MCID: LKS001
MIFTS: 40

Leukostasis

Categories: Blood diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Leukostasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukostasis:

Name: Leukostasis 12 54 44 15 17 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12986
MeSH 44 D018921
NCIt 50 C4062
SNOMED-CT 67 30419000
UMLS 70 C0282548

Summaries for Leukostasis

MalaCards based summary : Leukostasis is related to microvascular complications of diabetes 5 and granulocytopenia. An important gene associated with Leukostasis is ICAM1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. Affiliated tissues include myeloid, endothelial and retina, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and cellular

Wikipedia : 73 Leukostasis (also called symptomatic hyperleukocytosis) is a medical emergency most commonly seen in... more...

Related Diseases for Leukostasis

Diseases related to Leukostasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 369)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 30.7 VEGFA VCAM1 SERPINF1 KDR ICAM1 AGER
2 granulocytopenia 30.5 TNF SELL MPO
3 diabetic macular edema 30.0 VEGFA SERPINF1 ICAM1 CCL2
4 leukemia, acute myeloid 29.9 VEGFA TNF MPO KDR IL1B FLT3
5 pulmonary edema 29.8 TNF IL1B ICAM1
6 ischemia 29.7 VEGFA SELE MPO KDR ICAM1
7 adult respiratory distress syndrome 29.6 TNF SELE MPO IL1B
8 retinal vascular occlusion 29.6 VEGFA SERPINF1 KDR ICAM1 CCL2
9 respiratory failure 29.5 VEGFA TNF MPO IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
10 cystitis 29.4 VEGFA TNF ICAM1 CCL2
11 retinal detachment 29.4 VEGFA TNF SERPINF1 CCL2
12 neutropenia 29.4 TNF MPO IL1B FLT3
13 monocytic leukemia 29.2 TNF MPO IL1B FLT3 CCL2
14 uveitis 29.1 TNF SERPINF1 IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
15 acute promyelocytic leukemia 29.0 TNF MPO IL1B ICAM1 FLT3 CCL2
16 leukemia, acute monocytic 29.0 TNF MPO IL1B FLT3 CCL2
17 myelodysplastic syndrome 29.0 VEGFA TNF MPO KDR IL1B FLT3
18 pneumonia 29.0 TNF SELL MPO IL1B CCL2
19 pulmonary hypertension 29.0 VEGFA TNF KDR IL1B CCL2
20 bacterial infectious disease 28.9 TNF SELL IL1B CFHR2 CCL2
21 retinal vascular disease 28.7 VEGFA TNF SERPINF1 OCLN KDR IL1B
22 microvascular complications of diabetes 1 28.6 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SERPINF1 KDR IL1B
23 macular retinal edema 28.5 VEGFA TNF SERPINF1 OCLN KDR IL1B
24 thrombocytopenia 28.5 TNF SELL SELE IL1B ICAM1 FLT3
25 eye disease 28.2 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SERPINF1 KDR IL1B
26 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 28.2 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELL SELE IL1B
27 myocardial infarction 27.8 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELL SELE MPO
28 heart disease 27.7 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELL SELE NFATC1
29 myeloid leukemia 10.5
30 acute myeloid leukemia with minimal differentiation 10.4 MPO FLT3
31 leukemia 10.4
32 buerger disease 10.3 VEGFA VCAM1 ICAM1
33 heterophyiasis 10.3 SELE ICAM1
34 leukemia, chronic myeloid 10.3
35 macular degeneration, age-related, 9 10.3 VCAM1 ICAM1
36 nodular goiter 10.3 VEGFA KDR ICAM1
37 acute leukemia 10.3
38 lymphangioma 10.2 VEGFA SERPINF1 KDR
39 hydrocele 10.2 VEGFA SELE ICAM1
40 plummer's disease 10.2 SELL SELE ICAM1
41 limbal stem cell deficiency 10.2 VCAM1 IL1B ICAM1
42 chronic venous insufficiency 10.2 VEGFA VCAM1 SELL ICAM1
43 venous insufficiency 10.2 VEGFA VCAM1 SELL ICAM1
44 autoimmune inner ear disease 10.2 TNF MPO
45 gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma 10.2 VEGFA KDR IL1B
46 post-thrombotic syndrome 10.2 VCAM1 ICAM1 CCL2
47 severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy 10.2 VEGFA ICAM1 CCL2
48 sorsby fundus dystrophy 10.2 VEGFA KDR CFHR2
49 macular holes 10.2 VEGFA SERPINF1 CCL2
50 immune-complex glomerulonephritis 10.1 VCAM1 MPO ICAM1 CFHR2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukostasis:



Diseases related to Leukostasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukostasis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Leukostasis:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.36 AGER ICAM1 IL1B KDR MPO NFATC1
2 cellular MP:0005384 10.31 AGER FLT3 ICAM1 KDR NFATC1 NFATC2
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.31 AGER FLT3 ICAM1 IL1B KDR NFATC1
4 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.31 AGER FLT3 ICAM1 IL1B KDR MPO
5 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.27 AGER FLT3 ICAM1 IL1B KDR MPO
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.25 AGER CCL2 FLT3 ICAM1 IL1B KDR
7 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.16 FLT3 ICAM1 NFATC2 NFATC3 NFATC4 OCLN
8 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.08 ICAM1 NFATC1 NFATC3 NFATC4 OCLN SERPINF1
9 integument MP:0010771 9.91 AGER ICAM1 IL1B KDR NFATC1 SELE
10 muscle MP:0005369 9.9 AGER ICAM1 KDR MPO NFATC1 NFATC2
11 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 KDR NFATC1 NFATC2 NFATC3 SELE SELL
12 skeleton MP:0005390 9.36 AGER FLT3 IL1B KDR NFATC1 NFATC2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukostasis

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Leukostasis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: leukostasis

Genetic Tests for Leukostasis

Anatomical Context for Leukostasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukostasis:

40
Myeloid, Endothelial, Retina, Neutrophil, Liver, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Leukostasis

Articles related to Leukostasis:

(show top 50) (show all 591)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Leukostasis and pigment epithelium-derived factor in rat models of diabetic retinopathy. 54 61
17653050 2007
2
Inhibition of diabetic leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier breakdown with a soluble form of a receptor for advanced glycation end products. 61 54
17251488 2007
3
Contributions of inflammatory processes to the development of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. 61 54
18274606 2007
4
VEGF increases retinal vascular ICAM-1 expression in vivo. 61 54
10393052 1999
5
Hypoxic induction of interleukin-8 gene expression in human endothelial cells. 54 61
8163658 1994
6
Endotoxin-induced pulmonary leukostasis in the rat: role of platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor. 54 61
8288963 1994
7
Endothelial activation antigens in pulmonary leukostasis in leukemia. 54 61
8237271 1993
8
Human recombinant interleukin-2 provokes acute pulmonary vascular endothelial injury in rabbits. 61 54
2160520 1990
9
[Changes in plasma granulocyte elastase, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin during and after open heart surgery]. 61 54
2157904 1990
10
Effect of prophylactic leukapheresis on early mortality and overall survival in acute leukemia patients with hyperleukocytosis. 61
33686785 2021
11
Therapeutic Leukapheresis in Pediatric Leukemia: Utilization Trend and Early Outcomes in a US Nationwide Cohort. 61
33735152 2021
12
Effect of dual PPAR-α/γ agonist saroglitazar on diabetic retinopathy and oxygen-induced retinopathy. 61
33753107 2021
13
Therapeutic Potential of Tpl2 (Tumor Progression Locus 2) Inhibition on Diabetic Vasculopathy Through the Blockage of the Inflammasome Complex. 61
33176446 2021
14
Patrolling Monocytes Are Recruited and Activated by Diabetes to Protect Retinal Microvessels. 61
32907815 2020
15
Leukocytapheresis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia With Leukostasis. 61
33527056 2020
16
Management of hyperleukocytosis and impact of leukapheresis among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) on short- and long-term clinical outcomes: a large, retrospective, multicenter, international study. 61
32132655 2020
17
High dose cyclophosphamide for cytoreduction in patients with acute myeloid leukemia with hyperleukocytosis or leukostasis. 61
33325761 2020
18
Systemic alterations in leukocyte subsets and the protective role of NKT cells in the mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. 61
32890483 2020
19
Leukemia cutis with IDH1, DNMT3A and NRAS mutations conferring resistance to venetoclax plus 5-azacytidine in refractory AML. 61
33292606 2020
20
Effects of Diabetes on Microcirculation and Leukostasis in Retinal and Non-Ocular Tissues: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy. 61
33233433 2020
21
Diabetic Retinopathy: Important Biochemical Alterations and the Main Treatment Strategies. 61
33341391 2020
22
Priapismus as Leukostasis Manifestation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. 61
33377887 2020
23
Hyperleukocytosis and Leukostasis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Can a Better Understanding of the Underlying Molecular Pathophysiology Lead to Novel Treatments? 61
33080779 2020
24
Leukapheresis for the management of hyperleukocytosis in acute myeloid leukemia-A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32776542 2020
25
Retinal changes in mice spontaneously developing diabetes by Th17-cell deviation. 61
32717339 2020
26
Respiratory Failure Due to a Large Mediastinal Mass in a 4-year-old Female with Blast Cell Crisis: A Case Report. 61
32926696 2020
27
Acute Myocardial Infarction as Initial Manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Rare Manifestation of Leukostasis. 61
32775121 2020
28
Leukostasis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. 61
32616708 2020
29
Pathogenic role of human C-reactive protein in diabetic retinopathy. 61
32602547 2020
30
PPARα activation directly upregulates thrombomodulin in the diabetic retina. 61
32616724 2020
31
Inactivation of Endothelial ADAM17 Reduces Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Neuronal and Vascular Damage. 61
32751103 2020
32
Suppression of Ocular Vascular Inflammation through Peptide-Mediated Activation of Angiopoietin-Tie2 Signaling. 61
32708100 2020
33
Leukostasis retinopathy treated with Anti-VEGF therapy. 61
32322747 2020
34
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase attenuated retinal inflammation via suppressing NF-κB activation. 61
32184102 2020
35
Deletion of Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Abrogates High Fat Diet-induced Retinal Leukostasis, Barrier Dysfunction and Microvascular Degeneration in a Mouse Obesity Model. 61
32492941 2020
36
Leukocytapheresis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis: a contemporary appraisal of outcomes and benefits. 61
32248712 2020
37
Leukostasis retinopathy with leukemic infiltrates as onset manifestation of chronic myeloid leukemia: a case report. 61
32476461 2020
38
One-year follow-up of ischemic index changes after intravitreal dexamethasone implant for diabetic macular edema: an ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography study. 61
31749052 2020
39
Treatment Outcome in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With Hyperleukocytosis in the Yeungnam Region of Korea: A Multicenter Retrospective Study. 61
32134842 2020
40
Swim bladder mycosis in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss caused by Phoma herbarum and experimental verification of pathogenicity. 61
32270764 2020
41
Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Care Pathway via an Emergency Department-ICU to Improve Care of Emergency Department Patients Presenting With Leukostasis. 61
32211616 2020
42
Role of Endothelial ADAM17 in Early Vascular Changes Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy. 61
32024241 2020
43
Sustained treatment of retinal vascular diseases with self-aggregating sunitinib microparticles. 61
32019921 2020
44
The effect of Shengpuhuang-tang on retinal inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by NF-κB pathway. 61
31589966 2020
45
Prolonged Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support with Cardiopulmonary Failure in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia. 61
32509361 2020
46
Rare Presentation of Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Leukemic Retinopathy in a Young Adult Diagnosed with T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. 61
32089973 2020
47
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ antagonist GSK0660 mitigates retinal cell inflammation and leukostasis. 61
31758977 2020
48
Comment on "Insights into the pathogenesis of cystoid macular edema: leukostasis and related cytokines". 61
32821693 2020
49
Leukostasis as a result of rapidly progressive granulocytosis in a patient diagnosed with MDS/MPN-U. 61
31805197 2019
50
Sepsis-induced Hyperleukocytosis in a Preterm. 61
31700707 2019

Variations for Leukostasis

Expression for Leukostasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukostasis.

Pathways for Leukostasis

Pathways related to Leukostasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14.06 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELL NFATC3 NFATC2
2
Show member pathways
13.71 TNF SERPINF1 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
3
Show member pathways
13.58 VEGFA TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 KDR IL1B
4
Show member pathways
13.37 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF IL1B ICAM1 FLT3
5
Show member pathways
13.09 VCAM1 TNF SELE OCLN NFATC4 NFATC3
6
Show member pathways
13.02 VEGFA NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 KDR
7
Show member pathways
12.96 VEGFA TNF NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
8 12.8 VEGFA TNF NFATC3 NFATC1 KDR IL1B
9
Show member pathways
12.7 VEGFA VCAM1 OCLN KDR ICAM1 CCL2
10
Show member pathways
12.67 TNF NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
11
Show member pathways
12.64 TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B
12
Show member pathways
12.63 TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B
13
Show member pathways
12.62 VEGFA TNF NFATC4 NFATC2 KDR
14
Show member pathways
12.47 VCAM1 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 ICAM1
15
Show member pathways
12.46 VEGFA VCAM1 SELE NFATC1 KDR ICAM1
16
Show member pathways
12.44 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B
17
Show member pathways
12.4 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
18
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF MPO IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
19 12.38 TNF NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 ICAM1
20 12.37 VCAM1 TNF NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
21
Show member pathways
12.26 TNF NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B
22 12.25 SERPINF1 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
23 12.2 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
24 12.19 VCAM1 SELL SELE OCLN ICAM1
25 12.15 TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B CCL2
26 12.09 TNF NFATC2 NFATC1 IL1B
27 12.06 TNF IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
28 12.04 TNF SELL MPO FLT3
29 12.01 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
30 12 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELE KDR IL1B
31 11.98 VCAM1 TNF IL1B ICAM1
32 11.98 VCAM1 TNF SELE IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
33 11.92 VEGFA TNF IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
34
Show member pathways
11.83 TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
35 11.81 SELE NFATC1 ICAM1
36 11.81 TNF SELL IL1B FLT3
37 11.71 VCAM1 TNF ICAM1
38
Show member pathways
11.71 TNF NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
39 11.69 TNF IL1B CCL2
40
Show member pathways
11.68 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SELE IL1B ICAM1
41
Show member pathways
11.67 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
42 11.61 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
43 11.61 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
44 11.6 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
45 11.6 TNF IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
46 11.59 TNF MPO ICAM1 AGER
47 11.57 TNF IL1B CCL2
48 11.56 VEGFA NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
49 11.54 VCAM1 SELE ICAM1
50 11.54 VCAM1 TNF SELE IL1B ICAM1 CCL2

GO Terms for Leukostasis

Cellular components related to Leukostasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.56 TNF SELE KDR ICAM1
2 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.56 VCAM1 TNF SELL SELE KDR ICAM1
3 transcription factor complex GO:0005667 9.46 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF SERPINF1 SELE MPO

Biological processes related to Leukostasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.09 VEGFA TNF OCLN NFATC2 IL1B
2 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 10 VCAM1 TNF KDR ICAM1
3 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.99 VEGFA TNF SERPINF1 OCLN KDR
4 leukocyte migration GO:0050900 9.97 TNF SELL SELE ICAM1
5 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.96 VEGFA VCAM1 ICAM1 AGER
6 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.96 TNF IL1B ICAM1 CCL2
7 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.93 TNF IL1B ICAM1 AGER
8 regulation of cell shape GO:0008360 9.91 VEGFA KDR ICAM1 CCL2
9 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.91 VEGFA TNF KDR IL1B AGER
10 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.91 TNF SELE NFATC4 NFATC3 IL1B CCL2
11 cellular response to tumor necrosis factor GO:0071356 9.9 VCAM1 OCLN ICAM1 CCL2
12 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 9.87 TNF IL1B AGER
13 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.86 VEGFA TNF FLT3
14 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.85 TNF IL1B CCL2
15 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.85 TNF IL1B AGER
16 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.85 VCAM1 SELE MPO IL1B ICAM1
17 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 9.84 VEGFA TNF FLT3
18 heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules GO:0007157 9.83 VCAM1 SELE ICAM1
19 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.83 VEGFA TNF KDR FLT3
20 cellular response to amyloid-beta GO:1904646 9.8 VCAM1 ICAM1 AGER
21 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.8 VEGFA TNF KDR ICAM1 CCL2 AGER
22 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.79 TNF IL1B ICAM1
23 cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus GO:0035924 9.76 VEGFA VCAM1 KDR
24 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.74 TNF IL1B CCL2
25 positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade GO:1900745 9.73 VEGFA IL1B AGER
26 branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis GO:0001569 9.72 VEGFA NFATC4 KDR
27 leukocyte cell-cell adhesion GO:0007159 9.71 VCAM1 SELE ICAM1
28 protein kinase B signaling GO:0043491 9.71 TNF KDR IL1B CCL2
29 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.7 TNF IL1B
30 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.7 VEGFA VCAM1 TNF IL1B ICAM1 FLT3
31 positive regulation of positive chemotaxis GO:0050927 9.69 VEGFA KDR
32 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.68 TNF IL1B
33 vascular wound healing GO:0061042 9.67 VEGFA KDR
34 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.67 TNF IL1B
35 vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway GO:0038084 9.67 VEGFA KDR FLT3
36 positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0038033 9.65 VEGFA KDR
37 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.65 TNF IL1B AGER
38 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathway GO:0036324 9.64 VEGFA KDR
39 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.64 TNF IL1B
40 membrane to membrane docking GO:0022614 9.63 VCAM1 ICAM1
41 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.61 TNF IL1B
42 negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation GO:1905064 9.61 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
43 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.58 TNF IL1B
44 cytokine production GO:0001816 9.56 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1
45 leukocyte tethering or rolling GO:0050901 9.26 VCAM1 TNF SELL SELE
46 calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade GO:0033173 8.92 NFATC4 NFATC3 NFATC2 NFATC1

Molecular functions related to Leukostasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 VEGFA TNF IL1B CCL2
2 oligosaccharide binding GO:0070492 9.26 SELL SELE
3 vascular endothelial growth factor-activated receptor activity GO:0005021 8.96 KDR FLT3
4 integrin binding GO:0005178 8.92 VCAM1 KDR IL1B ICAM1

Sources for Leukostasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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