MCID: LBY004
MIFTS: 41

Labyrinthitis

Categories: Ear diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Labyrinthitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Labyrinthitis:

Name: Labyrinthitis 12 76 44 15 73
Labyrinthine Disorder 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1468
ICD10 33 H83.0 H83.09
ICD9CM 35 386.3 386.30
MeSH 44 D007762
UMLS 73 C0022893

Summaries for Labyrinthitis

Disease Ontology : 12 An otitis interna which involves inflammation of the labyrinths.

MalaCards based summary : Labyrinthitis, also known as labyrinthine disorder, is related to purulent labyrinthitis and focal labyrinthitis, and has symptoms including earache and vertigo. An important gene associated with Labyrinthitis is CRLF1 (Cytokine Receptor Like Factor 1). The drugs Betahistine and Histamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and brain, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 76 Labyrinthitis, also known as vestibular neuritis, is the inflammation of inner ear. It results in a... more...

Related Diseases for Labyrinthitis

Diseases in the Labyrinthitis family:

Viral Labyrinthitis

Diseases related to Labyrinthitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 77)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 purulent labyrinthitis 12.3
2 focal labyrinthitis 12.3
3 viral labyrinthitis 12.3
4 toxic labyrinthitis 12.2
5 serous labyrinthitis 12.1
6 bilateral hyperactive labyrinth 11.9
7 unilateral hyperactive labyrinth 11.9
8 bilateral hypoactive labyrinth 11.9
9 unilateral hypoactive labyrinth 11.8
10 inner ear disease 11.7
11 meniere disease 11.2
12 vestibular neuronitis 10.9
13 meningitis 10.3
14 otitis media 10.3
15 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.2
16 mastoiditis 10.1
17 sensorineural hearing loss 10.0
18 suppurative otitis media 10.0
19 aging 10.0
20 mumps 10.0
21 otosclerosis 9.9
22 sudden sensorineural hearing loss 9.9
23 pneumococcal meningitis 9.9
24 thrombosis 9.8
25 facial paralysis 9.8
26 auditory system disease 9.8
27 cerebritis 9.8
28 pneumonia 9.8
29 influenza 9.8
30 herpes simplex 9.8
31 autoimmune inner ear disease 9.8
32 congenital cytomegalovirus 9.8
33 headache 9.8
34 endotheliitis 9.8
35 osteoporosis 9.7
36 paragangliomas 1 9.7
37 torticollis 9.7
38 retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome 9.7
39 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 9.7
40 anorexia nervosa 9.7
41 wegener granulomatosis 9.7
42 malaria 9.7
43 kawasaki disease 9.7
44 ulcerative colitis 9.7
45 usher syndrome 9.7
46 colitis 9.7
47 migraine with aura 9.7
48 osteomyelitis 9.7
49 petrositis 9.7
50 sarcoma 9.7

Comorbidity relations with Labyrinthitis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 22)


Anxiety Basilar Artery Insufficiency
Benign Essential Hypertension Bronchitis
Cerebrovascular Disease Chronic Myocardial Ischemia
Esophagitis Generalized Atherosclerosis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Inner Ear Disease Intermediate Coronary Syndrome
Ischemic Heart Disease Meniere Disease
Otitis Media Pathologic Nystagmus
Peripheral Vertigo Transient Cerebral Ischemia
Vertebral Artery Insufficiency Vertigo, Benign Recurrent
Vestibular Nystagmus Viral Labyrinthitis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Labyrinthitis:



Diseases related to Labyrinthitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Labyrinthitis

UMLS symptoms related to Labyrinthitis:


earache, vertigo

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Labyrinthitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-143 9.17 IGBP1
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-208 9.17 IGBP1 NCS1
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-30 9.17 NCS1
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-52 9.17 IGBP1
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-63 9.17 IGBP1
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-83 9.17 NCS1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Labyrinthitis

Drugs for Labyrinthitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 194)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Betahistine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 5638-76-6 2366
2
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
3
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 523-87-5 441281
4 Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7491-74-9
5
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
6
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
7
Calcium Carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
8
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
9
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
10
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 4,Not Applicable 108-95-2 996
11
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
12
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
13
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
14
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 378-44-9 9782
15
Glucosamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 3416-24-8 439213
16
Caffeine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
17
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
18
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
19
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
20
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 59-30-3 6037
21
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 59-67-6 938
22
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 98-92-0 936
23
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 1406-66-2 14986
24
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
25 Anticoagulants Phase 4
26 Antimetabolites Phase 4,Phase 3
27 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
28 Glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate Phase 4
29 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
30 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
31 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
32 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
33 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2
34
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 51-74-1 65513
35 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
36 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
37 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
38 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
39 Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
40 Antiemetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
41 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
42 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
43 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
44 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
45 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
46 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
47 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
48 Antacids Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
49 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
50 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 177)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
2 Isobide Solution and Meniace Tablets Compared to Monotherapy With Meniace Tablets Completed NCT02718846 Phase 4 Meniace;Isobide
3 Efficacy of Local Overpressure Treatment for Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00831688 Phase 4
4 Effects of Betaserc on Vestibular Compensation in Patients Suffering From Disabling Meniere's Disease and Having Undergone Vestibular Neurotomy Completed NCT00160238 Phase 4 Betahistine 24 mg bid (Betaserc)
5 Effect of Caffeine Intake in Vestibular Function Completed NCT02825199 Phase 4
6 Comparison of Efficacy Between Piracetam and Dimenhydrinate in Patients With Peripheral Vertigo Completed NCT01890538 Phase 4 Administration of 100 mg dimenhydrinate intravenous;2 g piracetam intravenous
7 Comparison of Efficacy Dimenhydrinate and Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Nausea Due to Vertigo Completed NCT02253524 Phase 4 Dimenhydrinate;Metoclopramide
8 Efficacy of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on the Prevention of Recurrences in BPPV Completed NCT02031692 Phase 4 400IU cholecalciferol and 500mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate
9 Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01574313 Phase 4 0.25mg, fludiazine;25mg cephadol@ (diphenidol);200mg kentons@ (tocopherol nicotinate).
10 Chlorobutanol, Potassium Carbonate, and Irrigation in Cerumen Removal Completed NCT00765635 Phase 4 drops intilation (Taponoto ® );drops intilation (Otocerum®);drops intilation (Placebo)
11 Evaluation of Inner Ear and Brain Structures With Contrast-enhanced MRI in Patients With Meniere's Disease Recruiting NCT02530931 Phase 4 Gadolinium
12 Evaluation of Inner Ear and Brain Structures With Contrast-enhanced MRI in Healthy Subjects (HYDROPS) Recruiting NCT02529475 Phase 4 Gadoteric acid
13 Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy and Corticosteroid Treatment Recruiting NCT02912182 Phase 4 Betamethasone;Placebo;Prednisolone
14 A Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Betahistine Mesilate In The Treatment Of Patients With Vertigo Caused By Cerebral Infarction In Posterior Circulation Withdrawn NCT00474409 Phase 4 Merislon
15 Efficacy of Antiviral Medications in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease Unknown status NCT01729767 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acyclovir;Placebo
16 Conventional Versus Virtual Reality Based Vestibular Rehabilitation Completed NCT01442623 Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02612337 Phase 3 OTO-104;Placebo
18 Clinical Trial of Traditional Chinese Diaoshi Jifa Therapy of Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01454726 Phase 3
19 Transtympanic Gentamicin vs. Steroids in Refractory Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00802529 Phase 2, Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Gentamicin
20 Study of Lamotrigine to Treat Ménière's Disease Completed NCT02158585 Phase 3 Lamotrigine;Placebo
21 The Treatment of Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT02029508 Phase 3
22 Promethazine vs. Lorazepam for Treatment of Vertigo Completed NCT01827293 Phase 3 Promethazine;Lorazepam
23 Treatment of Geotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT01366430 Phase 3
24 Treatment of Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT00810641 Phase 3
25 Canalith Repositioning Procedure for BPPV in Primary Care Completed NCT00182273 Phase 3
26 Effects of Prismatic Spectacle Lenses on Symptoms of Dizziness, Headache and Anxiety as Caused by Vertical Heterophoria Completed NCT00785135 Phase 3
27 Non Inferiority of Meclin® (Meclizine Chlorhydrate) Versus Dramin® (Dimenhydrinate) in Control of Acute Vertigo Symptoms From Peripheral Origin Recruiting NCT02112578 Phase 3 Meclizine;Dimenhydrinate
28 Rizatriptan for Episodic Dizziness in Vestibular Migraine Recruiting NCT02447991 Phase 2, Phase 3 Rizatriptan;Placebo
29 Caroverin and Inner Ear Diseases Suspended NCT01174979 Phase 3 Caroverin
30 Autoimmunity in Inner Ear Disease Terminated NCT00000361 Phase 3 Corticosteroids;Methotrexate
31 A 6-Month Extension Study of OTO-104 in Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02768662 Phase 3 OTO-104
32 Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02717442 Phase 3 OTO-104;Placebo
33 A 6-Month Extension Study of OTO-104 in Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02706730 Phase 3 OTO-104
34 Famvir for Treatment of Hearing in Unilateral Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT01526408 Phase 3 Famciclovir;Placebo
35 Latanoprost for the Treatment of Menière's Disease Unknown status NCT01973114 Phase 2 Latanoprost
36 Visual Feedback Goggle for Positional Vertigo Treatment Unknown status NCT00729885 Phase 1, Phase 2
37 Efficacy of Extended-release, Once Daily Tramadol for Post Operative Analgesia in Shoulder Arthroscopy Unknown status NCT02247648 Phase 2 tramadol;Placebo
38 The Effects of Gevokizumab in Corticosteroid-resistant Subjects With Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Completed NCT01950312 Phase 2 gevokizumab
39 A Clinical Trial of Anakinra for Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Completed NCT01267994 Phase 1, Phase 2 Anakinra
40 Study to Evaluate SPI-1005 in Adults With Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02603081 Phase 1, Phase 2 SPI-1005
41 A 1-Year Safety Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Located in United Kingdom Completed NCT02265393 Phase 2 OTO-104;Placebo
42 OTO-104 for the Treatment of Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01412177 Phase 2 OTO-104;Placebo
43 Sildenafil For Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00145483 Phase 2 Sildenafil
44 A Clinical Trial To Evaluate Efficacy And Safety Of Levophencynonate Hydrochloride In Patient With Vertigo Completed NCT02299804 Phase 2 Levophencynonate Hydrochloric;Placebo
45 Treatment of Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT02046980 Phase 2
46 Effect of V0251 in Acute Vertigo Completed NCT01583738 Phase 2 V0251;placebo
47 Prednisone Treatment for Vestibular Neuronitis Completed NCT00271791 Phase 2 Prednisone;Prednisone
48 Treatments for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Completed NCT00000359 Phase 2
49 A Trial of Booklet Based Self Management of Dizziness Completed NCT00732797 Phase 2
50 SPI-1005 for the Treatment of Patients With Meniere's Disease Enrolling by invitation NCT03325790 Phase 2 200mg SPI-1005 BID;400mg SPI-1005 BID

Search NIH Clinical Center for Labyrinthitis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: labyrinthitis

Genetic Tests for Labyrinthitis

Anatomical Context for Labyrinthitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Labyrinthitis:

41
Eye, Testes, Brain, Bone, Liver, Pons, Kidney

Publications for Labyrinthitis

Articles related to Labyrinthitis:

(show top 50) (show all 254)
# Title Authors Year
1
Labyrinthitis Ossificans in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis). ( 29650059 )
2018
2
Cochlear Implant Associated Labyrinthitis: A Previously Unrecognized Phenomenon With a Distinct Clinical and Electrophysiological Impedance Pattern. ( 29065095 )
2017
3
Kawasaki Disease and Labyrinthitis: An Underdiagnosed Complication. ( 28417110 )
2017
4
Does Otosclerosis Affect Dark and Transitional Cells in the Human Vestibular Labyrinth? ( 27851656 )
2017
5
Early Postoperative Imaging of the Labyrinth by Cone Beam CT After Stapes Surgery for Otosclerosis With Correlation to Audiovestibular Outcome. ( 28068300 )
2017
6
Deterioration of Vestibular Cells in Labyrinthitis. ( 27881797 )
2017
7
Blood-Labyrinth Barrier Permeability in MeniA"re Disease and Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Findings on Delayed Postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MRI. ( 27256854 )
2016
8
Nystagmus in patients with unilateral acute otitis media complicated by serous labyrinthitis. ( 26797398 )
2016
9
Quantitative Assessment of Cochlear Histopathologic Findings in Patients With Suppurative Labyrinthitis. ( 26987015 )
2016
10
Labyrinthitis ossificans after meningitis: Superiority of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in demonstration of disease extent compared to high-resolution computed tomography. ( 27114680 )
2016
11
Pathologic Findings of the Cochlea in Labyrinthitis Ossificans Associated with the Round Window Membrane. ( 27221575 )
2016
12
Suppurative labyrinthitis associated with otitis media: 26 years' experience. ( 26718959 )
2016
13
Pneumolabyrinth with Labyrinthitis as the Suspected Cause. ( 27115607 )
2016
14
Cochlear changes in serous labyrinthitis associated with silent otitis media: A human temporal bone study. ( 26954857 )
2016
15
Progression of autoimmune inner ear disease to labyrinthitis ossificans: clinical and radiologic correlation. ( 25738715 )
2015
16
Cortical hot spots and labyrinths: why cortical neuromodulation for episodic migraine with aura should be personalized. ( 25798103 )
2015
17
Rapidly Destructive Autoimmune Labyrinthitis Associated With Ulcerative Colitis. ( 26385058 )
2015
18
The Impact of Postmeningitic Labyrinthitis Ossificans on Speech Performance After Pediatric Cochlear Implantation. ( 26536413 )
2015
19
HIV-1 gp120 as a therapeutic target: navigating a moving labyrinth. ( 25724219 )
2015
20
Labyrinthitis Ossificans: On the Mechanism of Perilabyrinthine Bone Remodeling. ( 25757630 )
2015
21
Refractory Positional Vertigo With Apogeotropic Horizontal Nystagmus After Labyrinthitis: Surgical Treatment and Identification of Dysmorphic Ampullae. ( 26208126 )
2015
22
Membrane Stress in the Human Labyrinth and Meniere Disease: A Model Analysis. ( 26491481 )
2015
23
Three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography imaging of the membranous labyrinth in patients with Meniere's disease. ( 25220723 )
2014
24
Longitudinal assessment of endolymphatic hydrops with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the labyrinth. ( 24770407 )
2014
25
The incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossificans. ( 25075947 )
2014
26
PAN's Labyrinth: Molecular Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) PAN RNA, a Multifunctional Long Noncoding RNA. ( 25375885 )
2014
27
Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and labyrinthitis ossificans secondary to neurosarcoidosis. ( 25189997 )
2014
28
Clinical outcome after cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral hearing loss due to labyrinthitis ossificans. ( 23921941 )
2013
29
Immunohistochemical localization of I+2-adrenergic receptors in the neonatal rat cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth. ( 23975628 )
2013
30
High-resolution 3-D T2-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of labyrinthitis ossificans: emphasis on subtle cochlear involvement. ( 23843131 )
2013
31
A rat in the labyrinth of anorexia nervosa: contributions of the activity-based anorexia rodent model to the understanding of anorexia nervosa. ( 23354987 )
2013
32
Labyrinthitis ossificans in a cochlear implant patient with Usher syndrome. ( 23455060 )
2013
33
The channel-activating protease CAP1/Prss8 is required for placental labyrinth maturation. ( 23405214 )
2013
34
Tuberculous otitis media with facial paralysis combined with labyrinthitis. ( 24653900 )
2013
35
Pharmacogenetic labyrinth of neovascular age-related macular degeneration therapy: how to escape and move forward? ( 23930669 )
2013
36
Geometrical and volume changes of the membranous vestibular labyrinth in guinea pigs with endolymphatic hydrops. ( 23817074 )
2013
37
End-stage labyrinthitis with extensive erosion of the bony labyrinth. ( 22377652 )
2012
38
Acute labyrinthitis secondary to aural tick infestation. ( 23077807 )
2012
39
Herniation of the membranous labyrinth into the horizontal semicircular canal is correlated with impaired caloric response in MAcniA"re's disease. ( 22918115 )
2012
40
Intracranial dermoid cyst ruptured into the membranous labyrinth causing sudden sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings. ( 21920864 )
2012
41
Maternal protein restriction regulates IGF2 system in placental labyrinth. ( 22201967 )
2012
42
Apoptosis of the fibrocytes type 1 in the spiral ligament and blood labyrinth barrier disturbance cause hearing impairment in murine cerebral malaria. ( 22297132 )
2012
43
Endolymphatic hydrops and blood-labyrinth barrier in MAcniA"re's disease. ( 21198346 )
2011
44
Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on endotoxin-induced labyrinthitis. ( 21592590 )
2011
45
Auditory and vestibular defects induced by experimental labyrinthitis following herpes simplex virus in mice. ( 21526906 )
2011
46
Radiology quiz case 2. Labyrinthitis ossificans secondary to suppurative labyrinthitis. ( 21422319 )
2011
47
Deafness due to haemorrhagic labyrinthitis and a review of relapses in Streptococcus suis meningitis. ( 20358139 )
2010
48
Labyrinthitis ossificans secondary to autoimmune inner ear disease: a previously unreported condition. ( 20416474 )
2010
49
Labyrinthitis ossificans. ( 19300296 )
2009
50
Endolymphatic hydrops of the labyrinth visualized on noncontrast MR imaging: a case report. ( 19336989 )
2009

Variations for Labyrinthitis

Expression for Labyrinthitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Labyrinthitis.

Pathways for Labyrinthitis

GO Terms for Labyrinthitis

Sources for Labyrinthitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
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49 NCI
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58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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