MCID: LRY018
MIFTS: 44

Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Categories: Cancer diseases, Oral diseases, Respiratory diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

Name: Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma 12 54 15 17
Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Larynx 12
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Larynx 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2876
NCIt 49 C4044
UMLS 71 C0280324

Summaries for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Disease Ontology : 12 A laryngeal carcinoma that has material basis in squamous cells.

MalaCards based summary : Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, also known as epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx, is related to larynx cancer and papilloma. An important gene associated with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma is MIR21 (MicroRNA 21), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Endometrial cancer and Pathways in cancer. The drugs Cetuximab and Paclitaxel have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lymph node, breast and thyroid, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Related Diseases for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Diseases related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 297)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 larynx cancer 33.2 TP53 TERT NME1 MIR21 EGFR CDKN2A
2 papilloma 31.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
3 in situ carcinoma 31.1 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
4 oropharynx cancer 31.0 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
5 retinitis pigmentosa 11 30.9 TP53 HOTAIR EGFR CDKN2A
6 basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 30.8 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
7 suppression of tumorigenicity 12 30.8 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1 AURKA
8 verrucous carcinoma 30.8 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1
9 squamous cell carcinoma 30.8 TP53 NME1 NEAT1 MALAT1 HOTAIR H19
10 thyroid carcinoma 30.7 TP53 NEAT1 CDH1
11 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 1 30.7 MALAT1 HOTAIR H19
12 suppressor of tumorigenicity 3 30.7 TP53 CDKN2A
13 b-cell lymphoma 30.7 TP53 MIR21 MALAT1 HOTAIR CDKN2A CCND1
14 thymoma 30.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1
15 adenoid cystic carcinoma 30.5 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
16 laryngeal disease 30.5 TP53 MIR21 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
17 keratosis 30.5 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
18 oral cavity cancer 30.5 TP53 MIR21 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
19 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 30.4 TP53 EGFR CDH1 CCND1 CCAT1
20 squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck 30.4 TP53 NME1 MIR21 HOTAIR H19 EGFR
21 hypopharynx cancer 30.3 TP53 NME1 LINC01537 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1
22 retinoblastoma 30.2 TP53 MALAT1 HOTAIR CDKN2A CCND1 CCAT1
23 adenocarcinoma 30.0 TP53 MALAT1 H19 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1
24 lung cancer susceptibility 3 29.4 TP53 TERT MIR21 MALAT1 HOTAIR H19
25 cholangiocarcinoma 29.3 TP53 TERT NEAT1 MIR21 MALAT1 H19
26 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 29.3 TP53 NME1 MIR21 MALAT1 HOTAIR H19
27 bladder cancer 28.7 TP53 TERT MIR21 MALAT1 HOTAIR H19
28 osteogenic sarcoma 28.1 TP53 NEAT1 MALAT1 HOXA11-AS HOTAIR H19
29 nasopharyngeal carcinoma 28.1 TP53 TERT NME1 NEAT1 MIR21 MALAT1
30 pancreatic cancer 27.9 TP53 TERT NEAT1 MIR21 MALAT1 HOTAIR
31 colorectal cancer 27.2 TP53 TERT NME1 NEAT1 MIR21 MALAT1
32 esophageal leukoplakia 10.7 TP53 CCND1
33 pancreatic foamy gland adenocarcinoma 10.6 TP53 CCND1
34 obsolete: squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck 10.6
35 squamous cell papilloma 10.6
36 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 10.6 TP53 CDKN2A CDH1
37 nodular malignant melanoma 10.6 TP53 CDKN2A CCND1
38 malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 10.6 EGFR CDKN2A
39 ovarian seromucinous carcinoma 10.6 TP53 CDKN2A
40 keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma 10.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
41 bowenoid papulosis 10.6 TERT CDKN2A CCND1
42 adult malignant schwannoma 10.6 TP53 CDKN2A AURKA
43 vulvar disease 10.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
44 esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 10.6 TP53 EGFR
45 skin papilloma 10.6 TP53 EGFR CCND1
46 peritoneum cancer 10.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
47 anus cancer 10.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A
48 rhabdoid cancer 10.6 TP53 CDKN2A CCND1
49 cecal benign neoplasm 10.6 TERT CDKN2A
50 supratentorial cancer 10.6 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:



Diseases related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 9.62 AURKA EGFR
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.62 AURKA CDH1 CDKN2A EGFR NME1
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.62 AURKA NME1
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 9.62 CDKN2A
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.62 AURKA CDKN2A EGFR
6 Decreased viability GR00231-A 9.62 AURKA
7 Decreased viability GR00301-A 9.62 CDH1
8 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.62 AURKA CDH1 CDKN2A EGFR NME1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.23 AURKA CCND1 CDH1 CDKN2A EGFR NME1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Drugs for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 29)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cetuximab Approved Phase 2 205923-56-4 56842117 2333
2
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 33069-62-4 36314
3
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 1374853-91-4
4
Carboplatin Approved Phase 2 41575-94-4 10339178 498142 38904
5
Docetaxel Approved, Investigational Phase 2 114977-28-5 148124
6
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2 3902-71-4 5585
7
leucovorin Approved Phase 2 58-05-9 6006 143
8
Tegafur Approved, Investigational Phase 2 17902-23-7 5386
9 Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Phase 2
10 Arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid Phase 2
11 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Antibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
13 Immunoglobulins Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Antimitotic Agents Phase 2
15 Ether Phase 2
16 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
17 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2
18 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 2
19 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2
20 Astragalus Phase 2
21 Cola
22
protease inhibitors
23 HIV Protease Inhibitors
24 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
25 Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
26 Serpins
27
Diadenosine tetraphosphate 5542-28-9 21706
28 Squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen
29
Serine Investigational, Nutraceutical 56-45-1 5951

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 15)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Prospective Phase II Study of Involved Field Elective Volume De-Intensification for Oropharyngeal and Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Completed NCT03067610 Phase 2 chemotherapy
2 A Phase 2, Open-label, Proof-of-concept Study to Assess the Ability to Detect Tumours and Angiogenesis Via the Expression of ανβ3/5 Integrin Receptors by [18F]AH-111585 PET Imaging Completed NCT00565721 Phase 2 Fluciclatide Injection - (AH111585 (F18))
3 A Phase I/II Study of Chemo Radiation Plus the Anti-Programmed Death-1 (Anti-PD-1) Antibody, Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) for Locally Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recruiting NCT02759575 Phase 1, Phase 2 Pembrolizumab;Cisplatin
4 Immuno-Chemotherapy as Single Treatment Modality for Larynx Preservation (ICoLP) Recruiting NCT04030455 Phase 2 Carboplatin;Cisplatin;Docetaxel
5 A Phase II Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial With Allocation Concealment and Blinded Patients and Assessors, Investigating Hyperbaric Oxygen as a Radiation Sensitizer for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Larynx Not yet recruiting NCT03843671 Phase 2 Hyperbaric oxygen
6 Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy During Standard Chemotherapy for Palliation of Patients With Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Phase II Terminated NCT02068157 Phase 2 Photodynamic Therapy;Porfimer Sodium
7 A Phase II Double-blind and Randomized Trial Comparing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Plus PG2 Injection Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Plus Placebo in Advanced Pharyngeal or Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Terminated NCT01720563 Phase 2 Astragalus polysaccharides 500 mg;Placebo
8 Phase I Study of Intraarterial ONYX-015 in Combination With Intravenous Cisplatin and Fluorouracil in Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck Withdrawn NCT00006106 Phase 1 cisplatin;fluorouracil;ONYX-015
9 Quality of Life After Laser Cordectomy in Early Glottic Cancer Unknown status NCT02184403
10 Validation of a Screening Tool in Geriatric Oncology Completed NCT00963911
11 Hyperfractionation and Accelerated Fractionation in Comparison With Conventional Fractionation in Definitive Radiotherapy of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Larynx, Oropharynx and Hypopharynx Completed NCT00291434
12 Value of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Endoscopy in the Early Diagnosis of Laryngeal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions Completed NCT02217358
13 Development and Validation of Nomograms to Precisely Predict Conditional Risk of Recurrence for Patients With Laryngeal Cancer: a Single-institutional Study Recruiting NCT03595410
14 Development and Validation of Nomograms to Precisely Predict Conditional Risk of Survival for Patients With Laryngeal Cancer: a Single-institutional Study Recruiting NCT03747783
15 Isolation, Quantification and Kinetics of Salivary Ap4A, SCCA and TROP2 in Patients With Oral Cancer and Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders Active, not recruiting NCT03529604

Search NIH Clinical Center for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Genetic Tests for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Anatomical Context for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

40
Lymph Node, Breast, Thyroid, Lung, Skin, Endothelial, Neutrophil

Publications for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Articles related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

(show top 50) (show all 1948)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3 and NAT2 polymorphisms in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population. 54 61
19922706 2010
2
Prognostic significance of fascin-1 and E-cadherin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
19741544 2010
3
EGFR immunoexpression and peripheral blood cytokine secretion as potential biomarkers of tumor behavior in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
19789511 2009
4
Protein expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma index tumors correlates with diagnosis of second primary tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract. 54 61
19669840 2009
5
Radiation enhances suicide gene therapy in radioresistant laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma via activation of a tumor-specific promoter. 54 61
19375219 2009
6
[Relationships of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas with the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3]. 54 61
19813623 2009
7
[The expressions and correlation of AQP1 and VEGF in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
19670620 2009
8
[The expression of Galectin-3 and VEGF in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
19452726 2009
9
Impact of EGFR immunoexpression on STAT3 activation and association with proinflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
19148533 2009
10
p53, epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are not predictive markers for the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy. 54 61
18607952 2009
11
Mutant p53 and cyclin A1 protein expression in primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas do not correlate to second primary tumours of the head and neck. 54 61
19183379 2009
12
[hTERT promoter enhances the radiosensitivity to gene-radiation therapy of human laryngeal carcinoma transplanted in nude mice]. 54 61
19173799 2008
13
Cell growth inhibition and down-regulation of survivin by silibinin in a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line. 54 61
18998509 2008
14
[Expression of angiopoietin-1,2 and its relationship with angiogenesis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
19086654 2008
15
Prognostic value of cell-cycle regulators and cellular biomarkers in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
18602381 2008
16
[Effect of CDK2 on proliferation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
19166026 2008
17
[Study of the lymph node micrometastasis in patients with supraglottic carcinoma]. 54 61
19166031 2008
18
[Detection of Skp2 mRNA gene expression using fluorogenic probe quantitative RT-PCR method in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
18800682 2008
19
Prognostic value of expression of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and c-erbB-2 in laryngeal carcinoma. 54 61
18509272 2008
20
Short hairpin ribonucleic acid targeting the telomerase catalytic unit of messenger ribonucleic acid significantly limits the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. 54 61
17592663 2008
21
Clinicopathological significance of the fragile histidine triad transcription protein expression in laryngeal carcinogenesis. 54 61
18357366 2008
22
[Expression of cyclin G1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinicopathologic significance]. 54 61
18788592 2008
23
[Expression of Survivin, Caspase-3 and p53 in surgical margin of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their relationship]. 54 61
18476631 2008
24
Overexpression of CyclinD1 and underexpression of p16 correlate with lymph node metastases in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese patients. 54 61
18787961 2008
25
Possible prognostic role of p53 expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma of non-smokers, non-alcoholic patients. 54 61
18607961 2008
26
Expression of PTEN protein in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
17475427 2007
27
[Effects of HPV 16-E6/E7 oncogene on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line]. 54 61
18307884 2007
28
Aurora-A, a negative prognostic marker, increases migration and decreases radiosensitivity in cancer cells. 54 61
17974987 2007
29
Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in various laryngeal lesions in relation to carcinogenesis, angiogenesis, and patients' prognosis. 54 61
17712678 2007
30
[Expression and clinical significance of Endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor basic-2 in laryngeal carcinoma]. 54 61
18051571 2007
31
[Expression and role of survivin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma in adults]. 54 61
17634026 2007
32
[Clinical significance and expression of FLIP and PTEN protein in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
17441421 2007
33
Combined p14ARF and antisense EGFR potentiate the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). 54 61
17328665 2007
34
The role of host immune response and apoptosis in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
17264532 2007
35
[Expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
17357514 2006
36
5-fluorouracil mediates apoptosis and G1/S arrest in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma via a p53-independent pathway. 54 61
17207318 2006
37
[Expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase and its relationship with expression of c-myc in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas]. 54 61
17219990 2006
38
Relation of glutathione S-transferase genotypes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma risk. 54 61
16938565 2006
39
Expression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Survivin in primary laryngeal carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastasis. 54 61
17094406 2006
40
Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle phase in laryngeal neoplasia. 54 61
16832409 2006
41
[The investigation of STK15 gene amplification and overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
16767676 2006
42
[Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector carrying cell cycle controlling gene-p14ARF]. 54 61
16845966 2006
43
[The relationship between hypermethylation of the PTEN promoter and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
16739377 2006
44
[The clinical significance of the expression of p63 gene in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
16646404 2006
45
Promoter hypermethylation of DNA repair gene MGMT in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
16711019 2006
46
[Inhibitory effect of silencing hTERT gene by short hairpin RNA on growth of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft in nude mice]. 54 61
16405742 2006
47
[The correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor with angiogenesis and p53 gene in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. 54 61
16763427 2006
48
TP53 mutations and S-phase fraction but not DNA-ploidy are independent prognostic indicators in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
15965904 2006
49
Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its significance. 54 61
16711020 2006
50
Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors: influence on tumor invasiveness and metastasis formation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. 54 61
16265652 2006

Variations for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Cosmic variations for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

9
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM122736330 upper aerodigestive tract,larynx,carcinoma,squamous cell carcinoma c.338G>T p.G113V 17:7674229-7674229 0

Expression for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Pathways for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Pathways related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.72 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
2 12.57 TP53 TERT EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
3
Show member pathways
12.47 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
4
Show member pathways
12.4 TP53 TERT EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
5 12.32 TP53 MIR21 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1
6 12.2 TP53 CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
7 12.17 TP53 TERT CDKN2A CCND1
8 12.11 TP53 MIR21 EGFR CCND1
9 11.98 TP53 EGFR CDH1 CCND1
10 11.74 TP53 EGFR CDH1 CCND1 AURKA
11 11.67 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1
12 11.64 TP53 TERT NME1
13 11.62 TERT CDH1 CCND1
14 11.51 TERT EGFR CCND1
15 11.1 NME1 CDH1 CCND1
16 10.96 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1
17 10.88 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CDH1 CCND1
18 10.65 TP53 HOTAIR

GO Terms for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Biological processes related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.91 TP53 TERT MIR21 EGFR AURKA
2 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.67 NEAT1 MIR21 EGFR
3 regulation of protein stability GO:0031647 9.65 TERT CDKN2A AURKA
4 cellular response to drug GO:0035690 9.61 TP53 NME1 EGFR
5 positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0050679 9.54 NME1 EGFR CCND1
6 positive regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:1900087 9.5 TERT EGFR CCND1
7 positive regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA GO:1903800 9.46 TP53 EGFR
8 mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint GO:0031571 9.4 TP53 CCND1
9 liver regeneration GO:0097421 9.33 EGFR CCND1 AURKA
10 response to UV-A GO:0070141 9.26 EGFR CCND1
11 replicative senescence GO:0090399 9.13 TP53 TERT CDKN2A
12 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.1 TP53 TERT NME1 MIR21 CDKN2B-AS1 AURKA

Molecular functions related to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein kinase binding GO:0019901 9.02 TP53 EGFR CDKN2A CCND1 AURKA

Sources for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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