MCID: KWS001
MIFTS: 42

Kwashiorkor

Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 76 44 15 73
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD10 33 E40
ICD9CM 35 260
MeSH 44 D007732
UMLS 73 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and pulmonary embolism. An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and testes.

Wikipedia : 76 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 152)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 31.0 ALB SHBG TF TTR
2 pulmonary embolism 30.0 ALB F2
3 peritonitis 29.9 ALB F2
4 ariboflavinosis 29.8 ALB TF
5 hepatitis 29.7 F2 GPT SLC17A5
6 keratomalacia 29.6 TF TTR
7 pure red-cell aplasia 29.5 ALB TF
8 protein-energy malnutrition 28.8 ALB GPT TF TTR
9 liver disease 27.4 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TF
10 antipyrine metabolism 10.6 ALB F2
11 non-a-e hepatitis 10.6 ALB F2
12 fournier gangrene 10.6 ALB F2
13 abdominal tuberculosis 10.6 ALB F2
14 splenic disease 10.6 ALB F2
15 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.6 F2 GPT
16 esophageal varix 10.6 ALB F2
17 ascending cholangitis 10.6 ALB F2
18 familial lcat deficiency 10.5 ALB LCAT
19 hypersplenism 10.5 ALB F2
20 hepatitis d 10.5 F2 GPT
21 hepatorenal syndrome 10.5 ALB F2
22 hepatic vascular disease 10.5 ALB F2
23 dysfibrinogenemia 10.5 ALB F2
24 vein disease 10.5 ALB F2
25 paramyloidosis 10.5 ALB TTR
26 intermittent claudication 10.5 ALB F2
27 biliary tract disease 10.5 ALB F2
28 burns 10.5 ALB TTR
29 chronic ulcer of skin 10.5 ALB TTR
30 cholelithiasis 10.5 ALB GPT
31 decubitus ulcer 10.5 ALB TTR
32 typhoid fever 10.5 ALB F2
33 aleutian mink disease 10.4 ALB TTR
34 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.4 ALB F2
35 hyperthyroxinemia 10.4 ALB TTR
36 arcus corneae 10.4 ALB LCAT
37 fetal erythroblastosis 10.4 ALB SHBG
38 autonomic nervous system disease 10.4 ALB TTR
39 biliary atresia 10.4 ALB GPT
40 homocysteinemia 10.4 ALB F2
41 endocarditis 10.4 ALB F2
42 lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency 10.4 ALB LCAT
43 demyelinating polyneuropathy 10.4 ALB TTR
44 paraquat poisoning 10.3 GPT SLC17A5
45 schistosomiasis 10.3 ALB F2
46 pyridoxine deficiency 10.3 GPT SLC17A5
47 amyloidosis aa 10.3 LCAT TTR
48 legionnaires' disease 10.3 ALB SLC17A5
49 thrombophilia due to activated protein c resistance 10.3 F2 SHBG
50 heart conduction disease 10.2 F2 TTR

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney Failure
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia Paralytic Ileus
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:



Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 44)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
2
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
3
Lactulose Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
4
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 80621-81-4 6436173
5 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
6 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
7 Antimalarials Phase 3
8 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
9 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
10 Renal Agents Phase 3
11 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
12 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
13 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
18
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
19
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
20
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
21
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 26787-78-0 33613
22
Cefdinir Approved Not Applicable 91832-40-5 6915944
23
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
24
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved 50-23-7 5754
25 Antioxidants Not Applicable
26 Anti-HIV Agents
27 Antimetabolites
28 Anti-Retroviral Agents
29 Antiviral Agents
30 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
31 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
32 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
33 Micronutrients Not Applicable
34 Trace Elements Not Applicable
35 Cortisol succinate
36 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
37 Hydrocortisone acetate
38 Anesthetics
39 Vitamins Not Applicable
40 Whey Protein Nutraceutical Not Applicable
41 alanine Nutraceutical Not Applicable
42 cysteine Nutraceutical Not Applicable
43 leucine Nutraceutical Not Applicable
44 Soy Bean Nutraceutical Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 32)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reformulated F75 Milk to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Severely Malnourished Children Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
3 Growth Hormone Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Recruiting NCT03420144 Phase 2, Phase 3 Standard Medical Therapy;Growth Hormone
4 Intra Hemodialytic Oral Protein and Exercise (IHOPE) Unknown status NCT01234441 Not Applicable
5 The Role of Sulfur Amino Acids in Risk of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT03520621
6 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351
7 Study of Antioxidants and Oxidants in Malnourished Children Completed NCT00069134 Not Applicable
8 Effect of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery Completed NCT02001636 Not Applicable Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
9 Developmental Adaptation to an Obesogenic Environment Completed NCT02257593 Not Applicable
10 Safety and Metabolic Study of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Malnourished Children With HIV Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
11 Pilot Study of PUFA-optimized RUTF for Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Not Applicable Amoxicillin
12 Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT01000298 Not Applicable Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
13 Increase Protein Intake of Older Meal Service Clients With Readymade Protein-rich Meals and Foods Completed NCT03032237 Not Applicable
14 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers Completed NCT01790815
15 Laparoscopic Revision From Biliopancreatic Diversion to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
16 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants Completed NCT03181178 Not Applicable
17 Sixteen Years Trends in Reported Undernutrition in Switzerland Completed NCT03239093
18 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
19 Laparoscopic Revision of Jejunoileal Bypass to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
20 Formative Research Study to Address Protein Intake in Children and Analysis of Breast Milk Nutrient Content in Mothers Recruiting NCT03140696 Not Applicable
21 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Recruiting NCT03417531 Not Applicable
22 Protein Supplementation Impact On Body Muscle Mass And Fat Mass In Qataris Post Bariatric Surgery, Randomized Controlled Trials (Rct) Recruiting NCT03147456 Not Applicable
23 Pilot Suty of the Assessment of Food Preferences After Bariatric Surgery (BariaTaste Pilot) Recruiting NCT03486210
24 Testing the Developmental Origins Hypothesis Recruiting NCT01545492
25 Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal Bypass With Sleeve Gastrectomy (SADI-S): A Prospective Cohort Study Recruiting NCT02792166 Not Applicable
26 Egg White for Phosphorus Control in Haemodialysis Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03236701 Not Applicable
27 Nutritional Rehabilitation in Senegalese HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Active, not recruiting NCT03101852 Not Applicable
28 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Enrolling by invitation NCT03355313 Not Applicable
29 Loop Duodenal Switch Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients Terminated NCT02671331
30 Bariatric Surgery for ESRD Patients vs Control Terminated NCT00580762 Not Applicable
31 Effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding During Infection Among Moderately Malnourished Children Terminated NCT00890695 Not Applicable
32 Effectiveness of Oral Albendazole in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Withdrawn NCT01395381 Not Applicable Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

41
Skin, Liver, Testes, Bone, Thyroid, Heart, Neutrophil

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 576)
# Title Authors Year
1
Kwashiorkor ( 29939653 )
2018
2
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition. ( 29786674 )
2018
3
50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Do We Know How to Treat Kwashiorkor? ( 29703355 )
2018
4
Genome sequence and description of<i>Mobilicoccus massiliensis</i>sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. ( 29158905 )
2017
5
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. ( 28537869 )
2017
6
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. ( 28984257 )
2017
7
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. ( 28289546 )
2017
8
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. ( 27852657 )
2016
9
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. ( 27330815 )
2016
10
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. ( 26908419 )
2016
11
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor. ( 26236384 )
2015
12
A kwashiorkor case due to the use of an exclusive rice milk diet to treat atopic dermatitis. ( 26293684 )
2015
13
Nutritional and other types of oedema, albumin, complex carbohydrates and the interstitium - a response to Malcolm Coulthard's hypothesis: Oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypo-albuminaemia. ( 25844980 )
2015
14
Effects of induced-kwashiorkor on salivary parameters in Wistar rats. ( 26937525 )
2015
15
Letter to the editor. Defence of my hypothesis that the oedema of kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25975279 )
2015
16
Depression of neutrophil function followed by severe infection in a child with Marasmic Kwashiorkor. ( 26076789 )
2015
17
Secondary Kwashiorkor: A Rare Complication of Gastric Bypass Surgery. ( 25498166 )
2014
18
Flaky paint dermatosis. Kwashiorkor. ( 24285001 )
2014
19
Hypothesis: oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25223408 )
2014
20
Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature. ( 24661336 )
2014
21
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor developing after bypass surgery. ( 23659833 )
2014
22
Dermatitis and dangerous diets: a case of kwashiorkor. ( 24807070 )
2014
23
Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo. ( 24765584 )
2014
24
Acute inpatient presentation of kwashiorkor: not just a diagnosis of the developing world. ( 22471276 )
2013
25
Improvised peritoneal dialysis in an 18-month-old child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and acute kidney injury: a case report. ( 23809461 )
2013
26
Decreased metabolism of 13C-caffeine via hepatic CYP1A2 in marasmus and kwashiorkor based on breath test. ( 24114907 )
2013
27
Kwashiorkor and the gut microbiota. ( 23635056 )
2013
28
Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor. ( 23363771 )
2013
29
Kwashiorkor in India. 1955. ( 23045746 )
2012
30
Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model. ( 22558267 )
2012
31
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are both associated with impaired glucose clearance related to pancreatic I^-cell dysfunction. ( 22386944 )
2012
32
Kwashiorkor. ( 23045745 )
2012
33
Using of WHO guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition to cases of marasmus and kwashiorkor in a Colombia children's hospital. ( 22072341 )
2011
34
Cutaneous manifestations of kwashiorkor: a case report of an adult man after abdominal surgery. ( 22281907 )
2011
35
Iatrogenic Kwashiorkor in three infants on a diet of rice beverages. ( 22122793 )
2011
36
Kwashiorkor from a severe dietary restriction in an 8-month infant in suburban Detroit, Michigan: case report and review of the literature. ( 20534082 )
2010
37
INCAP studies of kwashiorkor and marasmus. ( 20461902 )
2010
38
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in kwashiorkor. ( 20128668 )
2010
39
Hartnup disease masked by kwashiorkor. ( 20824986 )
2010
40
Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. ( 20393967 )
2010
41
Cutaneous presentation of kwashiorkor due to infantile Crohn's disease. ( 19352699 )
2010
42
Kwashiorkor: more hypothesis testing is needed to understand the aetiology of oedema. ( 20345018 )
2009
43
Reduced production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans occurs in Zambian children with kwashiorkor but not marasmus. ( 19116330 )
2009
44
Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor. ( 20499782 )
2009
45
75 years of Kwashiorkor in Africa. ( 20345016 )
2009
46
Kwashiorkor and severe acute malnutrition in childhood. ( 18502290 )
2008
47
Kwashiorkor and severe acute malnutrition in childhood. ( 18502289 )
2008
48
A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor. ( 17414147 )
2007
49
Kwashiorkor--is it a dying disease? ( 17378286 )
2007
50
From kwashiorkor to nephrotic edema. ( 17198923 )
2007

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.44 ALB F2 TTR

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.63 ALB F2 LCAT SHBG TF TTR
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.5 ALB F2 TF
3 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.43 ALB F2 TF
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.43 ALB F2 GPT LCAT TF TTR
5 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.17 ALB F2 GPT LCAT SHBG TF

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retina homeostasis GO:0001895 9.16 ALB TF
2 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 8.96 ALB LCAT
3 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 8.92 ALB F2 TF TTR

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 8.62 ALB GPT

Sources for Kwashiorkor

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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