Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 11 75 43 14 16 71 31
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 11
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 11
Kwashiokor 11


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Disease Ontology 11 DOID:13579
ICD9CM 34 260
MeSH 43 D007732
SNOMED-CT 68 154730001
ICD10 31 E40
UMLS 71 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

Disease Ontology: 11 A protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by severe lack of protein and edema or anasarca, has symptom swelling, gastrointestinal upset, dehydration, thin dry skin, and cough, and has material basis in severe deficit of protein, resulting in lack of albumin causing decreased oncotic pressure in the vasculature and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and antidiuretic hormone.

MalaCards based summary: Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to diarrhea and hypokalemia, and has symptoms including swelling An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Lineage-specific Markers and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Azithromycin and Anti-Bacterial Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and breast, and related phenotype is cardiovascular system.

Wikipedia: 75 Kwashiorkor (/ˌkwɒʃiˈɔːrkɔːr, -kər/ KWOSH-ee-OR-kor, -⁠kər, UK also /ˌkwæʃ-/ KWASH-), or colloquially... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 677)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diarrhea 30.5 TTR LEP GPT ALB
2 hypokalemia 30.4 INS GPT ALB
3 marasmus 30.3 TTR LEP INS IGF1 CRP CD4
4 protein-energy malnutrition 30.2 TTR SHBG LEP IGF1 GPT ALB
5 pyridoxine deficiency 30.2 SLC17A5 GPT
6 nutritional deficiency disease 30.1 TTR LEP IGF1 F2 CRP ALB
7 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 29.7 LEP INS GPT CRP ALB
8 hypoglycemia 29.7 LEP INS IGF1 ALB
9 short bowel syndrome 29.7 TTR LEP IGF1
10 metabolic acidosis 29.7 IGF1 GPT F2 ALB
11 alcohol dependence 29.6 SLC17A5 LEP INS GPT ALB
12 exanthem 29.6 GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
13 alcoholic liver cirrhosis 29.6 LCAT INS GPT F2 ALB
14 sickle cell anemia 29.5 F2 CRP CD4 ALB
15 lactose intolerance 29.5 INS CRP ALB
16 anorexia nervosa 29.5 TTR SHBG LEP INS IGF1
17 portal hypertension 29.5 SLC17A5 IGF1 GPT F2 ALB
18 xerophthalmia 29.4 TTR CRP CD4
19 pericardial tuberculosis 29.4 CRP CD4
20 eating disorder 29.4 LEP INS IGF1
21 pericarditis 29.3 SLC17A5 LEP CRP
22 liver cirrhosis 29.3 TTR SLC17A5 LEP INS GPT F2
23 insulin-like growth factor i 29.3 SHBG LEP INS IGF1
24 dysentery 29.3 TTR CRP CD4 ALB
25 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 29.3 GPT CRP CD4
26 liver disease 29.1 SLC17A5 LEP INS GPT F2 ALB
27 peripheral vascular disease 29.1 LCAT INS F2 CRP ALB
28 cerebral palsy 29.0 LEP IGF1 F2 CRP ALB
29 chickenpox 29.0 GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
30 protein-losing enteropathy 28.9 TTR GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
31 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 28.9 IGF1 CRP CD4 ALB
32 glycogen storage disease 28.9 SHBG INS IGF1 CRP ALB
33 nephrotic syndrome 28.9 TTR LCAT INS F2 CRP CD4
34 thrombocytopenia 28.7 SLC17A5 GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
35 cystic fibrosis 28.6 LEP INS IGF1 CRP CD4 ANXA6
36 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 28.6 LEP INS IGF1 CRP CD4
37 malaria 28.6 INS IGF1 GPT F2 CRP CD4
38 deficiency anemia 28.5 TTR LEP LCAT INS IGF1 GPT
39 prediabetes syndrome 28.5 SHBG LEP INS IGF1 GPT CRP
40 skin disease 28.5 INS IGF1 GPT F2 CRP CD4
41 alcohol use disorder 28.5 SLC17A5 INS GPT F2 CRP CD4
42 celiac disease 1 28.3 LEP INS IGF1 GPT CRP CD4
43 vascular disease 28.3 TTR LEP INS IGF1 F2 CRP
44 lipid metabolism disorder 28.1 SLC17A5 SHBG LEP LCAT INS IGF1
45 hypertension, essential 27.2 TTR SHBG LEP LCAT INS IGF1
46 dipetalonemiasis 10.4 GPT ALB
47 nutmeg liver 10.4 GPT ALB
48 giant hemangioma 10.4 F2 ALB
49 heterophyiasis 10.4 GPT ALB
50 cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic, 20 10.3 F2 ALB

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney Disease
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia Paralytic Ileus
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor


  • swelling

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Kwashiorkor:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.32 ALB ANXA6 CRP F2 FAIM IGF1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 35)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043
2 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved 23593-75-1 2812
Levoleucovorin Approved, Experimental, Investigational 68538-85-2, 58-05-9, 73951-54-9 149436 6006
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical 52-90-4 594 5862
D-Phenylalanine Approved, Experimental, Investigational, Nutraceutical 63-91-2, 673-06-3 6140 71567
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-30-3 6037
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 22737-96-8, 68-26-8 5280382 445354
16 Antioxidants
17 Antiviral Agents
18 Anti-Retroviral Agents
19 Antimetabolites
20 Anti-HIV Agents
21 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
22 Trace Elements
23 Micronutrients
24 Caseins
25 Chelating Agents
26 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
27 Vitamins
28 Folate
29 Vitamin B9
30 Vitamin B Complex
31 Antifungal Agents
32 Retinol palmitate
33 Whey Protein
D-Alanine Experimental, Nutraceutical 302-72-7, 338-69-2, 56-41-7 101757026 602 71080 5950
D-Leucine Experimental, Investigational, Nutraceutical 328-38-1, 61-90-5 439524 6106

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 33)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy of Supplemental Protein, Delivered Alone or in Combination With Treatment for Enteric Pathogens, to Prevent Growth Faltering in Bangladeshi Infants Completed NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
2 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Unknown status NCT03355313
3 Comparative Effect of Protein Prescription Strategies on Nitrogen Balance and Upshots in Critically Ill Patients Unknown status NCT04468503
4 Acute Effect of Protein Intake During Dialysis on Intradialytic Blood Pressure, 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness Indices in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Unknown status NCT03947710
5 Developmental Contribution to Macronutrient Selection and Appetite Control in Adult Survivors of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Completed NCT02257593
6 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
7 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
8 Glutathione Homeostasis and Oxidant Damage in Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00069134
9 A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-optimized Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food, Compared to Standard RUTF, in the Therapy of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
10 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Community-based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
11 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
12 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers of Children < 5 Years Old Completed NCT01790815
13 ART Pharmacokinetics, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Antioxidant Capacity in Severely Malnourished HIV-infected Malawian Children Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
14 Impact of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery - a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind Pilot Study Completed NCT02001636 Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
15 Testing the Effectiveness and Acceptance of Home-delivered Protein-rich Meals and Foods on the Intake of Community-dwelling Older Adults. Completed NCT03032237
16 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence Dietary Smartphone Application on Nutritional Status Among Cancer Patients Completed NCT04643626
17 Evaluation of Protein Intake, Vitamin, Mineral, and Trace Element Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery According to the German S3 Guidelines - What Effects do Age, Sex, and Socio-economic Status Have on Adherence? Completed NCT04587076
18 Systemic Bioavailability of Enteral Protein-bound Versus Free Amino Acid Nutrition During Intestinal Malabsorption in Critical Illness Completed NCT04791774
19 Formative Research on the Use of Egg as a Nutritional Supplement for Young Bangladeshi Children and Breast Milk Nutrient Content of Bangladeshi Women Completed NCT03140696
20 Another Revisional Strategy to Address Severe Late Complications After Previous Biliopancreatic Diversion for Obesity: Major Revision From Standard Biliopancreatic Diversion to Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
21 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants (6 to 18 Months) Completed NCT03181178
22 One-stage Laparoscopic Revision of Failed and/or Complicated Jejunoileal Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
23 Does the Nutritionist's Educational Intervention Influence Protein Intake in Hospitalized Elderly People? Completed NCT05502445
24 The Underlying Causes Affecting the Response to Dietary Rehabilitation in Severely Acutely Malnourished Children at the Center Hôspitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Recruiting NCT05015257
25 The Underlying Causes Affecting the Response to Dietary Rehabilitation in Severely Acutely Malnourished Children at the Center Hôspitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Recruiting NCT05009823
26 The Underlying Causes Affecting the Response to Dietary Rehabilitation in Severely Acutely Malnourished Children at the Center Hôspitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Recruiting NCT05020847
27 Comparison of the Impacts of Pea, Lentil, and Oat Flour Particle Size on Glycemic Response, Protein Quality, and Food Intake in Healthy Adults Recruiting NCT05291351
28 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531
29 ELICIT 2.0: Pilot Study of the Effect of Maternal Protein Supplementation During Lactation on Childhood Growth Active, not recruiting NCT04565314
30 Impact of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition on Nutrition Markers in Patients Receiving In-Center Hemodialysis Active, not recruiting NCT05439174
31 Combining Oral Nutrition Supplementation With a Multicomponent Exercise Program in Elderly Malnourished Frail Patients After Hospital Stay A Feasibility Study Not yet recruiting NCT05325697
32 Influence of Optimization of Preoperative Nutritional Status on Perioperative Period in Cardiac Surgery in Patients With Frailty Not yet recruiting NCT05118165
33 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefit of Antihelminthic Therapy in the Community-Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

Organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

MalaCards : Skin, Liver, Breast, Thymus, Bone Marrow, Pancreas, Thyroid

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1829)
# Title Authors PMID Year
The effect of wasting and stunting during severe acute malnutrition in infancy on insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance in adult life. 62
35229708 2022
Protein malnutrition in BALB/C mice: A model mimicking clinical scenario of marasmic-kwashiorkor malnutrition. 62
36410663 2022
The Role of Food Insecurity and Dietary Diversity on Recovery from Wasting among Hospitalized Children Aged 6-23 Months in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. 62
36079736 2022
The Health Benefits of Egg Protein. 62
35889862 2022
Risk of Chronic Disease after an Episode of Marasmus, Kwashiorkor or Mixed-Type Severe Acute Malnutrition in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The Lwiro Follow-Up Study. 62
35745195 2022
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Gut-Liver Axis: Exploring an Undernutrition Perspective. 62
35248539 2022
Kwashiorkor - New evidence in the puzzle of oedema formation. 62
35598438 2022
Subclinical Kwashiorkor in Adults: A New Age Paradigm. 62
36248046 2022
The role of albumin and the extracellular matrix on the pathophysiology of oedema formation in severe malnutrition. 62
35398787 2022
Childhood mortality during and after acute illness in Africa and south Asia: a prospective cohort study. 62
35427524 2022
Organoleptic and Physicochemical Properties of Soy-Milk Yoghurt Enriched with Moringa Oleifera Root Powder. 62
35602409 2022
Time to recovery from severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among children aged 6-59 months at Asosa general hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A retrospective follow up study. 62
35960715 2022
Mechanisms of Kwashiorkor-Associated Immune Suppression: Insights From Human, Mouse, and Pig Studies. 62
35585989 2022
Commentary: Mechanisms of kwashiorkor-associated immune suppression: Insights from human, mouse, and pig studies. 62
35958616 2022
Refeeding Syndrome Developed in a Patient With Kwashiorkor Can Mimic Findings of Mitochondrial Disorder. 62
35519509 2022
One-carbon metabolism in children with marasmus and kwashiorkor. 62
35030356 2022
Strengthening the role of community health workers in supporting the recovery of ill, undernourished children post hospital discharge: qualitative insights from key stakeholders in Bangladesh and Kenya. 62
34775968 2021
Microbiota-Immune Interactions Regulate Metabolic Disease. 62
34544814 2021
Liver disease in obesity and underweight: the two sides of the coin. A narrative review. 62
33150534 2021
Flaky Paint Dermatosis in Kwashiorkor. 62
34607303 2021
Dietary intake of sulfur amino acids and risk of kwashiorkor malnutrition in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. 62
33963736 2021
Influence of Malnutrition on the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Used in the Treatment of Poverty-Related Diseases: A Systematic Review. 62
34060020 2021
Genomic description and characterization of Nigeribacterium massiliense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the human gut. 62
34020025 2021
Kwashiorkor on the south shore. 62
34211663 2021
"No one may starve in the British Empire": Kwashiorkor, Protein and the Politics of Nutrition Between Britain and Africa. 62
34084092 2021
Response of the microbiome-gut-brain axis in Drosophila to amino acid deficit. 62
33953396 2021
Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition-Associated Hepatic Steatosis in a Woman Who Had Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity Thirteen Years Ago. 62
34007356 2021
Selective Eating in Autism Spectrum Disorder Leading to Kwashiorkor and Brain Edema. 62
33485032 2021
Secondary Kwashiorkor Disease in a Patient with Gastric Bypass Surgery and Short Gut Syndrome. 62
33536404 2021
Kwashiorkor-like dermatosis: a rare presentation of cystic fibrosis. 62
32931600 2021
Difference between kwashiorkor and marasmus: Comparative meta-analysis of pathogenic characteristics and implications for treatment. 62
33359074 2021
Educational Case: Understanding Kwashiorkor and Marasmus: Disease Mechanisms and Pathologic Consequences. 62
34458565 2021
Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: A commentary on the association-causation conundrum. 62
33301766 2021
Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Deficiency Inhibit Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme mRNA Translation by Multiple Mechanisms. 62
32735995 2021
Reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in protein malnourished human-faecal-microbiota-transplanted gnotobiotic pig model is in part attributed to the gut microbiota. 62
33245014 2020
Aflatoxins in organs and biological samples from children affected by kwashiorkor, marasmus and marasmic-kwashiorkor: A scoping review. 62
32693007 2020
North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper: Plant-based Milks. 62
32732790 2020
Risk factors for mortality and management of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi. 62
32242509 2020
mSphere of Influence: Microbiome-Associated Phenotypes Are Modifiable. 62
32611702 2020
Phenotype is sustained during hospital readmissions following treatment for complicated severe malnutrition among Kenyan children: A retrospective cohort study. 62
31756291 2020
Effect of Malnutrition on Hearing Loss in Children. 62
31821252 2020
An infant with kwashiorkor: The forgotten disease. 62
32843945 2020
Follow-up of a historic cohort of children treated for severe acute malnutrition between 1988 and 2007 in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. 62
32160220 2020
Edematous severe acute malnutrition is characterized by hypomethylation of DNA. 62
31857576 2019
Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis. 62
30897613 2019
An unusual case of pericardial effusion. 62
31475645 2019
Lysosome-Rich Enterocytes Mediate Protein Absorption in the Vertebrate Gut. 62
31474562 2019
Gut Microbiota Alteration is Characterized by a Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria Bloom in Kwashiorkor and a Bacteroidetes Paucity in Marasmus. 62
31235833 2019
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. 62
30212637 2019
Assessment of Myocardial Function in Kenyan Children With Severe, Acute Malnutrition: The Cardiac Physiology in Malnutrition (CAPMAL) Study. 62
30901050 2019

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.11 LEP INS IGF1
Show member pathways
10.56 TTR INS F2 ALB

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.96 TTR SHBG LEP LCN1 LCAT INS
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.6 TTR LEP LCN1 LCAT INS IGF1

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.86 LEP INS IGF1 CD4
2 bone mineralization involved in bone maturation GO:0035630 9.46 LEP IGF1
3 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.43 INS F2 CRP
4 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.23 LEP INS IGF1 F2

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.23 TTR LEP INS IGF1

Sources for Kwashiorkor

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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