Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukoplakia:

Name: Leukoplakia 53 55 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0023531

Summaries for Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. Although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. The condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. Tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. Most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. Removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases.

MalaCards based summary : Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (Dyskerin Pseudouridine Synthase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytoskeletal Signaling and Keratinization. The drugs Aminolevulinic acid and Dermatologic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, bone marrow and bone, and related phenotype is Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435).

Wikipedia : 76 Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated... more...

Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 123)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oral leukoplakia 33.9 GSTM1 MKI67 PCNA
2 oral submucous fibrosis 30.7 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 oral cavity cancer 29.9 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 esophageal cancer 29.5 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT4
5 white sponge nevus 1 29.2 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4
6 oral cancer 29.1 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT13 PCNA
7 papilloma 28.5 KRT1 KRT13 KRT8 PCNA
8 basal cell carcinoma 28.0 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT8 MKI67
9 oral hairy leukoplakia 12.5
10 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 12.3
11 oral mucosa leukoplakia 12.2
12 leukoplakia of vagina 12.2
13 uterine cervix leukoplakia 12.1
14 esophageal leukoplakia 12.1
15 leukoplakia of penis 12.1
16 dyskeratosis congenita 11.5
17 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.1
18 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 11.0
19 revesz syndrome 11.0
20 dyskeratosis congenita, x-linked 11.0
21 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3 11.0
22 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2 11.0
23 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 11.0
24 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.0
25 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.0
26 balanitis xerotica obliterans 10.9
27 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1 10.8
28 poikiloderma with neutropenia 10.8
29 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2 10.8
30 mouth disease 10.8
31 squamous cell carcinoma 10.7
32 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.6 GSTM1 GSTT1
33 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.6 GSTM1 GSTT1
34 isolated cleft lip 10.6 GSTM1 GSTT1
35 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.6
36 drug-induced hepatitis 10.6 GSTM1 GSTT1
37 mutagen sensitivity 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
38 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
39 toxic oil syndrome 10.5 CYP1A1 GSTM1
40 senile cataract 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
41 diffuse gastric cancer 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
42 asbestosis 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
43 oligospermia 10.5 GSTM1 GSTT1
44 lichen planus 10.4
45 xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group d 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
46 bowen's disease 10.4 MKI67 PCNA
47 benign meningioma 10.4 MKI67 PCNA
48 ischemic optic neuropathy 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
49 oral lichen planus 10.3
50 varicocele 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 8.8 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Drugs for Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 58)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 106-60-5 137
2 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
3 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
4
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
5
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
6
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
7
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
8
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2,Not Applicable 3902-71-4 5585
9
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
10
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
11
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
12 Ether Phase 2,Not Applicable
13 Retinamide Phase 2
14 Analgesics Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
15 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
16 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2,Not Applicable
18 Hematoporphyrins Phase 2
19 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2,Not Applicable
21 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
23 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
24 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 2
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
26 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
27 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
28 Tea Nutraceutical Phase 2
29
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
30 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
31 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
32 Antipyretics Phase 1
33
Heparin Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 9005-49-6 772 46507594
34
Dapsone Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 80-08-0 2955
35
Acyclovir Approved Not Applicable 59277-89-3 2022
36
Nicotine Approved Not Applicable 54-11-5 942 89594
37
Sulindac Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
38
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable 58-05-9 143 6006
39
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Not Applicable 59-30-3 6037
40 calcium heparin Not Applicable
41 Folic Acid Antagonists Not Applicable
42 Coagulants Not Applicable
43 Hemostatics Not Applicable
44 Tolonium Chloride Not Applicable
45 Anti-Bacterial Agents Not Applicable
46 Vitamin B Complex Not Applicable
47 Anti-Infective Agents Not Applicable
48 Antiparasitic Agents Not Applicable
49 Antiprotozoal Agents Not Applicable
50 Antimalarials Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Precursor Lesions Completed NCT01497951 Phase 3
3 Rosiglitazone Maleate in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
4 Fenretinide in Treating Patients With Leukoplakia of the Mouth Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
5 Pioglitazone Hydrochloride in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
6 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIB Trial of Ketorolac Mouth Rinse Evaluating the Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Oropharyngeal Leukoplakia: Collaborative Study of the NCI, NIDCD and the NIDCR Completed NCT00001698 Phase 2 Ketorolac Rinse
7 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
8 Celecoxib in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
9 Treatment of Oral Premalignant Lesions With 5-ALA PDT Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
10 Celecoxib in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia and/or Head and Neck Dysplasia Completed NCT00052611 Phase 2 Celecoxib
11 Photodynamic Therapy With Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Precancerous Lesions, Cancer, or Other Disease of the Aerodigestive Tract Completed NCT00453336 Phase 2 Porfimer Sodium
12 Metformin Hydrochloride in Preventing Oral Cancer in Patients With an Oral Premalignant Lesion Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
13 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
14 Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
15 Aspirin Mouthwash in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
16 Photodynamic Therapy Using Aminolevulinic Acid in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
17 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
18 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Unknown status NCT01636544 Not Applicable
19 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165 Not Applicable
20 Treatment and Suppression of Hairy Leukoplakia in ARC Patients With Oral Acyclovir (ACV) Completed NCT00002026 Not Applicable Acyclovir
21 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Completed NCT00341497
22 Comparison or Rose Bengal and Toluidine Blue Staining for Lesion Detection Efficacy Completed NCT03031899 Not Applicable
23 Natural History of Oro-pharyngeal Cancer Precursors Completed NCT00179361
24 Dapsone 100 Mg Versus 50 as Primary Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) Completed NCT00002043 Not Applicable Dapsone
25 A Study of the Association of Sleep Dysfunction and Burning Mouth Syndrome Completed NCT00862576
26 Clinical Research Core Dental Screening Protocol Completed NCT00090818
27 Salivary and Serum Levels of Chemerin and MMP-9 in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions Completed NCT02323672
28 Methylation of p16 CpG Island And Malignant Transformation of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Completed NCT00835341
29 A Single Center Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Pain and Quality of Life Following Surgery Recruiting NCT01355926 Not Applicable
30 The Oral Microbiome as a Prognostic Tool in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions and in Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Recruiting NCT03418454
31 Cancer in Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Recruiting NCT00027274
32 Tobacco Cessation Intervention Study for Oral Diseases Recruiting NCT02737176 Not Applicable
33 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID in Subjects Presenting for Evaluation and/or Initial Biopsy; Impact on Decision-Making Recruiting NCT03239834
34 Fluorescence & Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Recruiting NCT00542373 Not Applicable
35 International Pachyonychia Congenita Research Registry Recruiting NCT02321423
36 A Randomized Study of Sulindac in Oral Premalignant Lesions Active, not recruiting NCT00299195 Not Applicable sulindac;Placebo
37 Salivary Ap4A, SCCA, TROP2 in Oral Cancer Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03529604
38 A Cross-sectional Study of the Oral Health of Elderly Inpatients in Acute and Subacute Hospitals in Northumberland and North Tyneside Not yet recruiting NCT03214237
39 Photodynamic Therapy Using Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Recurrent Mouth or Throat Dysplasia or Recurrent In Situ Cancer or Stage I Cancer of the Mouth or Throat Terminated NCT00530088 Not Applicable porfimer sodium;Photdynamic Therapy (PDT)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

41
Tongue, Bone Marrow, Bone, T Cells, Prostate, Testes, Liver

Publications for Leukoplakia

Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 943)
# Title Authors Year
1
Determination and diagnostic value of CA9 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with oral leukoplakia. ( 29745265 )
2018
2
Expression and oncogenic properties of membranous Notch1 in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29620248 )
2018
3
CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29805639 )
2018
4
Possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and vocal fold leukoplakia. ( 29509297 )
2018
5
Potentially malignant disorders revisited-The lichenoid lesion/proliferative verrucous leukoplakia conundrum. ( 29663518 )
2018
6
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. ( 29427033 )
2018
7
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. ( 28416237 )
2018
8
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A challenge for clinical management. ( 29756248 )
2018
9
Association of laryngeal cancer with vocal cord leukoplakia and associated risk factors in 1,184 patients diagnosed in otorhinolaryngology practices in Germany. ( 29725537 )
2018
10
Evaluation of Collagen in Leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas Using Polarizing Microscopy and Immunohistochemistry ( 29699065 )
2018
11
A clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia; A guide for dentists. ( 29274164 )
2018
12
Immunoexpression of SOX-2 in oral leukoplakia. ( 29938872 )
2018
13
Data regarding clinical evaluation of collagen membrane in oral mucosal defects due to oral submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia. ( 29900214 )
2018
14
Knowledge about oral leukoplakia for use at different levels of expertise, including patients. ( 29480645 )
2018
15
Narrow band imaging for risk stratification of glottic cancer within leukoplakia. ( 29756243 )
2018
16
Proliferative leukoplakia: proposed new clinical diagnostic criteria. ( 29337414 )
2018
17
Liquid-based oral brush cytology in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia using a modified Bethesda Cytology system. ( 29957892 )
2018
18
Bibliometric analysis of a century of research on oral erythroplakia and leukoplakia. ( 29344996 )
2018
19
Differences in gene expression profile between vocal cord Leukoplakia and normal larynx mucosa by gene chip. ( 29433566 )
2018
20
Oral leukoplakia remains a challenging condition. ( 29480606 )
2018
21
T cells are involved in the induction of macrophage phenotypes in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma-a preliminary report. ( 29108105 )
2018
22
Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. ( 29428194 )
2018
23
Podoplanin expression as a predictive marker of dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. ( 29588189 )
2018
24
A new classification of vocal fold leukoplakia by morphological appearance guiding the treatment. ( 29504444 )
2018
25
Expression of DNA doublestrand repair proteins in oral leukoplakia and the risk of malignant transformation. ( 29928356 )
2018
26
Survival study of leukoplakia malignant transformation in a region of northern Spain. ( 29924757 )
2018
27
Considerations in the diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia-an institutional experience. ( 29325854 )
2018
28
Oral leukoplakia, a precancerous lesion of squamous cell carcinoma, in patients with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment. ( 29443777 )
2018
29
Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor expression and apoptosis effect in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29436667 )
2018
30
Letter to the Editor: Development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) in oral lichen planus: Is it not a clinical spectrum of PVL? ( 28160592 )
2017
31
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita. ( 28923296 )
2017
32
Expression of Human Papillomavirus DNA and p53 Polymorphisms through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Normal Mucosa and Oral Leukoplakia Individuals with Deleterious Oral Habits. ( 28584747 )
2017
33
A plea to provide best evidence in trials under sample-size restrictions: the example of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients. ( 28545482 )
2017
34
Correlation of Vascularization and Inflammation with Severity of Oral Leukoplakia. ( 29531547 )
2017
35
Different Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases 1A1 and 2 in Oral Leukoplakia With Epithelial Dysplasia and in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. ( 29189260 )
2017
36
Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery. ( 27686889 )
2017
37
In silico analysis of pathways activation landscape in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia. ( 28580171 )
2017
38
Plasma HPV DNA is detectable in oral leukoplakia patients. ( 28554767 )
2017
39
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. ( 29097794 )
2017
40
Nomogram for risk prediction of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia patients using combined biomarkers. ( 28797449 )
2017
41
Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Glutathione S-Transferase Theta1, Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1, and Glutathione S-Transferase Mu3 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Deleterious Habits using Polymerase Chain Reaction. ( 28904918 )
2017
42
Comparison of effectiveness of Calendula officinalis extract gel with lycopene gel for treatment of tobacco-induced homogeneous leukoplakia: A randomized clinical trial. ( 28929051 )
2017
43
Genomic profile of oral squamous cell carcinomas with an adjacent leukoplakia or with an erythroleukoplakia that evolved after the treatment of primary tumor: A report of two cases. ( 28901451 )
2017
44
Treatment of oral refractory large area mucosal leukoplakia with CO<sub>2</sub>laser combined with photodynamic therapy: Case report. ( 29037909 )
2017
45
Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28862226 )
2017
46
Leukoplakia of buccal mucosa with transformation into spindle cell carcinoma: A rare case report. ( 28479698 )
2017
47
Effects of Black Raspberry Extract and Berry Compounds on Repair of DNA Damage and Mutagenesis Induced by Chemical and Physical Agents in Human Oral Leukoplakia and Rat Oral Fibroblasts. ( 29068672 )
2017
48
Oral hairy leukoplakia arising in a patient with hairy cell leukaemia: the first reported case. ( 28385698 )
2017
49
Micronucleus Assay: An Early Diagnostic Tool to Assess Genotoxic Changes in Patients with Tobacco Use, Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis. ( 29207828 )
2017
50
Immunohistochemical evaluation of p63 and cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. ( 29142867 )
2017

Variations for Leukoplakia

Copy number variations for Leukoplakia from CNVD:

7 (show all 16)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 299983 1 197500000 205300000 Gain CAMSAP1L1 Leukoplakia
2 299999 1 222700000 225100000 Gain PARP1 Leukoplakia
3 300051 1 32200000 34400000 Gain KHDRBS1 Leukoplakia
4 300126 10 103000000 104900000 Gain NPM3 Leukoplakia
5 300490 11 70700000 74900000 Gain CHRDL2 Leukoplakia
6 300847 14 23600000 31800000 Gain GMPR2 Leukoplakia
7 300848 14 23600000 31800000 Gain IRF9 Leukoplakia
8 300849 14 23600000 31800000 Gain REC8 Leukoplakia
9 300904 14 90500000 92800000 Copy number BTBD7 Leukoplakia
10 300905 14 90500000 92800000 Gain BTBD7 Leukoplakia
11 303215 2 64000000 70500000 Gain RAB1A Leukoplakia
12 303505 22 30500000 35900000 Gain FBXO7 Leukoplakia
13 303978 5 135400000 139000000 Gain PAIP2 Leukoplakia
14 303979 5 139000000 143100000 Gain HBEGF Leukoplakia
15 304504 7 43300000 46600000 Gain TBRG4 Leukoplakia
16 304704 8 2200000 6200000 Loss CSMD1 Leukoplakia

Expression for Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Leukoplakia

GO Terms for Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermediate filament cytoskeleton GO:0045111 9.33 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
2 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
3 keratin filament GO:0045095 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell proliferation GO:0008283 9.46 CYP1A1 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA
2 glutathione metabolic process GO:0006749 9.32 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.26 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 keratinization GO:0031424 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
5 cornification GO:0070268 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.7 CYP1A1 DEFB4A DKC1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT1
2 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 9.16 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Sources for Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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