MCID: KWS001
MIFTS: 45

Kwashiorkor

Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 76 44 15 73
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD10 33 E40
ICD9CM 35 260
MeSH 44 D007732
SNOMED-CT 68 58262005
UMLS 73 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and ariboflavinosis. An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination) and Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. The drugs Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, skin and testes, and related phenotype is homeostasis/metabolism.

Wikipedia : 76 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 153)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 32.3 ALB SHBG TF TTR
2 ariboflavinosis 30.0 ALB TF
3 keratomalacia 29.9 TF TTR
4 protein-energy malnutrition 29.9 ALB GPT TF TTR
5 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 29.9 GPT SLC17A5
6 pure red-cell aplasia 29.8 ALB TF
7 portal hypertension 29.8 ALB F2 GPT
8 hepatitis 29.7 F2 GPT SLC17A5
9 liver disease 29.6 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TF
10 liver cirrhosis 28.8 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TF TTR
11 fatty liver disease 10.3
12 pellagra 10.2
13 antipyrine metabolism 10.2 ALB F2
14 non-a-e hepatitis 10.2 ALB F2
15 fournier gangrene 10.2 ALB F2
16 abdominal tuberculosis 10.2 ALB F2
17 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.2 F2 GPT
18 splenic disease 10.2 ALB F2
19 familial lcat deficiency 10.2 ALB LCAT
20 esophageal varix 10.2 ALB F2
21 ascending cholangitis 10.2 ALB F2
22 hepatitis d 10.2 F2 GPT
23 hypersplenism 10.2 ALB F2
24 hepatorenal syndrome 10.2 ALB F2
25 autoimmune disease of urogenital tract 10.2 ALB F2
26 paraquat poisoning 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
27 hepatic vascular disease 10.2 ALB F2
28 pyridoxine deficiency 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
29 pulmonary artery disease 10.2 ALB F2
30 dysfibrinogenemia 10.2 ALB F2
31 vein disease 10.2 ALB F2
32 intermittent claudication 10.1 ALB F2
33 legionnaires' disease 10.1 ALB SLC17A5
34 arcus corneae 10.1 ALB LCAT
35 scrub typhus 10.1 GPT SLC17A5
36 fetal erythroblastosis 10.1 ALB SHBG
37 typhoid fever 10.1 ALB F2
38 meningoencephalitis 10.1 ALB SLC17A5
39 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.1 ALB F2
40 biliary tract disease 10.1 ALB F2
41 cholelithiasis 10.1 ALB GPT
42 yellow nail syndrome 10.1 ALB TF
43 lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency 10.1 ALB LCAT
44 hepatic tuberculosis 10.1 ALB F2 GPT
45 hepatic coma 10.1 ALB F2 GPT
46 orbital cyst 10.1 F2 TF
47 hemorrhagic fever 10.1 ALB F2 GPT
48 hepatitis e 10.1 ALB F2 GPT
49 homocysteinemia 10.1 ALB F2
50 bile duct disease 10.1 ALB F2 GPT

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney Failure
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia Paralytic Ileus
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:



Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Kwashiorkor:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.17 ALB F2 GPT2 LCAT SLC17A5 TF

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 45)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
2
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
3
Lactulose Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
4
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 80621-81-4 6436173
5
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 55185 447043
6 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
7 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
8 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
9 Renal Agents Phase 3
10 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
11 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3
12 Antimalarials Phase 3
13 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
14 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
15 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
20
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved 50-03-3
21
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved 50-23-7 5754
22
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
23
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
24
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
25
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 26787-78-0 33613
26
Cefdinir Approved Not Applicable 91832-40-5 6915944
27 Cortisol succinate
28 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
29 Antioxidants Not Applicable
30 cysteine Not Applicable
31 alanine Not Applicable
32 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
33 Anti-HIV Agents
34 Antiviral Agents
35 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
36 Anti-Retroviral Agents
37 Antimetabolites
38 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
39 Whey Protein Not Applicable
40 Micronutrients Not Applicable
41 Trace Elements Not Applicable
42 leucine Not Applicable
43 Anesthetics
44 Vitamins Not Applicable
45 Soy Bean Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 33)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reformulated F75 Milk to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Severely Malnourished Children Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
3 Growth Hormone Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Recruiting NCT03420144 Phase 2, Phase 3 Standard Medical Therapy;Growth Hormone
4 Protein Plus: Improving Infant Growth Through Diet and Enteric Health Recruiting NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
5 Testing the Developmental Origins Hypothesis Unknown status NCT01545492
6 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
7 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
8 Study of Antioxidants and Oxidants in Malnourished Children Completed NCT00069134 Not Applicable
9 Effect of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery Completed NCT02001636 Not Applicable Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
10 Developmental Adaptation to an Obesogenic Environment Completed NCT02257593 Not Applicable
11 Safety and Metabolic Study of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Malnourished Children With HIV Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
12 Pilot Study of PUFA-optimized RUTF for Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Not Applicable Amoxicillin
13 Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT01000298 Not Applicable Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
14 Increase Protein Intake of Older Meal Service Clients With Readymade Protein-rich Meals and Foods Completed NCT03032237 Not Applicable
15 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers Completed NCT01790815
16 Laparoscopic Revision From Biliopancreatic Diversion to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
17 Intra Hemodialytic Oral Protein and Exercise (IHOPE) Completed NCT01234441 Not Applicable
18 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants Completed NCT03181178 Not Applicable
19 Sixteen Years Trends in Reported Undernutrition in Switzerland Completed NCT03239093
20 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
21 Laparoscopic Revision of Jejunoileal Bypass to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
22 Formative Research Study to Address Protein Intake in Children and Analysis of Breast Milk Nutrient Content in Mothers Recruiting NCT03140696 Not Applicable
23 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531 Not Applicable
24 Protein Supplementation Impact On Body Muscle Mass And Fat Mass In Qataris Post Bariatric Surgery, Randomized Controlled Trials (Rct) Recruiting NCT03147456 Not Applicable
25 Pilot Suty of the Assessment of Food Preferences After Bariatric Surgery (BariaTaste Pilot) Recruiting NCT03486210
26 Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal Bypass With Sleeve Gastrectomy (SADI-S): A Prospective Cohort Study Recruiting NCT02792166 Not Applicable
27 Egg White for Phosphorus Control in Haemodialysis Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03236701 Not Applicable
28 Nutritional Rehabilitation in Senegalese HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Active, not recruiting NCT03101852 Not Applicable
29 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Enrolling by invitation NCT03355313 Not Applicable
30 Loop Duodenal Switch Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients Terminated NCT02671331
31 Bariatric Surgery for ESRD Patients vs Control Terminated NCT00580762 Not Applicable
32 Effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding During Infection Among Moderately Malnourished Children Terminated NCT00890695 Not Applicable
33 Effectiveness of Oral Albendazole in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Withdrawn NCT01395381 Not Applicable Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

41
Liver, Skin, Testes, Bone, Heart, Thyroid, Kidney

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1002)
# Title Authors Year
1
Kwashiorkor ( 29939653 )
2018
2
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. ( 29786674 )
2018
3
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? ( 29703355 )
2018
4
Lost in Aggregation: The Geographic Distribution of Kwashiorkor in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ( 30136596 )
2018
5
Acute presentation of post-operative kwashiorkor and refeeding syndrome complicated by chronic Strongyloides infection in an elderly patient. ( 30182412 )
2018
6
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. ( 30212637 )
2018
7
Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia. ( 30533212 )
2018
8
Genome sequence and description of<i>Mobilicoccus massiliensis</i>sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. ( 29158905 )
2017
9
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. ( 28537869 )
2017
10
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. ( 28984257 )
2017
11
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. ( 28289546 )
2017
12
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. ( 27852657 )
2016
13
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. ( 27330815 )
2016
14
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. ( 26908419 )
2016
15
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor. ( 26236384 )
2015
16
A kwashiorkor case due to the use of an exclusive rice milk diet to treat atopic dermatitis. ( 26293684 )
2015
17
Nutritional and other types of oedema, albumin, complex carbohydrates and the interstitium - a response to Malcolm Coulthard's hypothesis: Oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypo-albuminaemia. ( 25844980 )
2015
18
Effects of induced-kwashiorkor on salivary parameters in Wistar rats. ( 26937525 )
2015
19
Letter to the editor. Defence of my hypothesis that the oedema of kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25975279 )
2015
20
Depression of neutrophil function followed by severe infection in a child with Marasmic Kwashiorkor. ( 26076789 )
2015
21
Secondary Kwashiorkor: A Rare Complication of Gastric Bypass Surgery. ( 25498166 )
2014
22
Flaky paint dermatosis. Kwashiorkor. ( 24285001 )
2014
23
Hypothesis: oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25223408 )
2014
24
Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature. ( 24661336 )
2014
25
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor developing after bypass surgery. ( 23659833 )
2014
26
Dermatitis and dangerous diets: a case of kwashiorkor. ( 24807070 )
2014
27
Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo. ( 24765584 )
2014
28
Acute inpatient presentation of kwashiorkor: not just a diagnosis of the developing world. ( 22471276 )
2013
29
Improvised peritoneal dialysis in an 18-month-old child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and acute kidney injury: a case report. ( 23809461 )
2013
30
Decreased metabolism of 13C-caffeine via hepatic CYP1A2 in marasmus and kwashiorkor based on breath test. ( 24114907 )
2013
31
Kwashiorkor and the gut microbiota. ( 23635056 )
2013
32
Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor. ( 23363771 )
2013
33
Kwashiorkor in India. 1955. ( 23045746 )
2012
34
Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model. ( 22558267 )
2012
35
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are both associated with impaired glucose clearance related to pancreatic I^-cell dysfunction. ( 22386944 )
2012
36
Kwashiorkor. ( 23045745 )
2012
37
Using of WHO guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition to cases of marasmus and kwashiorkor in a Colombia children's hospital. ( 22072341 )
2011
38
Cutaneous manifestations of kwashiorkor: a case report of an adult man after abdominal surgery. ( 22281907 )
2011
39
Iatrogenic Kwashiorkor in three infants on a diet of rice beverages. ( 22122793 )
2011
40
Kwashiorkor from a severe dietary restriction in an 8-month infant in suburban Detroit, Michigan: case report and review of the literature. ( 20534082 )
2010
41
INCAP studies of kwashiorkor and marasmus. ( 20461902 )
2010
42
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in kwashiorkor. ( 20128668 )
2010
43
Hartnup disease masked by kwashiorkor. ( 20824986 )
2010
44
Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. ( 20393967 )
2010
45
Cutaneous presentation of kwashiorkor due to infantile Crohn's disease. ( 19352699 )
2010
46
Kwashiorkor: more hypothesis testing is needed to understand the aetiology of oedema. ( 20345018 )
2009
47
Reduced production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans occurs in Zambian children with kwashiorkor but not marasmus. ( 19116330 )
2009
48
Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor. ( 20499782 )
2009
49
75 years of Kwashiorkor in Africa. ( 20345016 )
2009
50
Kwashiorkor and severe acute malnutrition in childhood. ( 18502290 )
2008

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.87 GPT GPT2
2 10.7 GPT GPT2
3 10.44 ALB F2 TTR
4
Show member pathways
10.37 GPT GPT2

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.73 ALB F2 LCAT SHBG TF TTR
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.5 ALB F2 TF
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.43 ALB F2 GPT LCAT TF TTR
4 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.33 ALB F2 TF
5 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.17 ALB F2 GPT LCAT SHBG TF

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process GO:0008652 9.37 GPT GPT2
2 retina homeostasis GO:0001895 9.32 ALB TF
3 biosynthetic process GO:0009058 9.26 GPT GPT2
4 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.26 ALB F2 TF TTR
5 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 9.16 ALB LCAT
6 L-alanine catabolic process GO:0042853 8.62 GPT GPT2

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transaminase activity GO:0008483 9.16 GPT GPT2
2 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 9.13 ALB GPT GPT2
3 L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity GO:0004021 8.62 GPT GPT2

Sources for Kwashiorkor

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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