Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 75 44 15 17 72 33
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD9CM 35 260
MeSH 44 D007732
SNOMED-CT 68 58262005
ICD10 33 E40
UMLS 72 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

Disease Ontology : 12 A protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by severe lack of protein and edema or anasarca, has symptom swelling, gastrointestinal upset, dehydration, thin dry skin, and cough, and has material basis in severe deficit of protein, resulting in lack of albumin causing decreased oncotic pressure in the vasculature and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and antidiuretic hormone.

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and protein-energy malnutrition, and has symptoms including swelling An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Ceftriaxone and Anti-Infective Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and testes, and related phenotype is renal/urinary system.

Wikipedia : 75 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 232)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 32.2 TTR SIAE SHBG ALB
2 protein-energy malnutrition 30.9 TTR GPT ALB
3 dysentery 30.3 TTR ALB
4 portal hypertension 30.1 GPT F2 ALB
5 noma 29.8 INS ALB
6 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 29.6 SLC17A5 INS GPT
7 nutritional deficiency disease 29.5 TTR ALB
8 vascular disease 29.3 INS F2 ALB
9 liver cirrhosis 29.2 TTR SLC17A5 GPT F2 ALB
10 liver disease 28.8 SLC17A5 INS GPT F2 ALB
11 non-a-e hepatitis 10.5 F2 ALB
12 antipyrine metabolism 10.5 F2 ALB
13 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.5 F2 ALB
14 diarrhea 10.5
15 fournier gangrene 10.5 F2 ALB
16 abdominal tuberculosis 10.5 F2 ALB
17 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.5 GPT F2
18 splenic disease 10.5 F2 ALB
19 familial lcat deficiency 10.5 LCAT ALB
20 ascending cholangitis 10.5 F2 ALB
21 esophageal varix 10.5 F2 ALB
22 hepatitis d 10.5 GPT F2
23 hypersplenism 10.5 F2 ALB
24 hepatorenal syndrome 10.5 F2 ALB
25 dysfibrinogenemia 10.5 F2 ALB
26 pulmonary artery disease 10.4 F2 ALB
27 hepatic vascular disease 10.4 F2 ALB
28 autoimmune disease of urogenital tract 10.4 F2 ALB
29 vein disease 10.4 F2 ALB
30 intermittent claudication 10.4 F2 ALB
31 fatty liver disease 10.4
32 paraquat poisoning 10.4 SLC17A5 GPT
33 pyridoxine deficiency 10.4 SLC17A5 GPT
34 arcus corneae 10.4 LCAT ALB
35 typhoid fever 10.3 F2 ALB
36 deficiency anemia 10.3
37 biliary tract disease 10.3 F2 ALB
38 pellagra 10.3
39 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.3 F2 ALB
40 paramyloidosis 10.3 TTR ALB
41 scrub typhus 10.3 SLC17A5 GPT
42 cholelithiasis 10.3 GPT ALB
43 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.3
44 exanthem 10.3
45 decubitus ulcer 10.3 TTR ALB
46 aleutian mink disease 10.3 TTR ALB
47 meningoencephalitis 10.3 SLC17A5 ALB
48 chronic ulcer of skin 10.3 TTR ALB
49 hyperthyroxinemia 10.3 TTR ALB
50 thyroid crisis 10.3 TTR ALB

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 13)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Iron Deficiency Anemia
Paralytic Ileus Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Respiratory Failure Schizophreniform Disorder
Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor


  • swelling

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Kwashiorkor:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.02 ALB INS LCAT SIAE TTR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 34)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ceftriaxone Approved Phase 4 73384-59-5 5479530 5361919
2 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
4 Nutrients Phase 4
5 Micronutrients Phase 4
6 Trace Elements Phase 4
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
10 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
11 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
12 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
13 Renal Agents Phase 3
14 Antimalarials Phase 3
15 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
21 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
22 Antioxidants
23 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
24 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
25 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
26 Anti-HIV Agents
27 Anti-Retroviral Agents
28 Antiviral Agents
29 Antimetabolites
30 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
31 alanine
32 cysteine
33 Whey Protein
34 leucine

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 24)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Day-care Based and Hospitalized Management of Severe and Very Severe Pneumonia, With Severe Malnutrition, With/Without Associated Co-morbidities in Children Completed NCT00968370 Phase 4
2 Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Amongst HIV-uninfected Children With Severe Malnutrition Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
3 Randomized Controlled Trial of a Reduced Carbohydrate Formulation of F75 Therapeutic Milk Among Children With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Efficacy of Supplemental Protein, Delivered Alone or in Combination With Treatment for Enteric Pathogens, to Prevent Growth Faltering in Bangladeshi Infants Recruiting NCT03683667 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azithromycin Oral Product;Placebos
5 Effectiveness and Acceptability of Nutritional Rehabilitation Based on Ready-to-use Food in HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in Senegal: The Multicentre SNAC'S Study Unknown status NCT03101852
6 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
7 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
8 ART Pharmacokinetics, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Antioxidant Capacity in Severely Malnourished HIV-infected Malawian Children Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
9 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Community-based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
10 Glutathione Homeostasis and Oxidant Damage in Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00069134
11 A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-optimized Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food, Compared to Standard RUTF, in the Therapy of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
12 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
13 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers of Children < 5 Years Old Completed NCT01790815
14 Developmental Contribution to Macronutrient Selection and Appetite Control in Adult Survivors of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Completed NCT02257593
15 Impact of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery - a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind Pilot Study Completed NCT02001636 Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
16 Testing the Effectiveness and Acceptance of Home-delivered Protein-rich Meals and Foods on the Intake of Community-dwelling Older Adults. Completed NCT03032237
17 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants (6 to 18 Months) Completed NCT03181178
18 Another Revisional Strategy to Address Severe Late Complications After Previous Biliopancreatic Diversion for Obesity: Major Revision From Standard Biliopancreatic Diversion to Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
19 One-stage Laparoscopic Revision of Failed and/or Complicated Jejunoileal Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
20 Formative Research on the Use of Egg as a Nutritional Supplement for Young Bangladeshi Children and Breast Milk Nutrient Content of Bangladeshi Women Recruiting NCT03140696
21 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531
22 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Enrolling by invitation NCT03355313
23 Acute Effect of Protein Intake During Dialysis on Intradialytic Blood Pressure, 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness Indices in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Not yet recruiting NCT03947710
24 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefit of Antihelminthic Therapy in the Community-Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

Skin, Liver, Testes, Bone, Heart, Pancreas, Thyroid

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 1764)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Kwashiorkor in Upper Middle Class Suburbia in the United States (FS17-02-19). 38
31225127 2019
Gut Microbiota Alteration is Characterized by a Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria Bloom in Kwashiorkor and a Bacteroidetes Paucity in Marasmus. 38
31235833 2019
Switching to normal diet reverses kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments via increased nitric oxide level and expression of aquaporin 5 in the submandibular glands of male Wistar rats. 38
30212637 2019
Assessment of Myocardial Function in Kenyan Children With Severe, Acute Malnutrition: The Cardiac Physiology in Malnutrition (CAPMAL) Study. 38
30901050 2019
Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis. 38
30897613 2019
Presence of unreported carcinogens, Aflatoxins and their hydroxylated metabolites, in industrialized Oaxaca cheese from Mexico City. 38
30468840 2019
Time-to-recovery from severe acute malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age enrolled in the outpatient treatment program in Shebedino, Southern Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study. 38
30691437 2019
Nutrition, the visceral immune system, and the evolutionary origins of pathogenic obesity. 38
30598443 2019
Acute kwashiorkor in the setting of cerebral palsy and pancreatic insufficiency. 38
30758347 2019
Lost in Aggregation: The Geographic Distribution of Kwashiorkor in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. 38
30136596 2018
Acute presentation of post-operative kwashiorkor and refeeding syndrome complicated by chronic Strongyloides infection in an elderly patient. 38
30182412 2018
Filling the Gaps for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Community-Based Programs Combining Treatment and Prevention of Child Malnutrition: Results from the Rainbow Project 2015⁻17 in Zambia. 38
30131480 2018
The Nail Flag Sign: Case Report in a Man with Diverticulitis and Review of Dermatology Flag Sign of the Hair, Skin, and Nails. 38
30197851 2018
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. 38
29786674 2018
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? 38
29703355 2018
Importance of Serum Amino Acid Profile for Induction of Hepatic Steatosis under Protein Malnutrition. 38
29615653 2018
Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia. 38
30533212 2018
Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) shows strong geographical variations in children with edema: results from 2277 surveys in 55 countries. 38
30181875 2018
Modifying Intestinal Integrity and Micro Biome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial. 38
30345381 2018
Aflatoxin exposure in Nigerian children with severe acute malnutrition. 38
29175577 2018
Outcomes of children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition at the GADO Outpatient Therapeutic Center in Cameroon. 38
29361980 2018
Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study. 38
29302321 2017
Genome sequence and description of Mobilicoccus massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. 38
29158905 2017
The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood. 38
29130721 2017
Severe childhood malnutrition. 38
28933421 2017
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. 38
28984257 2017
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. 38
28289546 2017
Myocardial and haemodynamic responses to two fluid regimens in African children with severe malnutrition and hypovolaemic shock (AFRIM study). 38
28468633 2017
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. 38
28537869 2017
[Acute malnutrition in children]. 38
28504629 2017
Molecular Evidence for Differential Long-term Outcomes of Early Life Severe Acute Malnutrition. 38
28330812 2017
Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study. 38
28279227 2017
Gut Bacteria Missing in Severe Acute Malnutrition, Can We Identify Potential Probiotics by Culturomics? 38
28588566 2017
Should first-line empiric treatment strategies cover coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in severely malnourished or HIV-infected children in Kenya? 38
28787002 2017
Metabolomic Changes in Serum of Children with Different Clinical Diagnoses of Malnutrition. 38
27807038 2016
'Flaviflexus massiliensis', a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut. 38
27621821 2016
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. 38
27852657 2016
Tessaracoccus massiliensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut. 38
27358740 2016
Anaerococcus rubiinfantis sp. nov., isolated from the gut microbiota of a Senegalese infant with severe acute malnutrition. 38
27328611 2016
Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. 38
27265353 2016
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. 38
27330815 2016
Genome sequence and description of Desnuesiella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. a new member of family Clostridiaceae. 38
27158511 2016
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. 38
26908419 2016
Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus andreraoultii strain SIT1(T) sp. nov. 38
27257486 2016
[Prevention and therapy of sarcopenia in the ageing]. 38
27627096 2016
Gut Microbiota in Children Hospitalized with Oedematous and Non-Oedematous Severe Acute Malnutrition in Uganda. 38
26771456 2016
Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan. 38
27651550 2016
Developmental contributions to macronutrient selection: a randomized controlled trial in adult survivors of malnutrition. 38
26817484 2016
Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program. 38
27396484 2016
Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human gut. 38
27076913 2015

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.67 INS F2 ALB
2 10.57 TTR INS F2 ALB
3 10.16 INS GPT

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 TTR SIAE SHBG LCAT INS F2
2 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.5 TTR SIAE SHBG LCAT GPT F2
3 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.43 INS F2 ALB
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 TTR SIAE LCAT INS GPT F2

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.32 INS F2
2 positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus GO:1900182 9.26 INS F2
3 negative regulation of proteolysis GO:0045861 9.16 INS F2
4 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 8.96 LCAT ALB
5 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 8.92 TTR INS F2 ALB

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 8.62 GPT ALB

Sources for Kwashiorkor

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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