MCID: LSH001
MIFTS: 70

Leishmaniasis

Categories: Rare diseases, Infectious diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Leishmaniasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leishmaniasis:

Name: Leishmaniasis 12 76 53 55 43 3 44 15 73
Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis 12 73
Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Infectious Disease by Leishmaniasis 12
Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis 12
Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous 73
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 53
Leishmaniasis, Visceral 73
Visceral Leishmaniasis 53
Kala-Azar 53

Classifications:



Summaries for Leishmaniasis

MedlinePlus : 43 Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores. The visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. People with this form usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen and liver. Leishmaniasis is found in parts of about 88 countries. Most of these countries are in the tropics and subtropics. It is possible but very unlikely that you would get this disease in the United States. But you should be aware of it if you are traveling to the Middle East or parts of Central America, South America, Asia, Africa or southern Europe. Treatment is with medicines that contain antimony, a type of metal, or with strong antibiotics. The best way to prevent the disease is to protect yourself from sand fly bites: Stay indoors from dusk to dawn, when sand flies are the most active Wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts when outside Use insect repellent and bed nets as needed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Leishmaniasis, also known as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, is related to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, and has symptoms including exanthema, fever and pruritus. An important gene associated with Leishmaniasis is RN7SL1 (RNA, 7SL, Cytoplasmic 1
Down-regulation of 7SL RNA expression and impairment of vesicular protein transport pathways by Leishmania infection of macrophages.
Dysfunction Pattern: Expression [differentially expressed]), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs chloroquine and Amphotericin B have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and spleen, and related phenotypes are abnormality of the nose and pallor

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that involves infection caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted by the bite of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae).

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores. The visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver and bone marrow. People with this form usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen and liver. Visceral disease can be deadly without proper treatment. Leishmaniasis is found in parts of the Middle East, Central America, South American, Asia, Africa, and southern Europe. Most of these countries are in the tropics and subtropics. It is possible but very unlikely to get this disease in the United States.

CDC : 3 Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found in parts of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe. It is classified as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). Leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow).

Wikipedia : 76 Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type. It is spread by the bite of... more...

Related Diseases for Leishmaniasis

Diseases related to Leishmaniasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 400)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 34.6 IL10 TLR9 TNF
2 cutaneous leishmaniasis 31.6 IFNG IL10 IL4 IL5 LMLN MPI
3 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30.7 IFNG IL10 TNF
4 panuveitis 30.5 HLA-DRB1 IL10 TNF
5 orofacial granulomatosis 30.5 IFNG IL10 IL4 TNF
6 fascioliasis 30.5 IFNG IL10 IL1B
7 visceral leishmaniasis 30.4 HSPA4 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1B IL4
8 hemorrhagic fever 30.4 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 TNF
9 lepromatous leprosy 30.4 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 TLR2 TNF
10 mixed connective tissue disease 30.4 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 TNF
11 melioidosis 30.3 IFNG IL10 TLR2 TLR4 TNF
12 prostatitis 30.3 IL10 IL1B TNF
13 chagas disease 30.3 IFNG IL10 IL1B NOS2 TLR2 TLR4
14 folliculitis 30.2 IFNG IL4 IL5
15 wegener granulomatosis 30.1 IFNG IL10 ITGAM TNF
16 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.0 IFNG IL10 IL1B RN7SL1 TNF
17 cryptococcosis 30.0 IFNG IL4 TLR9
18 arthritis 30.0 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B TNF
19 psoriatic arthritis 29.9 HLA-DRB1 IL1A IL1B TNF
20 rheumatic disease 29.9 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 IL1B TNF
21 trypanosomiasis 29.8 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL4 TLR2 TLR9
22 chronic granulomatous disease 29.8 IFNG IL1B TLR9 TNF
23 schistosomiasis 29.6 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL4 IL5 TNF
24 onchocerciasis 29.6 IL4 IL5 MPI
25 coccidiosis 29.6 IFNG IL10 IL4 TLR9 TNF
26 common variable immunodeficiency 29.5 IFNG IL10 IL4 TLR9 TNF
27 diabetes mellitus 29.0 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL1A IL1B TNF
28 meningitis 29.0 IFNG IL10 IL1B TLR2 TLR9 TNF
29 tonsillitis 28.8 IFNG IL1A IL1B IL4 TLR9 TNF
30 filariasis 28.6 IFNG IL10 IL5 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
31 connective tissue disease 28.6 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 IL1A TLR9
32 aspergillosis 28.4 IFNG IL10 IL4 IL5 TLR2 TLR4
33 psoriasis 28.4 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 TLR9
34 toxoplasmosis 28.2 HLA-DQA1 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL4 TLR4
35 pulmonary tuberculosis 28.2 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL4 SLC11A1
36 systemic lupus erythematosus 28.1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 IL4 ITGAM
37 rheumatoid arthritis 28.0 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B
38 periodontitis 27.8 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 TLR2
39 malaria 25.7 HLA-DRB1 HSPA4 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
40 leishmaniasis, tegumentary 12.1
41 kala-azar 1 11.5
42 mycoplasmal pneumonia 11.1 IFNG IL4
43 punctate inner choroidopathy 11.1 IL10 TNF
44 kala-azar 2 11.0
45 kala-azar 3 11.0
46 hyperlucent lung 11.0 IFNG IL10 IL4
47 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 11.0 IL10 IL4 TNF
48 baylisascariasis 11.0 IFNG IL10 IL4
49 tungiasis 11.0 IL10 IL4 TNF
50 endomyocardial fibrosis 11.0 IL10 IL4 TNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leishmaniasis:



Diseases related to Leishmaniasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leishmaniasis

Human phenotypes related to Leishmaniasis:

32 (show all 24)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 abnormality of the nose 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0000366
2 pallor 32 frequent (33%) HP:0000980
3 splenomegaly 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0001744
4 weight loss 32 frequent (33%) HP:0001824
5 thrombocytopenia 32 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001873
6 pancytopenia 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0001876
7 leukopenia 32 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001882
8 abnormal bleeding 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0001892
9 anemia 32 frequent (33%) HP:0001903
10 episodic fever 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0001954
11 anorexia 32 occasional (7.5%) HP:0002039
12 hepatomegaly 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0002240
13 lymphadenopathy 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0002716
14 arthralgia 32 frequent (33%) HP:0002829
15 elevated hepatic transaminases 32 frequent (33%) HP:0002910
16 hypoalbuminemia 32 frequent (33%) HP:0003073
17 abnormal macrophage morphology 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0004311
18 increased antibody level in blood 32 frequent (33%) HP:0010702
19 abnormal oral mucosa morphology 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0011830
20 fatigue 32 occasional (7.5%) HP:0012378
21 night sweats 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0030166
22 papule 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0200034
23 skin plaque 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0200035
24 skin ulcer 32 hallmark (90%) HP:0200042

UMLS symptoms related to Leishmaniasis:


exanthema, fever, pruritus

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 28)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-100 9.87 IL10
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-105 9.87 HSPA4
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-108 9.87 HSPA4
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-11 9.87 HSPA4
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-113 9.87 IL10 TLR4
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-114 9.87 TLR4
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-12 9.87 HLA-DRB1
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-125 9.87 IL10
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-128 9.87 IL10 HLA-DRB1 TLR4 HSPA4
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-132 9.87 IL10
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-137 9.87 HLA-DRB1
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-152 9.87 IL10
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-161 9.87 IL10
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-169 9.87 HLA-DRB1 TLR4 HSPA4
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-172 9.87 HSPA4
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-177 9.87 HLA-DRB1
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-185 9.87 HLA-DRB1
18 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-196 9.87 HLA-DRB1
19 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-198 9.87 IL10
20 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-210 9.87 IL10
21 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 9.87 IL10
22 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-25 9.87 IL10
23 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-52 9.87 IL10
24 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-63 9.87 HSPA4
25 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-67 9.87 IL10
26 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-80 9.87 HLA-DRB1 IL10
27 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-82 9.87 IL10
28 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-85 9.87 IL10

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Leishmaniasis:

46 (show all 16)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.39 TLR4 SLC11A1 TLR2 TLR9 TNF IFNGR1
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.35 TNF TLR4 SLC11A1 TLR2 TLR9 IFNGR1
3 cellular MP:0005384 10.33 TNF TLR4 TLR9 TLR2 IFNGR1 HSPA4
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.31 TLR4 TLR9 TLR2 TNF IL10 IFNGR1
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.28 TNF TLR4 SLC11A1 TLR2 TLR9 IFNGR1
6 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.26 TLR2 NOS2 TLR4 TNF IL10 IFNGR1
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.22 TLR2 NOS2 TLR4 SLC11A1 TLR9 TNF
8 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.18 TLR2 NOS2 TNF IFNG IL10 HLA-DQA1
9 integument MP:0010771 10.16 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IFNGR1 IFNG IL10
10 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.11 TLR4 SLC11A1 TLR2 TNF IFNGR1 IL1A
11 nervous system MP:0003631 10.1 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IFNGR1 HSPA4 IFNG
12 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.09 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IFNGR1 IFNG IL10
13 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.81 NOS2 TLR4 TNF IFNG IL10 HSPA4
14 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.8 TLR2 NOS2 TLR4 TLR9 IFNG IFNGR1
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 TLR4 TLR2 TNF IL10 IFNG IL4
16 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IFNGR1 IFNG IL10

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leishmaniasis

Drugs for Leishmaniasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 167)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
chloroquine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-05-7 2719
2
Amphotericin B Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 1397-89-3 14956 5280965
3
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 22916-47-8 4189
4
Primaquine Approved Phase 4 90-34-6 4908
5
Miltefosine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 58066-85-6 3600
6
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
7
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 155213-67-5 392622
8
Nevirapine Approved Phase 4 129618-40-2 4463
9
deoxycholic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 83-44-3 222528
10
Paromomycin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 1263-89-4, 7542-37-2 165580
11
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143491-57-0 60877
12
Meglumine antimoniate Experimental, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 133-51-7
13 Chloroquine diphosphate Phase 4 50-63-5
14 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
15 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
16 Anthelmintics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
18 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
20 Antifungal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
23 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
24 Liposomal amphotericin B Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
26 Antimalarials Phase 4
27 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
28 Antiviral Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
29 Antimony Sodium Gluconate Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
30
Tenofovir Phase 4 147127-20-6 464205
31
protease inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3
32 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 4
33 Cholagogues and Choleretics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
34 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
35 Amphotericin B, deoxycholate drug combination Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
36 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Phase 4
37 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 4
38 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3
39 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3
40 Anesthetics Phase 4
41 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4
42 Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination Phase 4
43 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
44 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
45 Atazanavir Sulfate Phase 4
46
Pentamidine Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Phase 2 100-33-4 4735
47
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 69-72-7 338
48
Ethanol Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 64-17-5 702
49
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 8009-03-8
50
Maraviroc Approved, Investigational Phase 3 376348-65-1 3002977

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 151)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Single Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for Visceral Leishmaniasis Unknown status NCT01566552 Phase 4 AMBISOME
2 Estimating the Risk of Plasmodium Vivax Relapses in Afghanistan Unknown status NCT01178021 Phase 4 Chloroquine;Chloroquine/Primaquine
3 A Study to Explore Association of Treatment Regimens for Visceral Leishmaniasis, Host Immunological, Genetical and Nutrition Factors With Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) Completed NCT01975051 Phase 4 Mitefosine
4 Amphotericin B to Treat Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazilian Children Completed NCT01032187 Phase 4 Meglumine antimoniate;Amphotericin B-deoxycholate
5 Safety and Efficacy of Low-Dose Pentavalent Antimony for Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00317980 Phase 4 Meglumine antimoniate;Meglumine antimoniate
6 Low-dose Pentavalent Antimony Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Old Age Patients Completed NCT00818818 Phase 4 Meglumine antimoniate
7 Expand Access/Assess Safety and Efficacy of Paromomycin IM Injection for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00604955 Phase 4 Paromomycin sulfate
8 Efficacy of Radio-frequency Induced Heat (RFH)Therapy in Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in India Completed NCT01661296 Phase 4 Sodium stibogluconate
9 Pharmacokinetics of Miltefosine in Children and Adults Completed NCT01462500 Phase 4 Miltefosine
10 Safety and Effectiveness of Short-course AmBisome in the Treatment of PKDL in Bangladesh Completed NCT03311607 Phase 4 AmBisome
11 Nevirapine vs. Atazanavir Boosted With Ritonavir on a Background of Truvada in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Naive Patients (NEwArT) Completed NCT00552240 Phase 4 tenofovir DF 300 mg QD;tenofovir DF 300 mg QD;emtricitabine 200 mg QD;emtricitabine 200 mg QD;Nevirapine 200 mg BID;Atazanavir 300 mg;Ritonavir 100 mg
12 Efficacy and Safety Study of Drugs for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil Terminated NCT01310738 Phase 4 Antimoniate of N-methylglucamine;amphotericin B deoxycholate;Liposomal amphotericin B;Liposomal amphotericin B;Antimoniate of N-methylglucamine
13 Oral Miltefosine for the Treatment of Pediatric Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Unknown status NCT00487253 Phase 3 Miltefosine;Meglumine antimoniate
14 Efficacy Trial of Ambisome Given Alone and Ambisome Given in Combination With Miltefosine for the Treatment of VL HIV Positive Ethiopian Patients. Unknown status NCT02011958 Phase 3 Liposomal Amphotericin B;Miltefosine
15 Pyruvic Acid Versus Salicylic Acid Preparation in Treatment of Plantar Warts Unknown status NCT02151630 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pyruvic acid;Salicylic Acid
16 Comparison of Standard and Alternative Antimonial Dosage in Patients With American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01301924 Phase 2, Phase 3 Meglumine antimoniate
17 Antimony Plus Pentoxifylline in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01381055 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pentoxifylline;Placebo
18 Add-on Study of Pentoxifylline in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01464242 Phase 2, Phase 3 Meglumine antimonate;Placebo;Pentoxifylline
19 Liposomal Amphotericin in Disseminated Leishmaniasis Completed NCT02025491 Phase 3 Liposomal Amphotericin B
20 An Open Lable Randomised Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Short Course Paromomycin in Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00629031 Phase 3 Paromomycin;Paromomycin
21 To Study the Effect Of Single Infusions Of Amphotericin B Lipid Preparations in Treatment of Patients Of Kala Azar Completed NCT00876824 Phase 3 Amphotericin B Lipid emulsion;Liposomal Amphotericin B
22 Single Infusion of Liposomal Amphotericin B in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00628719 Phase 3 Liposomal Amphotericin B;amphotericin B deoxycholate
23 Phase 3 Study to Evaluate WR 279,396 vs. Paromomycin Alone to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (in Tunisia) Completed NCT00606580 Phase 3 WR 279,396 topical cream;Paromomycin Alone topical cream;Vehicle placebo cream
24 Prophylaxis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapses in HIV Co-infected Patients With Pentamidine: a Cohort Study Completed NCT01360762 Phase 3 Pentamidine
25 Safety and Efficacy Study to Evaluate Different Combination Treatment Regimens for Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00696969 Phase 3 Amphotericin B Deoxycholate;Ambisome + Miltefosine;Ambisome and Paromomycin;Miltefosine and Paromomycin
26 Safety and Efficacy Study of Paromomycin to Treat Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00216346 Phase 3 Paromomycin sulfate;Amphotericin B
27 Efficacy and Safety of Miltefosine or Thermotherapy for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia. Completed NCT00471705 Phase 3 Miltefosine;Glucantime®
28 Combination Therapy in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00523965 Phase 3 amphotericin B deoxycholate;Liposomal Amphotericin B with Miltefosine;Liposomal Amphotericin B and Paromomycin Sulfate;miltefosine + Paromomycin sulfate
29 Imiquimod Plus Antimony Immunochemotherapy for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00257530 Phase 3 Imiquimod
30 Efficacy/Safety of Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) Versus Paromomycin (PM) and SSG/PM Combination to Treat V Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00255567 Phase 3 Sodium Stibogluconate;Paromomycin sulphate;SSG and Paromomycin sulphate
31 Phase 3 Study of Walter Reed (WR) 279,396 and Paromomycin Alone for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama Completed NCT01790659 Phase 3 WR 279,396;Paromomycin
32 Efficacy Trial on Oral Miltefosine in Comparison With Glucantime in the Treatment of ACL Caused by L. Tropica Completed NCT00351520 Phase 3 Miltefose
33 Replacement of Insecticides to Control Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Completed NCT01644682 Phase 3
34 Rationale for New Topical Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) Treatment in Kabul Completed NCT00947362 Phase 2, Phase 3 DAC N-055;saline
35 Phase III, Study of Three Short Course Combo (Ambisome®, Miltefosine, Paromomycin) Compared With AmBisome for the Treatment of VL in Bangladesh Completed NCT01122771 Phase 3 Liposomal amphotericin B;liposomal amphotericin B + miltefosine;liposomal amphotericin B + paromomycin;Miltefosine + Paromomycin
36 Safety/Efficacy Trial of Killed Leishmania Vaccine in Volunteers With no Response to Leishmanin Completed NCT00429715 Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Safety/Efficacy Trial of Killed Leishmania Vaccine in Volunteers With Positive Response to Leishmanin (LST>0) Completed NCT00429780 Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Clinical Trial for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Using a Nitric Oxide Releasing Patch: PATHON Completed NCT00428727 Phase 3 Controlled nitric oxide releasing patch;placebo patch
39 Interleukin-2 Plus Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Infected Patients With Low CD4+ Counts (SILCAAT Study) Completed NCT00013611 Phase 3 Proleukin
40 An International Study to Evaluate Recombinant Interleukin-2 in HIV Positive Patients Taking Anti-retroviral Therapy Completed NCT00004978 Phase 3 Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)
41 Nicotinamide in the Treatment of Psoriasis Completed NCT01763424 Phase 2, Phase 3 Calcipotriol plus Nicotinamide;Calcipotriol
42 Immuno-stimulation With Maraviroc Combined to Antiretroviral Therapy in Advanced Late Diagnosed HIV-1 Infected Patients Completed NCT01348308 Phase 3 Maraviroc (Celsentri);Placebo
43 Low Antimonial Dosage in American Mucosal Leishmaniasis Recruiting NCT01301937 Phase 2, Phase 3 Meglumine antimoniate
44 Miltefosine/Paromomycin Phase III Trial for Treatment of Primary Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Patients in Eastern Africa Recruiting NCT03129646 Phase 3 Miltefosine;Paromomycin;Sodium stibogluconate
45 Miltefosine for Children With PKDL Recruiting NCT02193022 Phase 3 Miltefosine
46 Topical Paromomycin for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bolivia Recruiting NCT03096457 Phase 2, Phase 3 Paromomycin Sulfate;Pentamidine Isethionate
47 Miltefosine and GM-CSF in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Not yet recruiting NCT03023111 Phase 3 Sbv;Miltefosine plus placebo;Miltefosine plus GM-CSF
48 Effectiveness, Safety and Feasibility of HECT-CL, in Quetta, Pakistan Suspended NCT03208543 Phase 3
49 High Dose Fluconazole in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bahia and Manaus Terminated NCT01953744 Phase 3 Fluconazole;Meglumine Antimoniate
50 Safety and Efficacy of Azithromycin to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Terminated NCT00682656 Phase 2, Phase 3 Glucantime®;Zithromax ®

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leishmaniasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: leishmaniasis

Genetic Tests for Leishmaniasis

Anatomical Context for Leishmaniasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leishmaniasis:

41
Skin, Liver, Spleen, Bone, Bone Marrow, Testes, T Cells

Publications for Leishmaniasis

Articles related to Leishmaniasis:

(show top 50) (show all 2149)
# Title Authors Year
1
FcI^-RI, FcI^-RII and IL-10 as predictive biomarkers for post-therapeutic cicatrization time in monocytes from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. ( 29908029 )
2018
2
Andrographolide engineered gold nanoparticle to overcome drug resistant visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29421940 )
2018
3
Fulminant presentation of oral mucosal leishmaniasis as severe stomatitis and periodontitis. ( 29380732 )
2018
4
Cryotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by <i>Leishmania major</i> in BALB/c mice: A comparative experimental study. ( 29916447 )
2018
5
Exploring sand fly salivary proteins to design multi-epitope subunit vaccine to fight against visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29377223 )
2018
6
Visceral leishmaniasis presenting with pancytopenia and circulating blastlike lymphocytes. ( 29930152 )
2018
7
Brain Parenchyma (pons) Involvement by Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case Report. ( 29963097 )
2018
8
An international qualitative study exploring patients' experiences of cutaneous leishmaniasis: study set-up and protocol. ( 29909372 )
2018
9
Sensitivity and specificity of an in-clinic point-of-care PCR test for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. ( 29428091 )
2018
10
Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with thermotherapy in Brazil: an efficacy and safety study. ( 29924242 )
2018
11
NH36 and F3 Antigen-Primed Dendritic Cells Show Preserved Migrating Capabilities and CCR7 Expression and F3 Is Effective in Immunotherapy of Visceral Leishmaniasis. ( 29867949 )
2018
12
Risk factors for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in unresponsive and responsive patients in a major focus, southeast of Iran. ( 29415078 )
2018
13
Prevalence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (Leishmaniasis and Lymphatic Filariasis) and Malaria Among a Migrant Labour Settlement in Kerala, India. ( 29860672 )
2018
14
Comparing the therapeutic efficacy of different amphotericin B-carrying delivery systems against visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29448040 )
2018
15
Combined neutralization of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha induces IL-4 production but has no direct additive impact on parasite burden in splenic cultures of human visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29953494 )
2018
16
Visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 and discrete bicytopenia. ( 29375842 )
2018
17
Extensive Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis. ( 29441312 )
2018
18
Potential application of rLc36 protein for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29412359 )
2018
19
Recent progress in drug targets and inhibitors towards combating leishmaniasis. ( 29452111 )
2018
20
Environmental factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis in an area with recent introduction of the disease in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ( 29412315 )
2018
21
Leishmaniasis treatment: update of possibilities for drug repurposing. ( 28930585 )
2018
22
Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis; A Seroepidemiological Survey in Jiroft District, Southern Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran in 2015. ( 29963087 )
2018
23
Diagnostic lipid changes in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29848097 )
2018
24
Development of Thiophene Compounds as Potent Chemotherapies for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by <i>Leishmania major</i>. ( 29973498 )
2018
25
Positive Influence of Behavior Change Communication on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Visceral Leishmaniasis/Kala-azar in India. ( 29386327 )
2018
26
High frequency of subclinical Leishmania infection among HIV-infected patients living in the endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in Fars province, southern Iran. ( 29860572 )
2018
27
Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in State of Alagoas, Northeast, Brazil. ( 29412243 )
2018
28
Sensitive and less invasive confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). ( 29444079 )
2018
29
Correction: B Cell: T Cell Interactions Occur within Hepatic Granulomas during Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis. ( 29894507 )
2018
30
Arnica Tincture Cures Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golden Hamsters. ( 29329207 )
2018
31
Comprehensive economic evaluation of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. ( 29378537 )
2018
32
Efficacy of Four <i>Solanum</i> spp. Extracts in an Animal Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. ( 29874837 )
2018
33
Visceral leishmaniasis in an infant gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Clinical signs, diagnosis, and successful treatment with single-dose liposomal amphotericin B. ( 29956831 )
2018
34
Molecular detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in phlebotomine sandflies from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northwestern of SALo Paulo State, Brazil. ( 29373820 )
2018
35
First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran. ( 29451599 )
2018
36
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan City of Multan, Pakistan, a Neglected Tropical Disease. ( 29415246 )
2018
37
Climate and environmental factors affecting the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Iran. ( 29427273 )
2018
38
The genetically determined production of the alarmin eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is reduced in visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29193305 )
2018
39
Dermoscopy of Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis. ( 29441313 )
2018
40
Rare Tongue Compromising of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis by Leishmania Subgenus Viannia. ( 29519666 )
2018
41
Health economic evaluation of moist wound care in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis ulcers in Afghanistan. ( 29444705 )
2018
42
Compounds from African Medicinal Plants with Activities Against Selected Parasitic Diseases: Schistosomiasis, Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. ( 29744736 )
2018
43
The ubiquitous parasite: leishmaniasis in an elderly man. ( 29963511 )
2018
44
First detection of Leishmania DNA in Psammomys obesus and Psammomys vexillaris: Their potential involvement in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Tunisia. ( 29413886 )
2018
45
Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum DNA and host blood meal identification in Phlebotomus in a hypoendemic focus of human leishmaniasis in northern Algeria. ( 29958283 )
2018
46
Liposomal Elongation Factor-1I+ Triggers Effector CD4 and CD8 T Cells for Induction of Long-Lasting Protective Immunity against Visceral Leishmaniasis. ( 29441060 )
2018
47
Mucosal leishmaniasis: the experience of a Brazilian referral center. ( 29972562 )
2018
48
Eosinophilic inflammation in lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29920692 )
2018
49
Some aspects of entomological determinants of Phlebotomus orientalis in highland and lowland visceral leishmaniasis foci in northwestern Ethiopia. ( 29438419 )
2018
50
Immunohaematological and rheological parameters in canine visceral leishmaniasis. ( 29846458 )
2018

Variations for Leishmaniasis

Expression for Leishmaniasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leishmaniasis.

Pathways for Leishmaniasis

Pathways related to Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 75)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14.13 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
2
Show member pathways
13.77 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4
3
Show member pathways
13.61 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4
4
Show member pathways
13.54 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5 ITGAM
5
Show member pathways
13.47 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
6
Show member pathways
13.17 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1B NOS2 TLR2
7
Show member pathways
13.02 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 HSPA4 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10
8
Show member pathways
12.97 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B IL4 TLR2
9
Show member pathways
12.92 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B
10 12.87 IFNG IFNGR1 IL4 IL5 NOS2
11
Show member pathways
12.81 IL1A IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
12
Show member pathways
12.8 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4
13
Show member pathways
12.73 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B TNF
14 12.73 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL4 TLR2 TLR9
15
Show member pathways
12.68 IL1A IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
16
Show member pathways
12.66 IFNG IL10 IL1B NOS2 TNF
17
Show member pathways
12.61 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5
18
Show member pathways
12.49 IFNG IL1B IL4 IL5 TLR2 TNF
19
Show member pathways
12.45 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B NOS2 TLR4
20
Show member pathways
12.42 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1B TLR2 TLR4
21
Show member pathways
12.39 IL1A TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
22
Show member pathways
12.39 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B TLR4 TNF
23
Show member pathways
12.38 IFNG IL1B IL4 TNF
24
Show member pathways
12.36 IL1A IL1B NOS2 TLR2 TNF
25 12.35 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL10
26 12.35 IFNG IFNGR1 NOS2 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
27
Show member pathways
12.34 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
28 12.29 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 ITGAM TLR2 TLR4
29
Show member pathways
12.28 IL10 IL1B TLR9 TNF
30 12.25 IL10 IL1A IL1B TNF
31
Show member pathways
12.24 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4
32
Show member pathways
12.24 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1B IL4 NOS2 TLR2
33
Show member pathways
12.22 IL1A IL1B IL5 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
34 12.22 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
35 12.2 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B TNF
36 12.19 IFNG IL1A IL1B IL4 NOS2 TLR4
37 12.18 IFNG IL10 IL4 IL5 ITGAM TNF
38 12.17 IFNG IL1A IL1B TNF
39 12.16 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 ITGAM NOS2
40
Show member pathways
12.16 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A
41
Show member pathways
12.14 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IL1B IL4 NOS2
42 12.03 IFNG IFNGR1 NOS2 TLR4
43 12.03 IFNG IFNGR1 IL1A IL1B NOS2 TLR4
44 12.02 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5
45 11.99 IFNG IL10 IL1B ITGAM NOS2 TLR2
46 11.97 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL4 IL5 ITGAM
47 11.95 ITGAM TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
48 11.94 IL10 IL1A IL1B ITGAM NOS2 TLR4
49 11.92 IFNG IL10 IL1B ITGAM TLR9 TNF
50
Show member pathways
11.9 IFNG IL4 IL5 TNF

GO Terms for Leishmaniasis

Cellular components related to Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.61 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5
2 lysosome GO:0005764 9.55 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IL1B SLC11A1 TLR9
3 endosome membrane GO:0010008 9.02 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 SLC11A1 TLR4 TLR9

Biological processes related to Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 74)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.98 IL10 IL1B IL5 TNF
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.97 IFNG IL1A IL1B SLC11A1 TLR2 TLR4
3 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829 9.96 NOS2 SLC11A1 TLR4 TLR9
4 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.95 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNG IFNGR1
5 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.94 IFNG IL1B NOS2 TNF
6 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.91 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
7 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 9.89 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
8 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.89 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
9 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.89 IL1B SLC11A1 TLR4 TNF
10 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.88 IL4 IL5 TLR4 TLR9
11 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 9.88 IL1A IL1B TLR4 TLR9 TNF
12 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand GO:2001240 9.87 IL1A IL1B TNF
13 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.87 IFNG IL1B TLR4 TNF
14 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.86 IL1B SLC11A1 TNF
15 response to bacterium GO:0009617 9.86 NOS2 SLC11A1 TLR4
16 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002755 9.85 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
17 positive regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050715 9.85 IL10 IL1A TNF
18 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.85 HLA-DRB1 IL10 TLR4
19 positive regulation of interferon-beta production GO:0032728 9.84 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
20 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.84 IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TNF
21 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 9.83 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
22 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 9.82 IFNG IL1B TNF
23 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process GO:0051770 9.81 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
24 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.81 IL10 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
25 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.81 IFNGR1 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5
26 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.8 IL10 TLR2 TLR9
27 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.8 IL10 IL1B TNF
28 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 9.8 IFNG TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
29 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.8 IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
30 I-kappaB phosphorylation GO:0007252 9.79 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
31 regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050707 9.79 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
32 regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060334 9.75 IFNG IFNGR1
33 positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process GO:0045086 9.75 IL1A IL1B
34 positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production GO:0071639 9.75 IL1A IL1B
35 positive regulation of podosome assembly GO:0071803 9.74 IL5 TNF
36 cellular response to lipoteichoic acid GO:0071223 9.74 TLR2 TLR4
37 negative regulation of interleukin-17 production GO:0032700 9.74 IFNG TLR4
38 T-helper 1 type immune response GO:0042088 9.74 HLA-DRB1 TLR4
39 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production GO:0032725 9.74 IL1B TLR9
40 macrophage activation GO:0042116 9.74 SLC11A1 TLR4
41 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.73 IL1B TNF
42 positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process GO:0045416 9.73 TLR4 TNF
43 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.73 IL10 TNF
44 ectopic germ cell programmed cell death GO:0035234 9.73 IL1A IL1B
45 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.73 IL1B TNF
46 positive regulation of interferon-beta biosynthetic process GO:0045359 9.73 TLR4 TLR9
47 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.73 IL10 IL4 TLR4
48 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.73 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
49 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.73 IL1A IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
50 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.72 IL10 TNF

Molecular functions related to Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 MHC class II receptor activity GO:0032395 9.26 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.17 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL5
3 lipopolysaccharide receptor activity GO:0001875 9.16 TLR2 TLR4
4 interleukin-1 receptor binding GO:0005149 9.13 IL1A IL1B TLR9

Sources for Leishmaniasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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