Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 74 43 15 17 71 32
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD9CM 34 260
MeSH 43 D007732
SNOMED-CT 67 58262005
ICD10 32 E40
UMLS 71 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

Disease Ontology : 12 A protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by severe lack of protein and edema or anasarca, has symptom swelling, gastrointestinal upset, dehydration, thin dry skin, and cough, and has material basis in severe deficit of protein, resulting in lack of albumin causing decreased oncotic pressure in the vasculature and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and antidiuretic hormone.

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and protein-energy malnutrition, and has symptoms including swelling An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Folate Metabolism and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Ceftriaxone and Methionine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and testes.

Wikipedia : 74 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 458)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 31.4 TTR SHBG OTP INS CD4 ANXA6
2 protein-energy malnutrition 31.1 TTR SHBG GPT ALB
3 anemia, x-linked, with or without neutropenia and/or platelet abnormalities 30.6 TTR CRP ALB
4 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 30.5 SLC17A5 INS GPT
5 liver cirrhosis 30.4 TTR SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
6 pyridoxine deficiency anemia 30.3 SLC17A5 GPT F2
7 sickle cell anemia 30.2 F2 CRP ALB
8 fatty liver disease 30.1 SLC17A5 INS GPT CRP ALB
9 cholestasis 29.8 SLC17A5 LCAT GPT F2 ALB
10 exanthem 29.8 GPT F2 CRP CD4 ALB
11 liver disease 29.7 TTR SLC17A5 INS GPT F2 ALB
12 nutritional deficiency disease 29.6 TTR F2 CRP ALB
13 chickenpox 29.6 CRP CD4 ALB
14 pericarditis 29.6 CRP CD4 ALB
15 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 29.5 GPT CRP CD4
16 pancreatitis 29.5 SLC17A5 INS CRP ALB
17 glycogen storage disease 29.4 SLC17A5 INS CRP ALB
18 pneumonia 29.4 TTR GPT F2 CRP ALB
19 portal hypertension 29.2 INS GPT F2 CD4 ALB
20 dysentery 29.2 TTR GPT CRP CD4 ALB
21 vascular disease 28.6 LCAT INS F2 CRP CD4 ALB
22 malaria 28.4 TTR INS GPT F2 CRP CD4
23 celiac disease 1 28.2 LALBA INS CRP CD4 ALB
24 heart disease 28.2 TTR INS GPT F2 CRP CD4
25 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 28.0 SLC17A5 SHBG LCAT INS GPT CRP
26 hypertension, essential 27.6 TTR SHBG LCAT INS GPT F2
27 diabetes mellitus 27.6 TTR SHBG LCAT INS GPT F2
28 non-a-e hepatitis 10.6 F2 ALB
29 antipyrine metabolism 10.6 F2 ALB
30 dipetalonemiasis 10.6 GPT ALB
31 heterophyiasis 10.5 GPT ALB
32 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.5 GPT F2
33 familial lcat deficiency 10.5 LCAT ALB
34 fournier gangrene 10.5 F2 ALB
35 diarrhea 10.5
36 paraquat poisoning 10.5 SLC17A5 GPT
37 parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis 10.5 SLC17A5 GPT
38 hypertensive encephalopathy 10.4 F2 ALB
39 cholecystitis 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
40 hepatic tuberculosis 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
41 hepatic infarction 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
42 hepatic coma 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
43 esophageal varix 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
44 drug-induced hepatitis 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
45 hepatorenal syndrome 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
46 methotrexate toxicity 10.4 SLC17A5 GPT
47 protein-deficiency anemia 10.4 INS F2
48 hepatitis e 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
49 acute kidney failure 10.4 GPT F2 ALB
50 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.4 GPT F2 ALB

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 13)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Iron Deficiency Anemia
Paralytic Ileus Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Respiratory Failure Schizophreniform Disorder
Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor


  • swelling

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 32)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ceftriaxone Approved Phase 4 73384-59-5 5361919 5479530
Methionine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 63-68-3 6137
3 Trace Elements Phase 4
4 Micronutrients Phase 4
5 Soy Bean Phase 4
6 lysine Phase 4
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
10 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
11 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
12 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
13 Antimalarials Phase 3
14 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical 52-90-4 5862
22 Anti-HIV Agents
23 Antioxidants
24 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
25 Antiviral Agents
26 Antimetabolites
27 Anti-Retroviral Agents
28 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
29 Nutrients
30 Whey Protein
L-Alanine Nutraceutical 56-41-7 5950
Leucine Investigational, Nutraceutical 61-90-5 6106

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 24)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Day-care Based and Hospitalized Management of Severe and Very Severe Pneumonia, With Severe Malnutrition, With/Without Associated Co-morbidities in Children Completed NCT00968370 Phase 4
2 Effectiveness, Tolerability and Safety of Standardized Milk-based, Standardized Non-milk Based and Hospital-based Formulations in the Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Underfive Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04323059 Phase 4
3 Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Amongst HIV-uninfected Children With Severe Malnutrition Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
4 Randomized Controlled Trial of a Reduced Carbohydrate Formulation of F75 Therapeutic Milk Among Children With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Efficacy of Supplemental Protein, Delivered Alone or in Combination With Treatment for Enteric Pathogens, to Prevent Growth Faltering in Bangladeshi Infants Recruiting NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
6 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Unknown status NCT03355313
7 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
8 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
9 ART Pharmacokinetics, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Antioxidant Capacity in Severely Malnourished HIV-infected Malawian Children Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
10 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Community-based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
11 Glutathione Homeostasis and Oxidant Damage in Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00069134
12 A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-optimized Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food, Compared to Standard RUTF, in the Therapy of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
13 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
14 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers of Children < 5 Years Old Completed NCT01790815
15 Developmental Contribution to Macronutrient Selection and Appetite Control in Adult Survivors of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Completed NCT02257593
16 Impact of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery - a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind Pilot Study Completed NCT02001636 Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
17 Testing the Effectiveness and Acceptance of Home-delivered Protein-rich Meals and Foods on the Intake of Community-dwelling Older Adults. Completed NCT03032237
18 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants (6 to 18 Months) Completed NCT03181178
19 Another Revisional Strategy to Address Severe Late Complications After Previous Biliopancreatic Diversion for Obesity: Major Revision From Standard Biliopancreatic Diversion to Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
20 One-stage Laparoscopic Revision of Failed and/or Complicated Jejunoileal Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
21 Formative Research on the Use of Egg as a Nutritional Supplement for Young Bangladeshi Children and Breast Milk Nutrient Content of Bangladeshi Women Recruiting NCT03140696
22 Acute Effect of Protein Intake During Dialysis on Intradialytic Blood Pressure, 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness Indices in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Recruiting NCT03947710
23 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531
24 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefit of Antihelminthic Therapy in the Community-Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

Skin, Liver, Testes, Bone, Heart, Pancreas, Thyroid

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1772)
# Title Authors PMID Year
NASPGHAN Position Paper: Plant-Based Milks. 61
32459740 2020
Phenotype is sustained during hospital readmissions following treatment for complicated severe malnutrition among Kenyan children: A retrospective cohort study. 61
31756291 2020
Risk factors for mortality and management of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi. 61
32242509 2020
Effect of Malnutrition on Hearing Loss in Children. 61
31821252 2020
Follow-up of a historic cohort of children treated for severe acute malnutrition between 1988 and 2007 in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. 61
32160220 2020
Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis. 61
30897613 2019
Edematous severe acute malnutrition is characterized by hypomethylation of DNA. 61
31857576 2019
An unusual case of pericardial effusion. 61
31475645 2019
Lysosome-Rich Enterocytes Mediate Protein Absorption in the Vertebrate Gut. 61
31474562 2019
Gut Microbiota Alteration is Characterized by a Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria Bloom in Kwashiorkor and a Bacteroidetes Paucity in Marasmus. 61
31235833 2019
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. 61
30212637 2019
Assessment of Myocardial Function in Kenyan Children With Severe, Acute Malnutrition: The Cardiac Physiology in Malnutrition (CAPMAL) Study. 61
30901050 2019
Presence of unreported carcinogens, Aflatoxins and their hydroxylated metabolites, in industrialized Oaxaca cheese from Mexico City. 61
30468840 2019
Nutrition, the visceral immune system, and the evolutionary origins of pathogenic obesity. 61
30598443 2019
Time-to-recovery from severe acute malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age enrolled in the outpatient treatment program in Shebedino, Southern Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study. 61
30691437 2019
Acute kwashiorkor in the setting of cerebral palsy and pancreatic insufficiency. 61
30758347 2019
Lost in Aggregation: The Geographic Distribution of Kwashiorkor in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. 61
30136596 2018
Acute presentation of post-operative kwashiorkor and refeeding syndrome complicated by chronic Strongyloides infection in an elderly patient. 61
30182412 2018
Filling the Gaps for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Community-Based Programs Combining Treatment and Prevention of Child Malnutrition: Results from the Rainbow Project 2015⁻17 in Zambia. 61
30131480 2018
The Nail Flag Sign: Case Report in a Man with Diverticulitis and Review of Dermatology Flag Sign of the Hair, Skin, and Nails. 61
30197851 2018
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. 61
29786674 2018
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? 61
29703355 2018
Importance of Serum Amino Acid Profile for Induction of Hepatic Steatosis under Protein Malnutrition. 61
29615653 2018
Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia. 61
30533212 2018
Modifying Intestinal Integrity and Micro Biome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial. 61
30345381 2018
Outcomes of children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition at the GADO Outpatient Therapeutic Center in Cameroon. 61
29361980 2018
Aflatoxin exposure in Nigerian children with severe acute malnutrition. 61
29175577 2018
Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) shows strong geographical variations in children with edema: results from 2277 surveys in 55 countries. 61
30181875 2018
Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study. 61
29302321 2017
Genome sequence and description of Mobilicoccus massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. 61
29158905 2017
The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood. 61
29130721 2017
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. 61
28984257 2017
Severe childhood malnutrition. 61
28933421 2017
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. 61
28537869 2017
[Acute malnutrition in children]. 61
28504629 2017
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. 61
28289546 2017
Myocardial and haemodynamic responses to two fluid regimens in African children with severe malnutrition and hypovolaemic shock (AFRIM study). 61
28468633 2017
Molecular Evidence for Differential Long-term Outcomes of Early Life Severe Acute Malnutrition. 61
28330812 2017
Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study. 61
28279227 2017
Mortality and morbidity trends and predictors of mortality in under-five children with severe acute malnutrition in Hadiya zone, South Ethiopia: a four-year retrospective review of hospital-based records (2012-2015). 61
32153800 2017
Should first-line empiric treatment strategies cover coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in severely malnourished or HIV-infected children in Kenya? 61
28787002 2017
Gut Bacteria Missing in Severe Acute Malnutrition, Can We Identify Potential Probiotics by Culturomics? 61
28588566 2017
Metabolomic Changes in Serum of Children with Different Clinical Diagnoses of Malnutrition. 61
27807038 2016
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. 61
27852657 2016
'Flaviflexus massiliensis', a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut. 61
27621821 2016
Tessaracoccus massiliensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut. 61
27358740 2016
Anaerococcus rubiinfantis sp. nov., isolated from the gut microbiota of a Senegalese infant with severe acute malnutrition. 61
27328611 2016
Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. 61
27265353 2016
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. 61
27330815 2016
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. 61
26908419 2016

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.59 INS F2 CRP ALB
2 10.57 TTR INS F2 ALB
3 10.36 INS GPT

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 TTR SHBG LCN1 LCAT LALBA INS
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.46 INS F2 CD4 ALB
3 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.43 LALBA INS F2
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 TTR LCN1 LCAT LALBA INS GPT

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 9.26 LCAT ALB
2 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.26 TTR INS F2 ALB
3 negative regulation of blood vessel diameter GO:0097756 9.16 INS CRP
4 acute-phase response GO:0006953 8.8 INS F2 CRP

Sources for Kwashiorkor

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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