
21 chorioamnionitis 30.0 VEGFA TNF IL6 CRP
22 henoch-schoenlein purpura 30.0 SERPINA3 CRP ALB
23 adenosquamous carcinoma 30.0 SERPINA3 NKX2-1 KRT7
24 osteomyelitis 30.0 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
25 anal fistula 30.0 TNF KRT7 CRP
26 jejunoileitis 30.0 TNF NOS1 ALB
27 vasculitis 30.0 TNF SERPINA3 IL6 CTLA4 CRP
28 diverticulitis 30.0 TNF IL6 CRP ATP4A ATP12A ALB
29 superior mesenteric artery syndrome 29.9 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
30 gastric dilatation 29.9 CRP ATP4A ATP12A
31 funisitis 29.9 TNF IL6 CRP
32 miliary tuberculosis 29.9 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
33 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 29.9 VEGFA NKX2-1 ATP4A ATP12A
34 hemangioma 29.9 VEGFA NKX2-1 KRT7 IL6
35 infective endocarditis 29.9 TNF IL6 CRP
36 disseminated intravascular coagulation 29.9 TNF IL6 GPT CRP
37 angiodysplasia 29.9 VEGFA ATP4A ATP12A
38 spindle cell sarcoma 29.8 VEGFA SERPINA3 KRT7 IL6
39 neutropenia 29.8 TNF IL6 GPT CRP ALB
40 amebiasis 29.8 TNF CD4 ALB
41 spondylitis 29.8 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
42 spondyloarthropathy 1 29.8 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
43 familial mediterranean fever 29.8 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
44 mucormycosis 29.8 CRP CD4 ALB
45 biliary atresia 29.8 KRT7 GPT ALB
46 volvulus of midgut 29.8 GPT CRP ATP4A ATP12A ALB
47 pneumonia 29.7 TNF IL6 CRP ALB
48 systemic scleroderma 29.7 TNF IL6 CRP CD4
49 active peptic ulcer disease 29.7 CRP ATP4A ATP12A ALB
50 amyloidosis 29.7 TNF SERPINA3 IL6 CRP ALB

Comorbidity relations with Intestinal Perforation via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 15)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine
Cecal Benign Neoplasm Colorectal Cancer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Intestinal Obstruction
Paralytic Ileus Peritonitis
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Rectosigmoid Junction Neoplasm
Respiratory Failure

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Intestinal Perforation:

Diseases related to Intestinal Perforation

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Intestinal Perforation

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Intestinal Perforation:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.23 ALB ATP12A ATP4A CD4 CRP CTLA4
2 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.18 ALB ATP12A ATP4A CD4 CTLA4 IL6
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.06 ALB ATP4A CD4 CTLA4 IL6 NFKB1
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.76 ALB CTLA4 FABP2 IL6 NFKB1 NOS1
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 CTLA4 IL6 NFKB1 NKX2-1 NOS1 PRODH
6 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 CTLA4 GPT IL6 NFKB1 NKX2-1 NOD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Intestinal Perforation

Drugs for Intestinal Perforation (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 22)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 26787-78-0 33613
Meropenem Approved, Investigational Phase 3 96036-03-2, 119478-56-7 64778 441130
Doripenem Approved, Investigational Phase 3 148016-81-3 73303
4 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
5 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
6 Clavulanic Acids Phase 3
7 Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination Phase 3
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
9 beta-Lactamase Inhibitors Phase 3
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2 103-90-2 1983
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2 15687-27-1 3672
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 53-86-1 3715
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
15 Anesthetics, Local
16 Cola
17 Liver Extracts
18 Tea
19 Anesthetics
20 Analgesics
21 Analgesics, Opioid
22 Antibiotics, Antitubercular

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 20)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study to Establish the Safety and Tolerability of Doripenem Compared With Meropenem in Hospitalized Children With Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Terminated NCT01110382 Phase 3 Doripenem;Meropenem placebo;Meropenem;Doripenem placebo;Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium
2 Early Supplementation of Enteral Microlipid With and Without Fish Oil in Premature Infants With Enterostomies Completed NCT01674478 Phase 2
3 Early Treatment Versus Delayed Conservative Treatment of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm infants-a Multicenter Trial Completed NCT01958320 Phase 2 NSAID
4 Immunoreactive Trypsinogen in Infants With Intestinal Perforation Unknown status NCT01530828
5 Proximal Remnant Intestinal Colonization in Newborn Infants With Enterostomy: a Longitudinal Study Unknown status NCT03340259
6 Delayed Small-Bowel Anastomosis in Patients With Postoperative Peritonitis Due to Nontraumatic Small-Bowel Perforation and Anastomotic Leak: Cohort Study Unknown status NCT03690687
7 Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane(TAP) Block in Intensive Care Unit(ICU) for Postoperative Analgesia After Open Colon Resection: a Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03198338 0.25% Bupivacaine, 0.5mL/kg;Normal Saline
8 Evaluation of the Ability to Detect Bowel Gas During Laparoscopic Surgery Completed NCT02679118
9 Procalcitonin Ratio's Impact on the Decision Upon On-demand Relaparotomy in Septic Peritonitis Completed NCT01768936
10 Observational Study of Surgical Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolotis or Isolated Intestinal Perforation Completed NCT01223261
11 Intestinal Perforation in Patients Receiving an Orthtopic Liver Transplantation in the Montpellier University Hospital: a Retrospective and Observational Study. Completed NCT04180735
12 A Multi-center Randomized Trial of Laparotomy vs. Drainage as the Initial Surgical Therapy for ELBW Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) or Isolated Intestinal Perforation (IP): Outcomes at 18-22 Months Adjusted Age Completed NCT01029353
13 Effect of Continuous Thoracic Epidural Analgesia on Gut Motility Following Emergency Laparotomy for Intestinal Perforation Under General Anesthesia Completed NCT03145389
14 Early Supplementation of Enteral Lipid With Combination of Microlipid and Fish Oil in Infants With Enterostomy Completed NCT01306838 Early Phase 1
15 The Role of Indocyanine Green Angiography Fluorescence on Intestinal Resections in Pediatric Surgery. Completed NCT04020939 Indocyanine Green
16 Pathophysiology of Perioperative Fluid Management in Patients Un-dergoing High Risk Emergency Laparotomy, a Prospective Descriptive Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03997721
17 Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Versus Conventional Approach in Peptic Perforation-A Randomized Control Trial Recruiting NCT04194060
18 Standardized Perioperative Management of Patients Operated With Acute Abdominal Surgery in a High-risk Emergency Setting Recruiting NCT03549624
19 Prospective Registry The Treatment Of Upper And Lower Intestinal Anastomotic Leaks And Perforations Active, not recruiting NCT02477930
20 Is TIme From adMission to surgEry an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Patients With Gastro-intestinal Perforation Associated With Septic Shock: (TIME) An Italian Intersocietary Retrospective and Prospective Observational Trial Enrolling by invitation NCT04811755

Search NIH Clinical Center for Intestinal Perforation

Cochrane evidence based reviews: intestinal perforation

Genetic Tests for Intestinal Perforation

Anatomical Context for Intestinal Perforation

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Intestinal Perforation:

Bone, Colon, Liver, Heart, Kidney, Skin, Lung

Publications for Intestinal Perforation

Articles related to Intestinal Perforation:

(show top 50) (show all 2331)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy: A single-center experience underscoring the multiple factors involved in the prognosis. 61
33533561 2021
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after paediatric liver transplantation. 61
33222369 2021
Prophylactic efficacy of enteral antifungal administration of miconazole for intestinal perforation, especially for necrotizing enterocolitis: a historical cohort study at a single institution. 61
32886209 2021
Gastrointestinal and liver immune-related adverse effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: A descriptive observational study. 61
33153772 2021
Spontaneous Ileum Perforation in a premature twin with Coronavirus-19 positive mother. 61
33564621 2021
An encapsulated bulky abdominal abscess due to amoeba. 61
33428067 2021
Neurodevelopmental and Growth Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants with Short Bowel Syndrome. 61
33246015 2021
Discrepancy between the survival rate and neuropsychological development in postsurgical extremely low-birth-weight infants: a retrospective study over two decades at a single institution. 61
33427921 2021
The role of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in fetal neuroprotection. 61
31092073 2021
Galectin-4 as a Novel Biomarker of Neonatal Intestinal Injury. 61
33738671 2021
Patient-Reported Quality of Life Following Laparotomy in a Resource-Limited Setting. 61
33755753 2021
Recurrent Intestinal Perforation After Cessation of Immunosuppression in Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipient. 61
33751328 2021
Ulcerative colitis-related severe enteritis: an infrequent but serious complication after colectomy. 61
33155079 2021
Actionable Risk Model for the Development of Surgical Site Infection after Emergency Surgery. 61
32397903 2021
Gestational Age-Dependent Variations in Effects of Prophylactic Indomethacin on Brain Injury and Intestinal Injury. 61
33689709 2021
Digestive Tract Injuries Caused by Ingested Foreign Bodies Containing Magnets. 61
33713066 2021
Pancreatoduodenal Artery Aneurism rupture post colonoscopy - Case report. 61
33636405 2021
[Laparostoma-Avoidance and treatment of complications]. 61
33351159 2021
Colon perforation caused by transanal decompression tube after laparoscopic low anterior resection: A case report. 61
33609940 2021
Spontaneous intestinal perforation in premature infants: a national study. 61
33674711 2021
Association of Co-exposure of Antenatal Steroid and Prophylactic Indomethacin with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation. 61
33741365 2021
Intestinal Perforation Caused by Lumboperitoneal Shunt Insertion Repaired with an Over-the-Scope Clip. 61
33652515 2021
Case Report: Typhoid Fever Complicated by Ileal Perforation in an Urban Slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. 61
33755582 2021
Indications and Outcomes for Non-Trauma Emergency Laparotomy: A Comparison of Rwanda, South Africa, and the USA. 61
33225391 2021
Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Pregnancy from a Pre-Existing Postoperative Adhesion: A Case Report. 61
33051169 2021
Comparison of intra- and postoperative variables between laparoscopic and open ovariectomy in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 61
33629896 2021
[Intestinal perforation in patient with COVID-19 infection treated with tocilizumab and corticosteroids. Report of a clinical case]. 61
32402416 2021
Intestinal perforation secondary to intestinal Burkitt lymphoma. 61
33524798 2021
A Phase I/II Clinical Trial to evaluate the efficacy of baricitinib to prevent respiratory insufficiency progression in onco-hematological patients affected with COVID19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. 61
33546739 2021
Neonatal thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to factor I variant with Hirschsprung disease. 61
32514992 2021
Perforation of intestinal leiomyosarcoma: A case report. 61
33498000 2021
Introducing multi-modal enteral medication reduced morbidity and mortality associated with necrotising enterocolitis. 61
32640087 2021
Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. 61
32553453 2021
Recombinant Human Thrombomodulin has Additive Effects in Septic Patients Undergoing Continuous Hemodiafiltration due to Intestinal Perforation. 61
33595258 2021
Case report: Intestinal perforation and secondary peritonitis due to Acanthocephala infection in a black-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla). 61
32889100 2021
Rare cause of acute abdomen-cocaine-induced small intestinal perforation with coexisting lower gastrointestinal bleed: an unusual presentation. 61
33568413 2021
[A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung from Gastrointestinal Perforation Due to Small Intestinal Metastasis]. 61
33597383 2021
Experience sharing of conservative treatment after a 90-year-old male replacing the suprapubic bladder catheter enters the small intestine: A rare case report. 61
33477071 2021
Effects of Warmed and Humidified CO2 Surgical Site Insufflation in a Novel Experimental Model of Magnetic Compression Colonic Anastomosis. 61
33095686 2021
Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Device Applied for Two-stage Closure of Enterocutaneous Fistula. 61
33680642 2021
Successful colonoscopic removal of a foreign body that caused sigmoid colon perforation: a case report. 61
33530808 2021
Late Abdominal Reoperations after Surgery for Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation. 61
33440455 2021
Delay in achieving enteral autonomy and growth outcomes in very low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis. 61
33268832 2021
Neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal late-onset sepsis and blood culture-negative conditions. 61
33478957 2021
Micronutrient Monitoring and Management in Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Premature Neonates: A Case Series. 61
33603585 2021
Prolonged early antenatal indomethacin exposure is safe for fetus and neonate. 61
30905227 2021
Congenital Adhesion Band Presenting as Intestinal Perforation in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant. 61
33457073 2021
Antenatal Risk Factors Associated with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Preterm Infants Receiving Postnatal Indomethacin. 61
33453204 2021
Gastrointestinal Perforation With an Intraluminal Stent and Bevacizumab use in Advanced Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. 61
33628692 2021
Cessation of methotrexate and a small intestinal resection provide a good clinical course for a patient with a jejunum perforation induced by a methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder: a case report. 61
33388058 2021

Variations for Intestinal Perforation

Expression for Intestinal Perforation

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Intestinal Perforation.

Pathways for Intestinal Perforation

Pathways related to Intestinal Perforation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 27)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.47 TNF NOD2 NFKB1 IL6 CD4
Show member pathways
12.45 TNF NOS1 NFKB1 IL6 CD4
4 12.26 TNF NFKB1 IL6 CD4
5 12.16 TNF NOD2 NFKB1 IL6
6 12.15 TNF NOD2 NFKB1 IL6
9 11.95 TNF NFKB1 IL6 CD4
10 11.78 TNF NOD2 NFKB1 IL6
11 11.71 VEGFA TNF NFKB1 IL6
Show member pathways
11.69 TNF IL6 CD4
13 11.68 TNF NFKB1 IL6
14 11.67 TNF IL6 CD4
15 11.59 VEGFA TNF IL6 CTLA4
16 11.54 TNF NFKB1 IL6
17 11.48 VEGFA NFKB1 IL6
18 11.43 VEGFA TNF NFKB1
Show member pathways
20 11.42 TNF NFKB1 IL6
21 11.28 TNF NFKB1 IL6 CTLA4
22 11.21 TNF NFKB1 IL6
23 11.14 TNF NFKB1 IL6
24 11.1 TNF IL6 CD4
Show member pathways
26 10.91 TNF NOD2 NFKB1
27 10.71 TNF IL6 CRP

GO Terms for Intestinal Perforation

Cellular components related to Intestinal Perforation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 8.8 VEGFA SERPINA3 ALB

Biological processes related to Intestinal Perforation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.11 VEGFA TNF NOS1 NOD2 NKX2-1 NFKB1
2 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 10.01 TNF NOS1 NKX2-1 NFKB1 IL6 CD4
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.91 TNF SERPINA3 NFKB1 IL6 CRP
4 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.89 VEGFA TNF NOD2 CD4
5 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.88 VEGFA TNF SLCO3A1 CD4
6 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.78 VEGFA TNF IL6
7 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.76 TNF NOD2 NFKB1 IL6
8 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 9.72 VEGFA TNF NOD2
9 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.71 VEGFA NOD2 IL6 CD4
10 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.7 TNF NOD2 IL6
11 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 9.67 TNF NOD2 IL6
12 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.67 TNF NOD2 IL6 CRP
13 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.61 SERPINA3 IL6 CRP
14 cellular response to nicotine GO:0071316 9.6 TNF NFKB1
15 response to peptidoglycan GO:0032494 9.58 NOD2 IL6
16 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.56 TNF IL6
17 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.56 VEGFA NOD2 IL6 CD4
18 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 9.5 TNF NOD2 IL6
19 positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin GO:0002925 9.48 TNF NOD2
20 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation GO:0033138 9.46 VEGFA TNF NOS1 IL6
21 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.35 TNF SLCO3A1 NOD2 NFKB1 IL6
22 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 8.8 TNF IL6 CRP

Molecular functions related to Intestinal Perforation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity GO:0005391 9.16 ATP4A ATP12A
2 potassium-transporting ATPase activity GO:0008556 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
3 potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity GO:0008900 8.62 ATP4A ATP12A

Sources for Intestinal Perforation

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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