MCID: LKP003
MIFTS: 41

Leukoplakia

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukoplakia:

Name: Leukoplakia 19 75 53 71 33
Leukoplakia of Oral Epithelium 33
Leukokeratosis of Oral Mucosa 33
Leucoplakia of Oral Mucosa 33
Leukoplakia of Gingiva 33

Classifications:



External Ids:

ICD11 33 417308277
UMLS 71 C0023531

Summaries for Leukoplakia

GARD: 19 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. Although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. The condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. Tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. Most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. Removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases.

MalaCards based summary: Leukoplakia, also known as leukoplakia of oral epithelium, is related to oral leukoplakia and lip and oral cavity cancer. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (Dyskerin Pseudouridine Synthase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic and Keratinization. The drugs Rosiglitazone and Celecoxib have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, cervix and bone marrow, and related phenotype is Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435).

Wikipedia: 75 Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant disorder affecting the oral mucosa. It is defined as... more...

Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 303)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oral leukoplakia 32.5 PCNA MKI67 GSTM1
2 lip and oral cavity cancer 31.1 KRT13 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
3 tobacco addiction 30.5 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
4 larynx cancer 30.5 MKI67 GSTT1 GSTM1
5 lichen planus 30.2 KRT13 KRT1 FLG DEFB4A
6 white sponge nevus 1 30.1 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
7 palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic 30.1 KRT4 KRT1
8 bowen's disease 30.0 PCNA MKI67
9 epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 29.7 KRT4 KRT1 FLG
10 cholesteatoma of middle ear 29.7 KRT13 FLG DEFB4A
11 papilloma 29.6 PCNA KRT8 KRT13 KRT1 FLG
12 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma 29.4 PCNA MKI67 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
13 keratoacanthoma 29.4 MKI67 KRT8 FLG
14 transitional cell carcinoma 29.4 PCNA MKI67 GSTM1
15 myelodysplastic syndrome 29.4 PCNA GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1
16 pachyonychia congenita 1 29.4 KRT4 KRT1 FLG
17 skin disease 28.7 KRT1 FLG DKC1 DEFB4A
18 basal cell carcinoma 28.5 PCNA MKI67 KRT8 KRT1 GSTT1 GSTM1
19 oral hairy leukoplakia 11.7
20 uterine cervix leukoplakia 11.4
21 leukoplakia of vagina 11.4
22 leukoplakia of penis 11.3
23 esophageal leukoplakia 11.3
24 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 11.3
25 oral mucosa leukoplakia 11.3
26 dyskeratosis congenita 11.3
27 revesz syndrome 11.1
28 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.1
29 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.1
30 dyskeratosis congenita, x-linked 11.1
31 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 11.0
32 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3 11.0
33 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2 11.0
34 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 11.0
35 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.0
36 balanitis xerotica obliterans 10.9
37 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.9
38 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1 10.9
39 poikiloderma with neutropenia 10.9
40 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2 10.9
41 dyskeratosis congenita, digenic 10.9
42 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 8 10.9
43 oral cavity carcinoma in situ 10.9
44 mouth disease 10.9
45 dyskeratosis congenita autosomal recessive 10.9
46 squamous cell carcinoma 10.8
47 oral lichen planus 10.6
48 candidiasis 10.6
49 oral submucous fibrosis 10.5
50 keratomalacia 10.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 8.8 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Drugs for Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4, 155141-29-0 77999
2
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
3
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 106-60-5 137
4
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
5
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4 254741536
6
Nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
7
Metformin Approved Phase 2 1115-70-4, 657-24-9 4091
8
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
9
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 110-16-7, 110-17-8 444266 444972
10
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6 5288209
11 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Protective Agents Phase 2
13 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
14 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2
15 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
16 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2
18 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
19 Analgesics Phase 2
20 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
21 Dermatologic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Retinamide Phase 2
23 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2
24 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Phase 2
25 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
26 Tea Phase 2
27
Acetylsalicylic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
28 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
29 Antipyretics Phase 1
30 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
31
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
32
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved 10024-97-2 948
33
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
34
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational 86386-73-4 3365
35
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
36
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved 23593-75-1 2812
37
Heparin, bovine Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn 9005-49-6 22833565 9812414 772
38
Acyclovir Approved 59277-89-3 2022
39
Sulindac Approved, Investigational 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
40
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
41
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 73-31-4 896
42
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 22737-96-8, 68-26-8 5280382 445354
43 Antioxidants
44 Hormones
45 Anti-Infective Agents
46 Hormone Antagonists
47 Antifungal Agents
48 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
49 Calcium heparin
50 Hemostatics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 44)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 A Randomized Controlled Trial: Photodynamic Treatment for the Therapy of Premalignant Mucosal Oral Lesions. Completed NCT01497951 Phase 3
3 Photodynamic Therapy With Metil 5-aminolevulinate for Actinic Cheilitis - A Phase 2 Randomized Double-blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03990636 Phase 2 Metil 5-aminolevulinate
4 Phase IIA Trial of Rosiglitazone (Avandia) for Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
5 A Phase IIb Cancer Prevention Trial of Celecoxib, a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor, in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
6 A Phase IIa Cancer Prevention Trial of the PPAR Gamma Agonist Pioglitazone in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
7 Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate and Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Phase IIb Trial Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
8 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Clinical Trial of N(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)Retinamide (Fenretinide, 4HPR) in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
9 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIB Trial of Ketorolac Mouth Rinse Evaluating the Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Oropharyngeal Leukoplakia: Collaborative Study of the NCI, NIDCD and the NIDCR Completed NCT00001698 Phase 2 Ketorolac Rinse
10 A Combined Phase I/II Single Site Study to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Utilizing 5-aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) and PDT in the Treatment of Premalignant Oral and/or Oropharynx Lesions. Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
11 A Phase II Open Label, Single Arm Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pembrolizumab for Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03603223 Phase 2
12 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Active, not recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab
13 M4OC-Prevent: Metformin for Oral Cancer Prevention Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
14 M4OC-Prevent 2.0: Phase IIb Trial of Metformin for Oral Cancer Prevention Not yet recruiting NCT05237960 Phase 2 Extended Release Metformin Hydrochloride;Placebo Administration
15 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
16 Phase IIB Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions an Inter-consortium Collaborative Study Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
17 Oral Topical Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (Aspirin) Mouthwash for Treatment of Oral Dysplasia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
18 Metformin Chemoprevention of Oral Premalignant Lesions Recruiting NCT05536037 Phase 1 Metformin
19 Phase I Study of Photodynamic Therapy Using Pulsed Dye Laser and Oral Aminolevulinic Acid in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
20 A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of SBS-101 After Intraoral Application in Patients With Oral Premalignant Lesions (OPL) Withdrawn NCT03939364 Phase 1 SBS-101;Placebo
21 Intralesional 5-fluorouracil Injection for the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: a Pilot Study Withdrawn NCT05505539 Phase 1 5-fluorouracil
22 Dental Hygienists and Oral Mucosal Inspection - Extent, Knowledge and Perceived Barriers Unknown status NCT04079491
23 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
24 Evaluation of Effect of Topical Melatonin in Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study Unknown status NCT04251845
25 Efficacy of Tobacco Cessation for Improving Oral Diseases - Multicenter Prospective Trial Unknown status NCT02737176
26 Development of an Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Informational Needs Questionnaire Completed NCT04153266
27 Malondialdehyde and Nitrous Oxide as Salivary Biomarkers for Different Oral Lesions Completed NCT04267419
28 Association of Candida and Antifungal Therapy With Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Oral Leukoplakia- A Pilot Study Completed NCT04712929
29 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary DNA Integrity Index in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT03682562
30 Efficacy of Rose Bengal in Comparison With Toluidine Blue in Detection of Premalignant Lesions: a Preliminary Study Completed NCT03031899
31 Treatment and Suppression of Hairy Leukoplakia in ARC Patients With Oral Acyclovir (ACV) Completed NCT00002026 Acyclovir
32 A Pilot Multi-Center International Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Study of Sulindac, a Pan-Cox Inhibitor, in Oral Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT00299195 sulindac;Placebo
33 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165
34 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID; Impact on Decision-Making Completed NCT03239834
35 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Completed NCT01636544
36 Natural History of Oral Cancer Precursors Completed NCT00179361
37 Prospective Prediction of Malignant Transformation of Oral Leukoplakia Using a MAGE-A-based Immunoscore Recruiting NCT03975322
38 Comparison Between Surgical Excision and "Wait and See" Approach in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT04858100
39 A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of AI Temperature-controlled Radiofrequency Technology and Electrical Stimulation in the Treatment of Vulvar Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT05250466
40 Fluorescence &Amp; Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Active, not recruiting NCT00542373
41 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT00341497
42 Vitamin A Status in Patients With Vocal Fold Leukoplakia Enrolling by invitation NCT05323292
43 THE HONG KONG ORAL CANCER EDUCATION AND SCREENING (HOCES) PROGRAM: REFINING DISEASE PREVENTION, RISK STRATIFICATION AND EARLY DETECTION Not yet recruiting NCT04487938
44 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary Gamma-synuclein in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Not yet recruiting NCT04732741

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

Organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

MalaCards : Tongue, Cervix, Bone Marrow, Skin, Kidney, T Cells, Lung

Publications for Leukoplakia

Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 4665)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Evaluation of cornulin, keratin 4, keratin 13 expression and grade of dysplasia for predicting malignant progression of oral leukoplakia. 53 62
20036603 2010
2
Effect of polymorphisms in XRCC1, CCND1 and GSTM1 and tobacco exposure as risk modifier for oral leukoplakia. 53 62
19634112 2009
3
Prevalence of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms in the population of northeastern India and susceptibility of oral cancer. 53 62
19718946 2009
4
Keratin 8 expression in head and neck epithelia. 53 62
18803884 2008
5
Loss of expression of DNA repair enzyme MGMT in oral leukoplakia and early oral squamous cell carcinoma. A prognostic tool? 53 62
16517062 2007
6
PCNA and p53 expression in oral leukoplakia with different degrees of keratinization. 53 62
19089276 2006
7
Prognostic value of cyclin D1, p27, and p63 in oral leukoplakia. 53 62
16630290 2006
8
CK8 correlates with malignancy in leukoplakia and carcinomas of the head and neck. 53 62
16540085 2006
9
Glutathione S-transferase M3 (A/A) genotype as a risk factor for oral cancer and leukoplakia among Indian tobacco smokers. 53 62
14735473 2004
10
[Prognostic significance of cyclin D1, p27 and p63 expression in oral leukoplakia]. 53 62
15655576 2004
11
Polymorphism in CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genes and susceptibility to leukoplakia in Indian tobacco users. 53 62
12767509 2003
12
Expression of p27 and apoptosis in oral leukoplakia. 53 62
12820381 2003
13
Changes in apoptosis and mitotic index, p53 and Ki67 expression in various types of oral leukoplakia. 53 62
14707453 2003
14
[Expression of extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin in the laryngeal cancer]. 53 62
12669429 2002
15
Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and candidiasis. an immunohistochemical study. 53 62
12389997 2002
16
Topical retinaldehyde treatment in oral lichen planus and leukoplakia. 53 62
12779246 2002
17
[Progression of leukoplakia is associated with changes in apoptotic and mitotic index as well as in p53 and Ki-67 expression]. 53 62
12563356 2002
18
Differential expression of human beta-defensin 2 in keratinized and non-keratinized oral epithelial lesions; immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. 53 62
11315621 2001
19
Expression of telomerase components in oral keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinomas. 53 62
11167139 2001
20
Expression of RARalpha and RARbeta in human oral potentially malignant and neoplastic lesions. 53 62
11149416 2001
21
Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNAP57--a homologue of yeast pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p. 53 62
11833778 2001
22
Expression of integrin alpha9 subunit and tenascin in oral leukoplakia, lichen planus, and squamous cell carcinoma. 53 62
10483066 1999
23
Defensin-1, an antimicrobial peptide present in the saliva of patients with oral diseases. 53 62
10522210 1999
24
Genetic cancer susceptibility and DNA adducts: studies in smokers, tobacco chewers, and coke oven workers. 53 62
10571654 1999
25
[mRNA expression of metastasis-suppressor gene nm23 in carcinoma of buccal mucosa. II. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR amplification]. 53 62
11480035 1997
26
[mRNA expression of metastasis-suppressor gene nm23 in carcinoma of buccal mucosa I. Northern blotting study]. 53 62
11480034 1997
27
Increased expression of cytokeratins CK8 and CK19 is associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. 53 62
8634660 1995
28
The proliferative activity in oral epithelial dysplasia analyzed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining. 53 62
7635453 1995
29
Immunohistochemical demonstration of epithelial glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in normal, benign, premalignant and malignant human oral mucosa. 53 62
7473269 1995
30
Prognostic evaluation of HPV-associated precancerous and microinvasive carcinoma of the oral cavity: combined use of nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). 53 62
7549757 1995
31
The hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. 53 62
8412211 1993
32
Abnormal expression of retinoic acid receptors and keratin 19 by human oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. 53 62
1713123 1991
33
Immunohistochemical localization of filaggrin in benign and malignant lesions of the human oral mucosa. 53 62
2337405 1990
34
Oral cancer prediction by noninvasive genetic screening. 62
36069231 2023
35
Vocal fold fibroblasts promote angiogenesis in vocal fold leukoplakia by secreting pro-angiogenic factors. 62
35513993 2022
36
Severe immunochemotherapy-induced toxicities in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita and literature review. 62
36073719 2022
37
Saliva-based cell-free DNA and cell-free mitochondrial DNA in head and neck cancers have promising screening and early detection role. 62
36459078 2022
38
Significance of nuclear EGFR and ABCG2 expression in malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders. 62
36325600 2022
39
Laser photobiomodulation does not alter clinical and histological characteristics of 4-NQO-induced oral carcinomas and leukoplakia in mice. 62
36399822 2022
40
Laryngeal lichen planus mimicking vocal fold dysplasia. 62
33965285 2022
41
Overestimated risk of transformation in oral lichen planus: In reply with emphasis on natural history of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 62
36444802 2022
42
The role of altered microRNA expression in premalignant and malignant head and neck lesions with epithelial origin. 62
36381409 2022
43
Retrospective evaluation of the oral brush biopsy in daily dental routine - an effective way of early cancer detection. 62
35881238 2022
44
Role of Narrow Band Imaging Endoscopy in Preoperative Evaluation of Laryngeal Leukoplakia: A Review of the Literature. 62
33213196 2022
45
Recurrence of Oral Leukoplakia after CO2 Laser Resection: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. 62
36358873 2022
46
Comparison Between Coblation and Microflap Resection of Leukoplakia of the Vocal Fold. 62
36414529 2022
47
Pepsin enhances glycolysis to promote malignant transformation of vocal fold leukoplakia epithelial cells with dysplasia. 62
36380093 2022
48
Rapid diagnosis of a complex oral mucosal infection using metagenomic next-generation sequencing: a case report. 62
36396946 2022
49
Clinical predictors of malignant transformation and recurrence in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36153299 2022
50
Oral lichen planus and related lesions. What should we accept based on the available evidence? 62
36371653 2022

Variations for Leukoplakia

Copy number variations for Leukoplakia from CNVD:

6 (show all 16)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 299983 1 197500000 205300000 Gain CAMSAP2 Leukoplakia
2 299999 1 222700000 225100000 Gain PARP1 Leukoplakia
3 300051 1 32200000 34400000 Gain KHDRBS1 Leukoplakia
4 300126 10 103000000 104900000 Gain NPM3 Leukoplakia
5 300490 11 70700000 74900000 Gain CHRDL2 Leukoplakia
6 300847 14 23600000 31800000 Gain GMPR2 Leukoplakia
7 300848 14 23600000 31800000 Gain IRF9 Leukoplakia
8 300849 14 23600000 31800000 Gain REC8 Leukoplakia
9 300904 14 90500000 92800000 Copy number BTBD7 Leukoplakia
10 300905 14 90500000 92800000 Gain BTBD7 Leukoplakia
11 303215 2 64000000 70500000 Gain RAB1A Leukoplakia
12 303505 22 30500000 35900000 Gain FBXO7 Leukoplakia
13 303978 5 135400000 139000000 Gain PAIP2 Leukoplakia
14 303979 5 139000000 143100000 Gain HBEGF Leukoplakia
15 304504 7 43300000 46600000 Gain TBRG4 Leukoplakia
16 304704 8 2200000 6200000 Loss CSMD1 Leukoplakia

Expression for Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.05 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
2
Show member pathways
11.89 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1 FLG
3 11.76 KRT13 DEFB4A CYP1A1
4 11.19 PCNA MKI67 KRT8
5
Show member pathways
10.92 GSTM1 CYP1A1
6 10.83 GSTT1 GSTM1
7 10.18 GSTT1 GSTM1 CYP1A1

GO Terms for Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermediate filament cytoskeleton GO:0045111 9.63 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13
2 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.43 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1
3 keratin filament GO:0045095 9.23 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 epithelial cell differentiation GO:0030855 9.63 PCNA KRT4 KRT13
2 keratinization GO:0031424 9.43 KRT8 KRT4 KRT1
3 intermediate filament organization GO:0045109 9.23 KRT8 KRT4 KRT13 KRT1

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 structural constituent of skin epidermis GO:0030280 9.23 KRT8 KRT4 KRT1 FLG
2 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 9.13 GSTT1 GSTM1

Sources for Leukoplakia

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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