MCID: LKP003
MIFTS: 39

Leukoplakia

Categories: Cancer diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukoplakia:

Name: Leukoplakia 20 54 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0023531

Summaries for Leukoplakia

GARD : 20 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. Although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. The condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. Tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. Most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. Removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases.

MalaCards based summary : Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and dyskeratosis congenita. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (Dyskerin Pseudouridine Synthase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Keratinization and Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics. The drugs Rosiglitazone and Celecoxib have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, cervix and bone marrow, and related phenotype is Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435).

Wikipedia : 73 Leukoplakia is a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated with increased... more...

Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 255)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oral leukoplakia 32.3 PCNA MKI67 GSTT1 GSTM1
2 dyskeratosis congenita 31.5 KRT13 KRT1 DKC1
3 oral submucous fibrosis 30.9 GSTM1 CYP1A1
4 oral cancer 30.7 PCNA KRT13 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
5 bowen's disease 30.2 PCNA MKI67
6 lichen planus 30.1 KRT13 KRT1 FLG DEFB4A
7 white sponge nevus 1 30.0 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
8 tobacco addiction 29.7 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
9 human papillomavirus infectious disease 29.7 KRT13 FLG
10 cholesteatoma of middle ear 29.6 KRT13 FLG DEFB4A
11 papilloma 29.5 PCNA KRT8 KRT13 KRT1 FLG
12 pachyonychia congenita 1 29.4 KRT4 KRT1 FLG
13 transitional cell carcinoma 29.3 MKI67 KRT8 GSTM1
14 basal cell carcinoma 28.7 MKI67 KRT8 KRT1 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
15 oral hairy leukoplakia 11.6
16 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 11.5
17 leukoplakia of penis 11.3
18 uterine cervix leukoplakia 11.3
19 oral mucosa leukoplakia 11.3
20 esophageal leukoplakia 11.2
21 leukoplakia of vagina 11.2
22 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.1
23 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.1
24 dyskeratosis congenita, x-linked 11.0
25 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 11.0
26 revesz syndrome 11.0
27 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3 11.0
28 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2 11.0
29 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 11.0
30 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.0
31 balanitis xerotica obliterans 10.9
32 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.9
33 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1 10.8
34 poikiloderma with neutropenia 10.8
35 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2 10.8
36 oral cavity carcinoma in situ 10.8
37 mouth disease 10.8
38 hoyeraal hreidarsson syndrome 10.8
39 squamous cell carcinoma 10.8
40 keratosis 10.7
41 oral lichen planus 10.6
42 candidiasis 10.5
43 in situ carcinoma 10.5
44 erythroplakia 10.4
45 verrucous carcinoma 10.4
46 squamous cell papilloma 10.4
47 oral candidiasis 10.4
48 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 10.4
49 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.3
50 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.3 GSTT1 GSTM1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 8.8 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Drugs for Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
2
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
3
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
4
nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
5
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4
6
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
7
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 2 106-60-5 137
8
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
9
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
10
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
11 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Protective Agents Phase 2
13 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
14 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2
16 Analgesics Phase 2
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2
18 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
19 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
20 Retinamide Phase 2
21 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2
22 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 2
23 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
24 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
25 Tea Phase 2
26
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
27
Isotretinoin Approved Phase 1 4759-48-2 5538 5282379
28
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 114-07-8 12560
29 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
30 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
31 Antipyretics Phase 1
32 Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate Phase 1
33 Erythromycin Estolate Phase 1
34 Erythromycin stearate Phase 1
35
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
36
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
37
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved 10024-97-2 948
38
Sulindac Approved, Investigational 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
39
Acyclovir Approved 59277-89-3 2022
40
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational 86386-73-4 3365
41
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved 23593-75-1 2812
42
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
43
Heparin Approved, Investigational 9005-49-6 772 9812414
44
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
45
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 73-31-4 896
46 Anti-Infective Agents
47 Antiviral Agents
48 Hormones
49 Hormone Antagonists
50 Antifungal Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 A Randomized Controlled Trial: Photodynamic Treatment for the Therapy of Premalignant Mucosal Oral Lesions. Completed NCT01497951 Phase 3
3 Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate and Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Phase IIb Trial Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
4 Phase IIA Trial of Rosiglitazone (Avandia) for Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
5 A Phase IIb Cancer Prevention Trial of Celecoxib, a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor, in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
6 A Phase IIa Cancer Prevention Trial of the PPAR Gamma Agonist Pioglitazone in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
7 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Clinical Trial of N(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)Retinamide (Fenretinide, 4HPR) in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
8 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIB Trial of Ketorolac Mouth Rinse Evaluating the Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Oropharyngeal Leukoplakia: Collaborative Study of the NCI, NIDCD and the NIDCR Completed NCT00001698 Phase 2 Ketorolac Rinse
9 A Combined Phase I/II Single Site Study to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Utilizing 5-aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) and PDT in the Treatment of Premalignant Oral and/or Oropharynx Lesions. Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
10 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab
11 A Phase II Open Label, Single Arm Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pembrolizumab for Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03603223 Phase 2
12 M4OC-Prevent: Metformin for Oral Cancer Prevention Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
13 Photodynamic Therapy With Metil 5-aminolevulinate for Actinic Cheilitis - A Phase 2 Randomized Double-blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03990636 Phase 2 Metil 5-aminolevulinate
14 Phase IIB Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions an Inter-consortium Collaborative Study Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
15 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
16 Oral Topical Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (Aspirin) Mouthwash for Treatment of Oral Dysplasia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
17 A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of SBS-101 After Intraoral Application in Patients With Oral Premalignant Lesions (OPL) Not yet recruiting NCT03939364 Phase 1 SBS-101;Placebo
18 Phase I Study of Photodynamic Therapy Using Pulsed Dye Laser and Oral Aminolevulinic Acid in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
19 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
20 Efficacy of Tobacco Cessation for Improving Oral Diseases - Multicenter Prospective Trial Unknown status NCT02737176
21 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Unknown status NCT01636544
22 Clinical Study of the CO2RE® Laser Device for Treatment of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus Completed NCT04148651
23 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165
24 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary DNA Integrity Index in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT03682562
25 Malondialdehyde and Nitrous Oxide as Salivary Biomarkers for Different Oral Lesions Completed NCT04267419
26 Development of an Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Informational Needs Questionnaire Completed NCT04153266
27 A Pilot Multi-Center International Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Study of Sulindac, a Pan-Cox Inhibitor, in Oral Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT00299195 sulindac;Placebo
28 Treatment and Suppression of Hairy Leukoplakia in ARC Patients With Oral Acyclovir (ACV) Completed NCT00002026 Acyclovir
29 Association of Candida and Antifungal Therapy With Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Oral Leukoplakia- A Pilot Study Completed NCT04712929
30 Efficacy of Rose Bengal in Comparison With Toluidine Blue in Detection of Premalignant Lesions: a Preliminary Study Completed NCT03031899
31 Natural History of Oral Cancer Precursors Completed NCT00179361
32 Evaluation of Effect of Topical Melatonin in Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study Recruiting NCT04251845
33 Dental Hygienists and Oral Mucosal Inspection - Extent, Knowledge and Perceived Barriers Recruiting NCT04079491
34 Prospective Prediction of Malignant Transformation of Oral Leukoplakia Using a MAGE-A-based Immunoscore Recruiting NCT03975322
35 Fluorescence &Amp; Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Active, not recruiting NCT00542373
36 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT00341497
37 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID; Impact on Decision-Making Active, not recruiting NCT03239834
38 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary Gamma-synuclein in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Not yet recruiting NCT04732741
39 THE HONG KONG ORAL CANCER EDUCATION AND SCREENING (HOCES) PROGRAM: REFINING DISEASE PREVENTION, RISK STRATIFICATION AND EARLY DETECTION Not yet recruiting NCT04487938

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

40
Tongue, Cervix, Bone Marrow, Myeloid, Skin, T Cells, Colon

Publications for Leukoplakia

Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 4338)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Evaluation of cornulin, keratin 4, keratin 13 expression and grade of dysplasia for predicting malignant progression of oral leukoplakia. 61 54
20036603 2010
2
Effect of polymorphisms in XRCC1, CCND1 and GSTM1 and tobacco exposure as risk modifier for oral leukoplakia. 61 54
19634112 2009
3
Prevalence of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms in the population of northeastern India and susceptibility of oral cancer. 61 54
19718946 2009
4
Keratin 8 expression in head and neck epithelia. 61 54
18803884 2008
5
Loss of expression of DNA repair enzyme MGMT in oral leukoplakia and early oral squamous cell carcinoma. A prognostic tool? 54 61
16517062 2007
6
PCNA and p53 expression in oral leukoplakia with different degrees of keratinization. 61 54
19089276 2006
7
Prognostic value of cyclin D1, p27, and p63 in oral leukoplakia. 61 54
16630290 2006
8
CK8 correlates with malignancy in leukoplakia and carcinomas of the head and neck. 61 54
16540085 2006
9
Glutathione S-transferase M3 (A/A) genotype as a risk factor for oral cancer and leukoplakia among Indian tobacco smokers. 61 54
14735473 2004
10
[Prognostic significance of cyclin D1, p27 and p63 expression in oral leukoplakia]. 54 61
15655576 2004
11
Polymorphism in CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genes and susceptibility to leukoplakia in Indian tobacco users. 61 54
12767509 2003
12
Expression of p27 and apoptosis in oral leukoplakia. 61 54
12820381 2003
13
Changes in apoptosis and mitotic index, p53 and Ki67 expression in various types of oral leukoplakia. 61 54
14707453 2003
14
[Expression of extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin in the laryngeal cancer]. 54 61
12669429 2002
15
Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and candidiasis. an immunohistochemical study. 61 54
12389997 2002
16
[Progression of leukoplakia is associated with changes in apoptotic and mitotic index as well as in p53 and Ki-67 expression]. 61 54
12563356 2002
17
Topical retinaldehyde treatment in oral lichen planus and leukoplakia. 54 61
12779246 2002
18
Differential expression of human beta-defensin 2 in keratinized and non-keratinized oral epithelial lesions; immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. 61 54
11315621 2001
19
Expression of telomerase components in oral keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinomas. 54 61
11167139 2001
20
Expression of RARalpha and RARbeta in human oral potentially malignant and neoplastic lesions. 54 61
11149416 2001
21
Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNAP57--a homologue of yeast pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p. 61 54
11833778 2001
22
Expression of integrin alpha9 subunit and tenascin in oral leukoplakia, lichen planus, and squamous cell carcinoma. 54 61
10483066 1999
23
Defensin-1, an antimicrobial peptide present in the saliva of patients with oral diseases. 61 54
10522210 1999
24
Genetic cancer susceptibility and DNA adducts: studies in smokers, tobacco chewers, and coke oven workers. 61 54
10571654 1999
25
[mRNA expression of metastasis-suppressor gene nm23 in carcinoma of buccal mucosa I. Northern blotting study]. 61 54
11480034 1997
26
[mRNA expression of metastasis-suppressor gene nm23 in carcinoma of buccal mucosa. II. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR amplification]. 61 54
11480035 1997
27
Increased expression of cytokeratins CK8 and CK19 is associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. 54 61
8634660 1995
28
The proliferative activity in oral epithelial dysplasia analyzed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining. 54 61
7635453 1995
29
Immunohistochemical demonstration of epithelial glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in normal, benign, premalignant and malignant human oral mucosa. 54 61
7473269 1995
30
Prognostic evaluation of HPV-associated precancerous and microinvasive carcinoma of the oral cavity: combined use of nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). 54 61
7549757 1995
31
The hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. 54 61
8412211 1993
32
Abnormal expression of retinoic acid receptors and keratin 19 by human oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. 54 61
1713123 1991
33
Immunohistochemical localization of filaggrin in benign and malignant lesions of the human oral mucosa. 54 61
2337405 1990
34
Diabetes mellitus and oral cancer/oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
31994293 2021
35
Human papillomavirus prevalence in oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32144837 2021
36
Evaluation of a social marketing campaign for the early detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer: Sri Lankan experience. 61
33665068 2021
37
Less polar ginsenosides have better protective effects on mice infected by Listeria monocytogenes. 61
33636464 2021
38
Therapeutic implications of candida phenotypes, virulence factors and antifungal sensitivity in Oral leukoplakia. 61
33786299 2021
39
Oral leukoplakia-epidemiological survey and histochemical analysis of 107 cases in Brazil. 61
32761445 2021
40
Bilateral hypopyon in syphilitic uveitis. 61
33437894 2021
41
Malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders in Taiwan: An observational nationwide population database study. 61
33655959 2021
42
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Potentially Malignant Disorders of the Mucosa in the General Population: Mucosa Lesions A General Health Problem? 61
33798694 2021
43
Clinicopathologic factors associated with malignant transformation of oral leukoplakias: a retrospective cohort study. 61
33674140 2021
44
Evaluation of CD44 and TGF-B Expression in Oral Carcinogenesis. 61
33681421 2021
45
MLH1, MSH2, MRE11, and XRCC1 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 61
33734109 2021
46
High-risk human papillomavirus in patients with oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma-A multi-centre study in Sweden, Brazil and Romania. 61
32568421 2021
47
Laryngeal dysplasia: Oncological outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated in a tertiary comprehensive cancer centre. 61
33445041 2021
48
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in 5-year-old girl with dyskeratosis congenita. 61
33736925 2021
49
Recurrences following treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33765364 2021
50
Association between Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Vocal Fold Leukoplakia. 61
33756454 2021

Variations for Leukoplakia

Copy number variations for Leukoplakia from CNVD:

7 (show all 16)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 299983 1 197500000 205300000 Gain CAMSAP2 Leukoplakia
2 299999 1 222700000 225100000 Gain PARP1 Leukoplakia
3 300051 1 32200000 34400000 Gain KHDRBS1 Leukoplakia
4 300126 10 103000000 104900000 Gain NPM3 Leukoplakia
5 300490 11 70700000 74900000 Gain CHRDL2 Leukoplakia
6 300847 14 23600000 31800000 Gain GMPR2 Leukoplakia
7 300848 14 23600000 31800000 Gain IRF9 Leukoplakia
8 300849 14 23600000 31800000 Gain REC8 Leukoplakia
9 300904 14 90500000 92800000 Copy number BTBD7 Leukoplakia
10 300905 14 90500000 92800000 Gain BTBD7 Leukoplakia
11 303215 2 64000000 70500000 Gain RAB1A Leukoplakia
12 303505 22 30500000 35900000 Gain FBXO7 Leukoplakia
13 303978 5 135400000 139000000 Gain PAIP2 Leukoplakia
14 303979 5 139000000 143100000 Gain HBEGF Leukoplakia
15 304504 7 43300000 46600000 Gain TBRG4 Leukoplakia
16 304704 8 2200000 6200000 Loss CSMD1 Leukoplakia

Expression for Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.48 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1 FLG
2
Show member pathways
11.4 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
3 11.3 PCNA MKI67 KRT8
4
Show member pathways
11.29 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
5
Show member pathways
10.94 GSTM1 CYP1A1
6 10.83 GSTT1 GSTM1
7 10.71 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1

GO Terms for Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermediate filament cytoskeleton GO:0045111 9.33 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13
2 cornified envelope GO:0001533 9.26 KRT1 FLG
3 keratin filament GO:0045095 9.26 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
4 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.02 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1 FLG

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 peptide cross-linking GO:0018149 9.32 KRT1 FLG
2 establishment of skin barrier GO:0061436 9.26 KRT1 FLG
3 keratinization GO:0031424 9.26 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
4 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.16 GSTT1 GSTM1
5 cornification GO:0070268 9.02 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1 FLG

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 8.96 GSTT1 GSTM1
2 structural constituent of epidermis GO:0030280 8.62 KRT1 FLG

Sources for Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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