MCID: LKP003
MIFTS: 43

Leukoplakia

Categories: Cancer diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukoplakia:

Name: Leukoplakia 53 55 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0023531

Summaries for Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. Although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. The condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. Tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. Most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. Removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases.

MalaCards based summary : Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (Dyskerin Pseudouridine Synthase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytoskeletal Signaling and Keratinization. The drugs Metformin and Hypoglycemic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, bone and bone marrow, and related phenotype is Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435).

Wikipedia : 76 Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated... more...

Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 142)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oral leukoplakia 33.7 GSTM1 GSTT1 MKI67 PCNA
2 oral submucous fibrosis 30.8 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 oral cancer 30.4 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT13 PCNA
4 bowen's disease 30.1 MKI67 PCNA
5 oral cavity cancer 30.0 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
6 esophageal cancer 29.9 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT4
7 papilloma 29.8 KRT1 KRT13 KRT8 PCNA
8 white sponge nevus 1 29.6 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4
9 basal cell carcinoma 29.2 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT8 MKI67
10 oral hairy leukoplakia 12.6
11 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 12.5
12 oral mucosa leukoplakia 12.4
13 leukoplakia of vagina 12.3
14 uterine cervix leukoplakia 12.3
15 esophageal leukoplakia 12.2
16 leukoplakia of penis 12.2
17 dyskeratosis congenita 11.6
18 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.2
19 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 11.1
20 revesz syndrome 11.1
21 dyskeratosis congenita, x-linked 11.1
22 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3 11.1
23 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2 11.1
24 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 11.1
25 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.1
26 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.1
27 balanitis xerotica obliterans 11.0
28 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1 11.0
29 poikiloderma with neutropenia 11.0
30 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2 11.0
31 oral cavity carcinoma in situ 11.0
32 mouth disease 11.0
33 squamous cell carcinoma 10.8
34 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.7
35 lichen planus 10.6
36 oral lichen planus 10.5
37 candidiasis 10.4
38 oral candidiasis 10.4
39 erythroplakia 10.3
40 keratosis 10.2
41 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 10.2
42 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
43 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
44 isolated cleft lip 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
45 colorectal cancer, childhood 10.2 CYP1A1 GSTM1
46 drug-induced hepatitis 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
47 cardia cancer 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
48 mutagen sensitivity 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
49 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
50 toxic oil syndrome 10.2 CYP1A1 GSTM1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 8.8 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Drugs for Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metformin Approved Phase 3,Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
2 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
3
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
4
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
5
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
6
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
7
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 106-60-5 137
8
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2,Not Applicable 3902-71-4 5585
9
Nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
10
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4
11
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
12
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
13 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Retinamide Phase 2
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
16 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 2
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
18 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Analgesics Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
23 Dermatologic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2,Not Applicable
24 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
26 Hematoporphyrins Phase 2
27 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2,Not Applicable
29 Ether Phase 2,Not Applicable
30 Antibodies Phase 2
31 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
32 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
33 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
34 Tea Phase 2
35
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
36 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
37 Antipyretics Phase 1
38 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
39
Nicotine Approved Not Applicable 54-11-5 942 89594
40
Acyclovir Approved Not Applicable 59277-89-3 2022
41
Heparin Approved, Investigational 9005-49-6 772 46507594
42
leucovorin Approved Not Applicable 58-05-9 6006 143
43
Dapsone Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 80-08-0 2955
44
Sulindac Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
45
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Not Applicable 59-30-3 6037
46 Neurotransmitter Agents Not Applicable
47 Autonomic Agents Not Applicable
48 Nicotinic Agonists Not Applicable
49 Central Nervous System Stimulants Not Applicable
50 Cholinergic Agents Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 43)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Precursor Lesions Completed NCT01497951 Phase 3
3 Cancer Chemoprevention by Metformin Hydrochloride in Oral Potentially Malignant Lesions Recruiting NCT03685409 Phase 3 Metformin Hydrochloride 500 MG;Placebo Oral Tablet
4 Rosiglitazone Maleate in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
5 Fenretinide in Treating Patients With Leukoplakia of the Mouth Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
6 Pioglitazone Hydrochloride in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
7 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIB Trial of Ketorolac Mouth Rinse Evaluating the Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Oropharyngeal Leukoplakia: Collaborative Study of the NCI, NIDCD and the NIDCR Completed NCT00001698 Phase 2 Ketorolac Rinse
8 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
9 Celecoxib in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
10 Treatment of Oral Premalignant Lesions With 5-ALA PDT Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
11 Celecoxib in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia and/or Head and Neck Dysplasia Completed NCT00052611 Phase 2 Celecoxib
12 Photodynamic Therapy With Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Precancerous Lesions, Cancer, or Other Disease of the Aerodigestive Tract Completed NCT00453336 Phase 2 Porfimer Sodium
13 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab
14 Metformin Hydrochloride in Preventing Oral Cancer in Patients With an Oral Premalignant Lesion Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
15 Pembrolizumab in Treating Participants With Leukoplakia Not yet recruiting NCT03603223 Phase 2
16 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
17 Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
18 Aspirin Mouthwash in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
19 Photodynamic Therapy Using Aminolevulinic Acid in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
20 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
21 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Unknown status NCT01636544 Not Applicable
22 Tobacco Cessation Intervention Study for Oral Diseases Unknown status NCT02737176 Not Applicable
23 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165 Not Applicable
24 Treatment and Suppression of Hairy Leukoplakia in ARC Patients With Oral Acyclovir (ACV) Completed NCT00002026 Not Applicable Acyclovir
25 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Completed NCT00341497
26 Comparison or Rose Bengal and Toluidine Blue Staining for Lesion Detection Efficacy Completed NCT03031899
27 Natural History of Oro-pharyngeal Cancer Precursors Completed NCT00179361
28 Dapsone 100 Mg Versus 50 as Primary Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) Completed NCT00002043 Not Applicable Dapsone
29 A Study of the Association of Sleep Dysfunction and Burning Mouth Syndrome Completed NCT00862576
30 Clinical Research Core Dental Screening Protocol Completed NCT00090818
31 Salivary and Serum Levels of Chemerin and MMP-9 in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions Completed NCT02323672
32 Methylation of p16 CpG Island And Malignant Transformation of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Completed NCT00835341
33 A Single Center Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Pain and Quality of Life Following Surgery Recruiting NCT01355926 Not Applicable
34 The Oral Microbiome as a Prognostic Tool in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions and in Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Recruiting NCT03418454
35 Cancer in Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Recruiting NCT00027274
36 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID in Subjects Presenting for Evaluation and/or Initial Biopsy; Impact on Decision-Making Recruiting NCT03239834
37 A Cross-sectional Study of the Oral Health of Elderly Inpatients in Acute and Subacute Hospitals in Northumberland and North Tyneside Recruiting NCT03214237
38 Fluorescence & Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Recruiting NCT00542373 Not Applicable
39 International Pachyonychia Congenita Research Registry Recruiting NCT02321423
40 A Randomized Study of Sulindac in Oral Premalignant Lesions Active, not recruiting NCT00299195 Not Applicable sulindac;Placebo
41 Salivary Ap4A, SCCA, TROP2 in Oral Cancer Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03529604
42 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary DNA Integrity Index in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Not yet recruiting NCT03682562
43 Photodynamic Therapy Using Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Recurrent Mouth or Throat Dysplasia or Recurrent In Situ Cancer or Stage I Cancer of the Mouth or Throat Terminated NCT00530088 Not Applicable porfimer sodium;Photdynamic Therapy (PDT)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

41
Tongue, Bone, Bone Marrow, Lung, Myeloid, Skin, Cervix

Publications for Leukoplakia

Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 1167)
# Title Authors Year
1
Determination and diagnostic value of CA9 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with oral leukoplakia. ( 29745265 )
2018
2
Expression and oncogenic properties of membranous Notch1 in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29620248 )
2018
3
CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29805639 )
2018
4
Possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and vocal fold leukoplakia. ( 29509297 )
2018
5
Potentially malignant disorders revisited-The lichenoid lesion/proliferative verrucous leukoplakia conundrum. ( 29663518 )
2018
6
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. ( 29427033 )
2018
7
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. ( 28416237 )
2018
8
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A challenge for clinical management. ( 29756248 )
2018
9
Association of laryngeal cancer with vocal cord leukoplakia and associated risk factors in 1,184 patients diagnosed in otorhinolaryngology practices in Germany. ( 29725537 )
2018
10
Evaluation of Collagen in Leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas Using Polarizing Microscopy and Immunohistochemistry ( 29699065 )
2018
11
A clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia; A guide for dentists. ( 29274164 )
2018
12
Immunoexpression of SOX-2 in oral leukoplakia. ( 29938872 )
2018
13
Data regarding clinical evaluation of collagen membrane in oral mucosal defects due to oral submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia. ( 29900214 )
2018
14
Knowledge about oral leukoplakia for use at different levels of expertise, including patients. ( 29480645 )
2018
15
Narrow band imaging for risk stratification of glottic cancer within leukoplakia. ( 29756243 )
2018
16
Proliferative leukoplakia: proposed new clinical diagnostic criteria. ( 29337414 )
2018
17
Liquid-based oral brush cytology in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia using a modified Bethesda Cytology system. ( 29957892 )
2018
18
Bibliometric analysis of a century of research on oral erythroplakia and leukoplakia. ( 29344996 )
2018
19
Differences in gene expression profile between vocal cord Leukoplakia and normal larynx mucosa by gene chip. ( 29433566 )
2018
20
Oral leukoplakia remains a challenging condition. ( 29480606 )
2018
21
T cells are involved in the induction of macrophage phenotypes in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma-a preliminary report. ( 29108105 )
2018
22
Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. ( 29428194 )
2018
23
Podoplanin expression as a predictive marker of dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. ( 29588189 )
2018
24
A new classification of vocal fold leukoplakia by morphological appearance guiding the treatment. ( 29504444 )
2018
25
Expression of DNA doublestrand repair proteins in oral leukoplakia and the risk of malignant transformation. ( 29928356 )
2018
26
Considerations in the diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia-an institutional experience. ( 29325854 )
2018
27
Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor expression and apoptosis effect in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29436667 )
2018
28
Oral leukoplakia, a precancerous lesion of squamous cell carcinoma, in patients with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment. ( 29443777 )
2018
29
Survival study of leukoplakia malignant transformation in a region of northern Spain. ( 29924757 )
2018
30
Mature dendritic cell density is affected by smoking habit, lesion size, and epithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia samples. ( 30056280 )
2018
31
Oral hairy leukoplakia in healthy immunocompetent patients: a small case series. ( 30079439 )
2018
32
Application of fractal dimension analysis and photodynamic diagnosis in the case of differentiation between lichen planus and leukoplakia: A preliminary study. ( 30085425 )
2018
33
Low level laser therapy reduces oral leukoplakia lesion size: Results from a preliminary study. ( 30098877 )
2018
34
Diode laser surgery in the treatment of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia associated with HPV-16 infection. ( 30105220 )
2018
35
Effect of TP53 rs1042522 on the susceptibility of patients to oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia: a meta-analysis. ( 30126398 )
2018
36
Leukoplakia of the urinary bladder: keratinising squamous metaplasia. ( 30150356 )
2018
37
CD8+ and CD163+ infiltrating cells and PD-L1 immunoexpression in oral leukoplakia and oral carcinoma. ( 30160018 )
2018
38
A morphological classification for vocal fold leukoplakia. ( 30166121 )
2018
39
Transglutaminase 3 contributes to malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia to cancer. ( 30172723 )
2018
40
Molecular pathogenesis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a systematic review. ( 30190088 )
2018
41
Role of Chemiluminescence examination as non-invasive diagnostic tool in early detection of Leukoplakia. ( 30191104 )
2018
42
Oral leukoplakia: A diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists. ( 30203899 )
2018
43
A three miRNAs signature for predicting the transformation of oral leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 30210912 )
2018
44
Diagnosis of vocal cord leukoplakia: The role of a novel narrow band imaging endoscopic classification. ( 30229933 )
2018
45
Dysplastic Changes in Patients with Recurrent Laryngeal Leukoplakia: Importance of Long-Term Follow-Up. ( 30324779 )
2018
46
Treatment Outcome of Oral Leukoplakia with Er:YAG Laser: A 5-Year Follow-Up Prospective Comparative Study. ( 30339489 )
2018
47
Different expression patterns of carbonic anhydrase IX in oral lichen planus and leukoplakia. ( 30383070 )
2018
48
Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral leukoplakia: a systematic review. ( 30391342 )
2018
49
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia treated with carbon dioxide laser: a meta-analysis. ( 30443884 )
2018
50
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its tumor markers: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30536498 )
2018

Variations for Leukoplakia

Copy number variations for Leukoplakia from CNVD:

7 (show all 16)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 299983 1 197500000 205300000 Gain CAMSAP1L1 Leukoplakia
2 299999 1 222700000 225100000 Gain PARP1 Leukoplakia
3 300051 1 32200000 34400000 Gain KHDRBS1 Leukoplakia
4 300126 10 103000000 104900000 Gain NPM3 Leukoplakia
5 300490 11 70700000 74900000 Gain CHRDL2 Leukoplakia
6 300847 14 23600000 31800000 Gain GMPR2 Leukoplakia
7 300848 14 23600000 31800000 Gain IRF9 Leukoplakia
8 300849 14 23600000 31800000 Gain REC8 Leukoplakia
9 300904 14 90500000 92800000 Copy number BTBD7 Leukoplakia
10 300905 14 90500000 92800000 Gain BTBD7 Leukoplakia
11 303215 2 64000000 70500000 Gain RAB1A Leukoplakia
12 303505 22 30500000 35900000 Gain FBXO7 Leukoplakia
13 303978 5 135400000 139000000 Gain PAIP2 Leukoplakia
14 303979 5 139000000 143100000 Gain HBEGF Leukoplakia
15 304504 7 43300000 46600000 Gain TBRG4 Leukoplakia
16 304704 8 2200000 6200000 Loss CSMD1 Leukoplakia

Expression for Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Leukoplakia

GO Terms for Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermediate filament cytoskeleton GO:0045111 9.33 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
2 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
3 keratin filament GO:0045095 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell proliferation GO:0008283 9.46 CYP1A1 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA
2 glutathione metabolic process GO:0006749 9.32 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.26 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 keratinization GO:0031424 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
5 cornification GO:0070268 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 8.96 GSTM1 GSTT1
2 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Sources for Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....