Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 74 44 15 17 71 32
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD9CM 34 260
MeSH 44 D007732
SNOMED-CT 67 154730001
ICD10 32 E40
UMLS 71 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

Disease Ontology : 12 A protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by severe lack of protein and edema or anasarca, has symptom swelling, gastrointestinal upset, dehydration, thin dry skin, and cough, and has material basis in severe deficit of protein, resulting in lack of albumin causing decreased oncotic pressure in the vasculature and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and antidiuretic hormone.

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and protein-energy malnutrition, and has symptoms including swelling An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Folate Metabolism and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Azithromycin and Anti-Infective Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, pancreas and brain.

Wikipedia : 74 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 514)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 31.1 TTR SHBG INS CD4 ANXA6 ALB
2 protein-energy malnutrition 30.9 TTR SHBG GPT ALB
3 pyridoxine deficiency anemia 30.0 SLC17A5 GPT F2
4 anorexia nervosa 29.9 TTR SHBG INS
5 sickle cell anemia 29.8 GPT F2 CRP ALB
6 liver disease 29.8 SLC17A5 INS GPT F2 ALB
7 exanthem 29.8 GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
8 xerophthalmia 29.6 TTR CRP CD4
9 cholestasis 29.5 SLC17A5 LCAT GPT F2 ALB
10 nutritional deficiency disease 29.5 TTR F2 CRP ALB
11 chickenpox 29.5 CRP CD4 ALB
12 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 29.5 GPT CRP CD4
13 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 29.3 INS GPT CRP ALB
14 deficiency anemia 29.3 TTR LCAT INS CRP ALB
15 liver cirrhosis 29.3 TTR SLC17A5 INS GPT F2 CRP
16 dysentery 29.3 TTR GPT CRP CD4 ALB
17 portal hypertension 29.1 INS GPT F2 CD4 ALB
18 vascular disease 28.7 LCAT INS F2 CRP CD4 ALB
19 malaria 28.6 INS GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
20 celiac disease 1 28.2 LALBA INS GPT CRP CD4 ALB
21 hypertension, essential 28.2 SHBG LCAT INS GPT F2 CRP
22 dipetalonemiasis 10.4 GPT ALB
23 non-a-e hepatitis 10.4 F2 ALB
24 antipyrine metabolism 10.4 F2 ALB
25 heterophyiasis 10.4 GPT ALB
26 afferent loop syndrome 10.4 GPT ALB
27 familial lcat deficiency 10.4 LCAT ALB
28 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.4 GPT F2
29 hypertensive encephalopathy 10.4 F2 ALB
30 paraquat poisoning 10.3 SLC17A5 GPT
31 peliosis hepatis 10.3 GPT F2
32 parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis 10.3 SLC17A5 GPT
33 active peptic ulcer disease 10.3 F2 ALB
34 bile duct cysts 10.3 GPT ALB
35 inhibited female orgasm 10.3 SHBG ALB
36 cholecystitis 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
37 methotrexate toxicity 10.3 SLC17A5 GPT
38 hepatic infarction 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
39 dicrocoeliasis 10.3 GPT ALB
40 hepatic coma 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
41 klatskin's tumor 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
42 reye syndrome 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
43 hepatorenal syndrome 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
44 chronic duodenal ileus 10.3 CRP ALB
45 fatty liver disease 10.3
46 hepatitis e 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
47 acute kidney failure 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
48 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.3 GPT F2 ALB
49 mixed cerebral palsy 10.3 TTR SHBG
50 orbital osteomyelitis 10.3 F2 CRP

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 13)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Iron Deficiency Anemia
Paralytic Ileus Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Respiratory Failure Schizophreniform Disorder
Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor


  • swelling

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 55185 447043
2 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical 52-90-4 5862
10 Antioxidants
11 Anti-HIV Agents
12 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
13 Antiviral Agents
14 Antimetabolites
15 Anti-Retroviral Agents
16 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
17 Trace Elements
18 Vitamins
19 Micronutrients
20 Whey Protein
21 Nutrients
L-Alanine Nutraceutical 56-41-7 5950
Leucine Investigational, Nutraceutical 61-90-5 6106

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 25)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized Controlled Trial of a Reduced Carbohydrate Formulation of F75 Therapeutic Milk Among Children With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Efficacy of Supplemental Protein, Delivered Alone or in Combination With Treatment for Enteric Pathogens, to Prevent Growth Faltering in Bangladeshi Infants Active, not recruiting NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
3 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Unknown status NCT03355313
4 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
5 Glutathione Homeostasis and Oxidant Damage in Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00069134
6 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
7 Developmental Contribution to Macronutrient Selection and Appetite Control in Adult Survivors of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Completed NCT02257593
8 A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-optimized Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food, Compared to Standard RUTF, in the Therapy of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
9 ART Pharmacokinetics, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Antioxidant Capacity in Severely Malnourished HIV-infected Malawian Children Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
10 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Community-based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
11 Impact of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery - a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind Pilot Study Completed NCT02001636 Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
12 Another Revisional Strategy to Address Severe Late Complications After Previous Biliopancreatic Diversion for Obesity: Major Revision From Standard Biliopancreatic Diversion to Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
13 Evaluation of Protein Intake, Vitamin, Mineral, and Trace Element Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery According to the German S3 Guidelines - What Effects do Age, Sex, and Socio-economic Status Have on Adherence? Completed NCT04587076
14 One-stage Laparoscopic Revision of Failed and/or Complicated Jejunoileal Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
15 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers of Children < 5 Years Old Completed NCT01790815
16 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
17 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants (6 to 18 Months) Completed NCT03181178
18 Testing the Effectiveness and Acceptance of Home-delivered Protein-rich Meals and Foods on the Intake of Community-dwelling Older Adults. Completed NCT03032237
19 ELICIT 2.0: Pilot Study of the Effect of Maternal Protein Supplementation During Lactation on Childhood Growth Recruiting NCT04565314
20 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531
21 Formative Research on the Use of Egg as a Nutritional Supplement for Young Bangladeshi Children and Breast Milk Nutrient Content of Bangladeshi Women Recruiting NCT03140696
22 Acute Effect of Protein Intake During Dialysis on Intradialytic Blood Pressure, 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness Indices in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Recruiting NCT03947710
23 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence Dietary Smartphone Application on Nutritional Status Among Cancer Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04643626
24 Comparative Effect of Protein Prescription Strategies on Nitrogen Balance and Upshots in Critically Ill Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04468503
25 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefit of Antihelminthic Therapy in the Community-Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

Skin, Pancreas, Brain, Thyroid, Bone Marrow, Breast, Thymus

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1780)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Secondary Kwashiorkor Disease in a Patient with Gastric Bypass Surgery and Short Gut Syndrome. 61
33536404 2021
Kwashiorkor-like dermatosis: a rare presentation of cystic fibrosis. 61
32931600 2021
Difference between kwashiorkor and marasmus: Comparative meta-analysis of pathogenic characteristics and implications for treatment. 61
33359074 2021
Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: A commentary on the association-causation conundrum. 61
33301766 2021
Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Deficiency Inhibit Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme mRNA Translation by Multiple Mechanisms. 61
32735995 2021
Selective Eating in Autism Spectrum Disorder Leading to Kwashiorkor and Brain Edema. 61
33485032 2020
Reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in protein malnourished human-faecal-microbiota-transplanted gnotobiotic pig model is in part attributed to the gut microbiota. 61
33245014 2020
Liver disease in obesity and underweight: the two sides of the coin. A narrative review. 61
33150534 2020
Aflatoxins in organs and biological samples from children affected by kwashiorkor, marasmus and marasmic-kwashiorkor: A scoping review. 61
32693007 2020
North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper: Plant-based Milks. 61
32732790 2020
Risk factors for mortality and management of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi. 61
32242509 2020
mSphere of Influence: Microbiome-Associated Phenotypes Are Modifiable. 61
32611702 2020
Phenotype is sustained during hospital readmissions following treatment for complicated severe malnutrition among Kenyan children: A retrospective cohort study. 61
31756291 2020
Effect of Malnutrition on Hearing Loss in Children. 61
31821252 2020
An infant with kwashiorkor: The forgotten disease. 61
32843945 2020
Follow-up of a historic cohort of children treated for severe acute malnutrition between 1988 and 2007 in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. 61
32160220 2020
Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis. 61
30897613 2019
Edematous severe acute malnutrition is characterized by hypomethylation of DNA. 61
31857576 2019
An unusual case of pericardial effusion. 61
31475645 2019
Lysosome-Rich Enterocytes Mediate Protein Absorption in the Vertebrate Gut. 61
31474562 2019
Gut Microbiota Alteration is Characterized by a Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria Bloom in Kwashiorkor and a Bacteroidetes Paucity in Marasmus. 61
31235833 2019
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. 61
30212637 2019
Assessment of Myocardial Function in Kenyan Children With Severe, Acute Malnutrition: The Cardiac Physiology in Malnutrition (CAPMAL) Study. 61
30901050 2019
Presence of unreported carcinogens, Aflatoxins and their hydroxylated metabolites, in industrialized Oaxaca cheese from Mexico City. 61
30468840 2019
Nutrition, the visceral immune system, and the evolutionary origins of pathogenic obesity. 61
30598443 2019
Time-to-recovery from severe acute malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age enrolled in the outpatient treatment program in Shebedino, Southern Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study. 61
30691437 2019
Acute kwashiorkor in the setting of cerebral palsy and pancreatic insufficiency. 61
30758347 2019
Lost in Aggregation: The Geographic Distribution of Kwashiorkor in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. 61
30136596 2018
Acute presentation of post-operative kwashiorkor and refeeding syndrome complicated by chronic Strongyloides infection in an elderly patient. 61
30182412 2018
Filling the Gaps for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Community-Based Programs Combining Treatment and Prevention of Child Malnutrition: Results from the Rainbow Project 2015⁻17 in Zambia. 61
30131480 2018
The Nail Flag Sign: Case Report in a Man with Diverticulitis and Review of Dermatology Flag Sign of the Hair, Skin, and Nails. 61
30197851 2018
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. 61
29786674 2018
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? 61
29703355 2018
Importance of Serum Amino Acid Profile for Induction of Hepatic Steatosis under Protein Malnutrition. 61
29615653 2018
Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia. 61
30533212 2018
Modifying Intestinal Integrity and Micro Biome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial. 61
30345381 2018
Aflatoxin exposure in Nigerian children with severe acute malnutrition. 61
29175577 2018
Outcomes of children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition at the GADO Outpatient Therapeutic Center in Cameroon. 61
29361980 2018
Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) shows strong geographical variations in children with edema: results from 2277 surveys in 55 countries. 61
30181875 2018
Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study. 61
29302321 2017
Genome sequence and description of Mobilicoccus massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. 61
29158905 2017
The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood. 61
29130721 2017
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. 61
28984257 2017
Severe childhood malnutrition. 61
28933421 2017
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. 61
28289546 2017
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. 61
28537869 2017
[Acute malnutrition in children]. 61
28504629 2017
Myocardial and haemodynamic responses to two fluid regimens in African children with severe malnutrition and hypovolaemic shock (AFRIM study). 61
28468633 2017
Molecular Evidence for Differential Long-term Outcomes of Early Life Severe Acute Malnutrition. 61
28330812 2017
Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study. 61
28279227 2017

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.59 INS F2 CRP ALB
2 10.57 TTR INS F2 ALB
3 10.36 INS GPT

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 TTR SHBG LCN1 LCAT LALBA INS
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.46 INS F2 CD4 ALB
3 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.43 LALBA INS F2
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 TTR LCN1 LCAT LALBA INS GPT

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.26 TTR INS F2 ALB
2 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 9.16 LCAT ALB
3 acute-phase response GO:0006953 8.8 INS F2 CRP

Sources for Kwashiorkor

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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