MCID: KWS001
MIFTS: 46

Kwashiorkor

Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 77 45 15 17 74
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD9CM 36 260
MeSH 45 D007732
SNOMED-CT 69 58262005
ICD10 34 E40
UMLS 74 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

Disease Ontology : 12 A protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by severe lack of protein and edema or anasarca, has symptom swelling, gastrointestinal upset, dehydration, thin dry skin, and cough, and has material basis in severe deficit of protein, resulting in lack of albumin causing decreased oncotic pressure in the vasculature and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and antidiuretic hormone.

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and protein-energy malnutrition, and has symptoms including swelling An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, skin and heart, and related phenotype is renal/urinary system.

Wikipedia : 77 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 168)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 32.4 ALB SHBG SIAE TTR
2 protein-energy malnutrition 30.4 ALB GPT TTR
3 portal hypertension 29.8 ALB F2 GPT
4 noma 29.8 ALB INS
5 hepatitis 29.7 F2 GPT SLC17A5
6 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 29.5 GPT INS SLC17A5
7 liver disease 29.1 ALB F2 GPT INS SLC17A5
8 liver cirrhosis 28.9 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TTR
9 familial lcat deficiency 10.3 ALB LCAT
10 fatty liver disease 10.3
11 paraquat poisoning 10.3 GPT SLC17A5
12 pyridoxine deficiency 10.3 GPT SLC17A5
13 pellagra 10.3
14 legionnaires' disease 10.3 ALB SLC17A5
15 antipyrine metabolism 10.3 ALB F2
16 non-a-e hepatitis 10.3 ALB F2
17 scrub typhus 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
18 arcus corneae 10.2 ALB LCAT
19 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.2 ALB F2
20 fournier gangrene 10.2 ALB F2
21 abdominal tuberculosis 10.2 ALB F2
22 meningoencephalitis 10.2 ALB SLC17A5
23 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.2 F2 GPT
24 splenic disease 10.2 ALB F2
25 esophageal varix 10.2 ALB F2
26 ascending cholangitis 10.2 ALB F2
27 hepatitis d 10.2 F2 GPT
28 hypersplenism 10.2 ALB F2
29 hepatorenal syndrome 10.2 ALB F2
30 autoimmune disease of urogenital tract 10.2 ALB F2
31 paramyloidosis 10.2 ALB TTR
32 hepatic vascular disease 10.2 ALB F2
33 pulmonary artery disease 10.2 ALB F2
34 dysfibrinogenemia 10.2 ALB F2
35 decubitus ulcer 10.2 ALB TTR
36 vein disease 10.2 ALB F2
37 aleutian mink disease 10.2 ALB TTR
38 chronic ulcer of skin 10.2 ALB TTR
39 thyroid crisis 10.2 ALB TTR
40 hyperthyroxinemia 10.2 ALB TTR
41 intermittent claudication 10.2 ALB F2
42 lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency 10.2 ALB LCAT
43 cholelithiasis 10.2 ALB GPT
44 blind loop syndrome 10.2 ALB TTR
45 amyloidosis aa 10.1 LCAT TTR
46 typhoid fever 10.1 ALB F2
47 dysentery 10.1 ALB TTR
48 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.1 ALB F2
49 cystic fibrosis 10.1
50 hypoglycemia 10.1

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney Failure
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia Paralytic Ileus
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:



Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor

Symptoms:

12
  • swelling

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Kwashiorkor:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.02 ALB INS LCAT SIAE TTR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 46)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
2
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
3
Lactulose Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
4
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 80621-81-4 46783403 6436173
5
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
7 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
9 Antimalarials Phase 3
10 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
11 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
12 Renal Agents Phase 3
13 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
14 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
15 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
18 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
20
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved 50-03-3
21
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved 50-23-7 5754
22
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
23
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
24
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
25
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 26787-78-0 33613
26
Cefdinir Approved Not Applicable 91832-40-5 6915944
27 Trace Elements Not Applicable
28 Micronutrients Not Applicable
29 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate
30 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
31 Anti-Retroviral Agents Not Applicable
32 alanine Not Applicable
33 cysteine Not Applicable
34 Antioxidants Not Applicable
35 Nutrients Not Applicable
36 Anti-HIV Agents
37 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
38 Antimetabolites
39 Antiviral Agents
40 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
41 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
42 Whey Protein Not Applicable
43 leucine Not Applicable
44 Anesthetics
45 Vitamins Not Applicable
46 Soy Bean Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 35)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reformulated F75 Milk to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Severely Malnourished Children Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
3 Growth Hormone Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Recruiting NCT03420144 Phase 2, Phase 3 Standard Medical Therapy;Growth Hormone
4 Protein Plus: Improving Infant Growth Through Diet and Enteric Health Recruiting NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
5 Protein Supplementation Impact On Body Muscle Mass And Fat Mass In Qataris Post Bariatric Surgery, Randomized Controlled Trials (Rct) Unknown status NCT03147456 Not Applicable
6 Testing the Developmental Origins Hypothesis Unknown status NCT01545492
7 Nutritional Rehabilitation in Senegalese HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Unknown status NCT03101852 Not Applicable
8 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
9 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
10 Study of Antioxidants and Oxidants in Malnourished Children Completed NCT00069134 Not Applicable
11 Effect of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery Completed NCT02001636 Not Applicable Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
12 Developmental Adaptation to an Obesogenic Environment Completed NCT02257593 Not Applicable
13 Safety and Metabolic Study of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Malnourished Children With HIV Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
14 Pilot Study of PUFA-optimized RUTF for Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Not Applicable Amoxicillin
15 Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT01000298 Not Applicable Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
16 Increase Protein Intake of Older Meal Service Clients With Readymade Protein-rich Meals and Foods Completed NCT03032237 Not Applicable
17 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers Completed NCT01790815
18 Laparoscopic Revision From Biliopancreatic Diversion to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
19 Intra Hemodialytic Oral Protein and Exercise (IHOPE) Completed NCT01234441 Not Applicable
20 Revisional Surgery After 925 OAGB[One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass] Operations Retrospective Cohort Study of the UK MGB/OAGB Collaborative Group. Completed NCT03859596
21 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants Completed NCT03181178 Not Applicable
22 Sixteen Years Trends in Reported Undernutrition in Switzerland Completed NCT03239093
23 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
24 Laparoscopic Revision of Jejunoileal Bypass to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
25 Formative Research Study to Address Protein Intake in Children and Analysis of Breast Milk Nutrient Content in Mothers Recruiting NCT03140696 Not Applicable
26 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531 Not Applicable
27 Pilot Suty of the Assessment of Food Preferences After Bariatric Surgery (BariaTaste Pilot) Recruiting NCT03486210
28 Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal Bypass With Sleeve Gastrectomy (SADI-S): A Prospective Cohort Study Recruiting NCT02792166 Not Applicable
29 Egg White for Phosphorus Control in Haemodialysis Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03236701 Not Applicable
30 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Enrolling by invitation NCT03355313 Not Applicable
31 Effect of Protein Intake During Hemodialysis on Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness Indices Not yet recruiting NCT03947710 Not Applicable
32 Loop Duodenal Switch Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients Terminated NCT02671331
33 Bariatric Surgery for ESRD Patients vs Control Terminated NCT00580762 Not Applicable
34 Effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding During Infection Among Moderately Malnourished Children Terminated NCT00890695 Not Applicable
35 Effectiveness of Oral Albendazole in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Withdrawn NCT01395381 Not Applicable Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

42
Liver, Skin, Heart, Testes, Pancreas, Bone, Breast

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1003)
# Title Authors Year
1
Acute kwashiorkor in the setting of cerebral palsy and pancreatic insufficiency. ( 30758347 )
2019
2
Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis. ( 30897613 )
2019
3
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? ( 29703355 )
2018
4
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. ( 29786674 )
2018
5
Lost in Aggregation: The Geographic Distribution of Kwashiorkor in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ( 30136596 )
2018
6
Acute presentation of post-operative kwashiorkor and refeeding syndrome complicated by chronic Strongyloides infection in an elderly patient. ( 30182412 )
2018
7
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. ( 30212637 )
2018
8
Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia. ( 30533212 )
2018
9
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. ( 28537869 )
2017
10
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. ( 28289546 )
2017
11
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. ( 28984257 )
2017
12
Genome sequence and description of Mobilicoccus massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. ( 29158905 )
2017
13
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. ( 27852657 )
2016
14
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. ( 26908419 )
2016
15
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. ( 27330815 )
2016
16
Decreased metabolism of 13C-caffeine via hepatic CYP1A2 in marasmus and kwashiorkor based on breath test. ( 24114907 )
2015
17
Oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25223408 )
2015
18
Secondary kwashiorkor: a rare complication of gastric bypass surgery. ( 25498166 )
2015
19
Nutritional and other types of oedema, albumin, complex carbohydrates and the interstitium - a response to Malcolm Coulthard's hypothesis: Oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypo-albuminaemia. ( 25844980 )
2015
20
Letter to the editor. Defence of my hypothesis that the oedema of kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25975279 )
2015
21
Depression of neutrophil function followed by severe infection in a child with Marasmic Kwashiorkor. ( 26076789 )
2015
22
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor. ( 26236384 )
2015
23
A kwashiorkor case due to the use of an exclusive rice milk diet to treat atopic dermatitis. ( 26293684 )
2015
24
Effects of induced-kwashiorkor on salivary parameters in Wistar rats. ( 26937525 )
2015
25
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor developing after bypass surgery. ( 23659833 )
2014
26
Flaky paint dermatosis. Kwashiorkor. ( 24285001 )
2014
27
Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature. ( 24661336 )
2014
28
Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo. ( 24765584 )
2014
29
Dermatitis and dangerous diets: a case of kwashiorkor. ( 24807070 )
2014
30
Acute inpatient presentation of kwashiorkor: not just a diagnosis of the developing world. ( 22471276 )
2013
31
Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor. ( 23363771 )
2013
32
Kwashiorkor and the gut microbiota. ( 23635056 )
2013
33
Improvised peritoneal dialysis in an 18-month-old child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and acute kidney injury: a case report. ( 23809461 )
2013
34
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are both associated with impaired glucose clearance related to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. ( 22386944 )
2012
35
Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model. ( 22558267 )
2012
36
Kwashiorkor. ( 23045745 )
2012
37
Kwashiorkor in India. 1955. ( 23045746 )
2012
38
Using of WHO guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition to cases of marasmus and kwashiorkor in a Colombia children's hospital. ( 22072341 )
2011
39
Iatrogenic Kwashiorkor in three infants on a diet of rice beverages. ( 22122793 )
2011
40
Cutaneous manifestations of kwashiorkor: a case report of an adult man after abdominal surgery. ( 22281907 )
2011
41
Cutaneous presentation of kwashiorkor due to infantile Crohn's disease. ( 19352699 )
2010
42
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in kwashiorkor. ( 20128668 )
2010
43
Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. ( 20393967 )
2010
44
INCAP studies of kwashiorkor and marasmus. ( 20461902 )
2010
45
Kwashiorkor from a severe dietary restriction in an 8-month infant in suburban Detroit, Michigan: case report and review of the literature. ( 20534082 )
2010
46
Hartnup disease masked by kwashiorkor. ( 20824986 )
2010
47
Reduced production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans occurs in Zambian children with kwashiorkor but not marasmus. ( 19116330 )
2009
48
75 years of Kwashiorkor in Africa. ( 20345016 )
2009
49
Kwashiorkor: more hypothesis testing is needed to understand the aetiology of oedema. ( 20345018 )
2009
50
Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor. ( 20499782 )
2009

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.67 ALB F2 INS
2 10.57 ALB F2 INS TTR
3 10.16 GPT INS

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 ALB F2 INS LCAT SHBG SIAE
2 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.5 ALB F2 GPT LCAT SHBG SIAE
3 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.43 ALB F2 INS
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 ALB F2 GPT INS LCAT SIAE

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.32 F2 INS
2 negative regulation of proteolysis GO:0045861 9.26 F2 INS
3 positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus GO:1900182 9.16 F2 INS
4 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 8.96 ALB LCAT
5 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 8.92 ALB F2 INS TTR

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 8.62 ALB GPT

Sources for Kwashiorkor

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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