MCID: LST001
MIFTS: 56

Listeriosis

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Listeriosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Listeriosis:

Name: Listeriosis 12 74 52 58 54 3 43 15 17 71 32
Listeria Infection 12 74 52 58 3
Infection by Listeria Monocytogenes 12
Listeria Monocytogenes Infection 52
Listeria Infections 42

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
listeriosis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe),1-9/1000000 (Worldwide),1-9/1000000 (United States); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11573
ICD9CM 34 027.0
MeSH 43 D008088
NCIt 49 C82994
SNOMED-CT 67 4241002
ICD10 32 A32 A32.9
MESH via Orphanet 44 D008088
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A32.0 A32.1 A32.7 more
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0023860
Orphanet 58 ORPHA533
UMLS 71 C0023860

Summaries for Listeriosis

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 A listeria infection or listeriosis is an infection caused by a bacteria known as Listeria monocytogenes . It mainly affects newborn infants, elderly patients, pregnant women and patients who have low immunity. Listeria can be spread by several methods. A common cause is ingestion (food-borne transmission) of unpasteurized milk or contaminated vegetables. It can also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or directly to the newborn at the time of delivery. Listeriosis can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the person and the part of the body affected. Pregnant women typically have only fever and other flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue and muscle aches. However, infections during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection of the newborn, including generalized infection (sepsis) or inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain (meningitis ). Sometimes listeriosis involves many organs and presents with masses filled with pus (microabscesses or granulomas). Older children with Listeria infections frequently develop meningitis. Treatment include antibiotics such as ampicillin and aminoglycosides .

MalaCards based summary : Listeriosis, also known as listeria infection, is related to encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, and has symptoms including vomiting, fever and back pain. An important gene associated with Listeriosis is ACTA1 (Actin Alpha 1, Skeletal Muscle), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Akt Signaling. The drugs Ampicillin and Amoxicillin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, brain and liver, and related phenotypes are hearing impairment and intellectual disability

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that results in infection, has material basis in Listeria monocytogenes, which is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or raw milk or transmitted by congenital method. Ingestion of Listeria by pregnant women has symptom nausea, has symptom vomiting, has symptom diarrhea, has symptom fever, has symptom malaise, has symptom back pain, and has symptom headache. Maternal infection with Listeria can result in chorioamnionitis, premature labor, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth.

MedlinePlus : 42 Listeriosis is a foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, bacteria found in soil and water. It can be in a variety of raw foods as well as in processed foods and foods made from unpasteurized milk. Listeria is unlike many other germs because it can grow even in the cold temperature of the refrigerator. Symptoms include fever and chills, headache, upset stomach and vomiting. Treatment is with antibiotics. Anyone can get the illness. But it is most likely to affect pregnant women and unborn babies, older adults, and people with weak immune systems. To reduce your risk Use precooked and ready-to-eat foods as soon as you can Avoid raw milk and raw milk products Heat ready-to-eat foods and leftovers until they are steaming hot Wash fresh fruits and vegetables Avoid rare meat and refrigerated smoked seafood Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC : 3 Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. An estimated 1,600 people get listeriosis each year, and about 260 die. The infection is most likely to sicken pregnant women and their newborns, adults aged 65 or older, and people with weakened immune systems.

Wikipedia : 74 Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L.... more...

Related Diseases for Listeriosis

Diseases related to Listeriosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 565)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 encephalitis 31.4 TNF IL10 IFNB1 IDO1
2 meningoencephalitis 31.4 TNF IL10 CD8A CD4 CCR6
3 toxoplasmosis 31.3 TNF ITGAM IL10 IDO1
4 salmonellosis 30.9 TNF IL10 CD8A CD4 CCR6
5 bacterial meningitis 30.9 TNF MBL2 IL10
6 plague 30.9 TNF IL10 CD8A CD4
7 q fever 30.9 TNF MBL2 IL10
8 pharyngitis 30.8 TNF CD8A CD4
9 listeria meningitis 30.8 TNF NDUFA9 IFNB1 CD8A
10 echinococcosis 30.8 TNF IL10 CD8A
11 cerebritis 30.8 TNF CD8A CD4
12 granulomatous hepatitis 30.8 TNF CD8A CD4
13 candidiasis 30.8 TNF MBL2 IL10 CCR6
14 vaginitis 30.7 TNF IL10 CD4 CCR6
15 congenital toxoplasmosis 30.7 IL10 CD8A CD4
16 tularemia 30.7 TNF MBL2 CD8A CD4 CCR6
17 colitis 30.6 TNF IL10 ICOSLG CCR6
18 syphilis 30.6 TNF CD8A CD4 CCR6
19 lymphadenitis 30.6 TNF IL10 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
20 stomatitis 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNB1 CD4
21 orchitis 30.5 TNF IL10 H2AC18 CD8A CD4
22 nervous system disease 30.5 TNF ICOSLG H2AC18 CD4 CCR6
23 choroiditis 30.5 TNF IL10 CD4
24 mast cell neoplasm 30.5 PRF1 ICOSLG H2AC18 CD8A CD4
25 respiratory failure 30.4 TNF IL10 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6 ACTA1
26 pfeiffer syndrome 30.4 PRF1 H2AC18 CD8A CD4 CCR6
27 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.4 TNF ITGAM IL10 CD4 CCR6
28 oral candidiasis 30.4 CD8A CD4 CCR6
29 leishmaniasis 30.4 TNF MBL2 ITGAM IL10 IFNB1
30 endophthalmitis 30.4 TNF PRF1 CD4
31 chlamydia 30.4 TNF MBL2 IL10 IDO1
32 aspergillosis 30.4 TNF MBL2 IL10 CCR6
33 exanthem 30.4 TNF IL10 ICOSLG H2AC18 CD8A CD4
34 allergic hypersensitivity disease 30.4 TNF IL10 ICOSLG H2AC18 CD4 CCR6
35 lymphopenia 30.4 IL7R IL10 ICOSLG CCR6
36 pyelonephritis 30.4 TNF MBL2 IL10
37 central nervous system disease 30.3 TNF ICOSLG H2AC18 CCR6
38 ileitis 30.3 TNF IL10 CD4 CCR6
39 vasculitis 30.3 TNF MBL2 ITGAM IL10
40 genital herpes 30.3 IL10 CD8A CD4 CCR6
41 neutropenia 30.2 TNF MBL2 ITGAM IL10
42 common cold 30.2 TNF IL10 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
43 crohn's disease 30.2 TNF IL10 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
44 mouth disease 30.2 IL10 ICOSLG H2AC18 CCR6
45 acute cystitis 30.2 TNF IL10 H2AC18 CD4 CCR6
46 myelitis 30.2 TNF IL10 IFNB1 ICOSLG CCR6
47 rubella 30.1 TNF IL10 IFNB1
48 t cell deficiency 30.1 IL7R ICOSLG CD8A CD4 CCR6
49 aplastic anemia 30.1 TNF PRF1 IL10 IDO1 H2AC18 CD4
50 cryptococcosis 30.1 TNF MBL2 IL10 CD8A CD4 CCR6

Comorbidity relations with Listeriosis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Listeriosis:



Diseases related to Listeriosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Listeriosis

Human phenotypes related to Listeriosis:

58 (show top 50) (show all 68)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hearing impairment 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
2 intellectual disability 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
3 seizures 58 Occasional (29-5%)
4 vomiting 58 Frequent (79-30%)
5 fatigue 58 Frequent (79-30%)
6 fever 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
7 cranial nerve paralysis 58 Occasional (29-5%)
8 immunodeficiency 58 Occasional (29-5%)
9 irritability 58 Occasional (29-5%)
10 ataxia 58 Occasional (29-5%)
11 arthralgia 58 Occasional (29-5%)
12 myoclonus 58 Occasional (29-5%)
13 tremor 58 Occasional (29-5%)
14 abnormality of movement 58 Occasional (29-5%)
15 congestive heart failure 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
16 pericarditis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
17 abdominal pain 58 Occasional (29-5%)
18 osteomyelitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
19 myalgia 58 Frequent (79-30%)
20 jaundice 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
21 back pain 58 Occasional (29-5%)
22 stroke 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
23 myocarditis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
24 endocarditis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
25 conjunctivitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
26 meningitis 58 Frequent (79-30%)
27 sepsis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
28 headache 58 Frequent (79-30%)
29 liver abscess 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
30 premature birth 58 Occasional (29-5%)
31 encephalitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
32 cholecystitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
33 respiratory failure 58 Occasional (29-5%)
34 respiratory distress 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
35 pneumonia 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
36 hemiparesis 58 Occasional (29-5%)
37 diarrhea 58 Occasional (29-5%)
38 sensory impairment 58 Occasional (29-5%)
39 visual loss 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
40 granulomatosis 58 Occasional (29-5%)
41 pustule 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
42 peritonitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
43 spontaneous abortion 58 Occasional (29-5%)
44 abscess 58 Occasional (29-5%)
45 septic arthritis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
46 functional motor deficit 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
47 loss of consciousness 58 Occasional (29-5%)
48 acute kidney injury 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
49 pyelonephritis 58 Occasional (29-5%)
50 disseminated intravascular coagulation 58 Very rare (<4-1%)

Symptoms:

12
  • vomiting
  • fever
  • back pain
  • headache
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • malaise

UMLS symptoms related to Listeriosis:


fever, pruritus

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Listeriosis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.93 CCR6 CD4 CD8A IDO1 IFNB1 IL10
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.73 CCR6 CD4 CD8A IDO1 IFNB1 IL10
3 normal MP:0002873 9.28 CCR6 CD4 CD8A IFNB1 IL10 IL7R

Drugs & Therapeutics for Listeriosis

Drugs for Listeriosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ampicillin Approved, Vet_approved 69-53-4 6249
2
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents
4 Anti-Infective Agents

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Multicentric Observational National Analysis of Listeriosis and Listeria : Evaluation of the Neurological Consequences of Perinatal Listeriosis Infection Unknown status NCT02580812
2 Multicentric Observational NAtional Study on LISteriosis and ListeriA Unknown status NCT01520597
3 Successful Treatment of Maternal Listeria Monocytogenes Bacteremia in the First Trimester of Pregnancy: a Case Report and Review of Literatures Completed NCT03248973 Ampicillin Injection
4 Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact on Renal Function of the Appearance of Crystalluria Under High-dose Intravenous Amoxicillin Completed NCT02853292
5 Genetic Susceptibility to Listeriosis - Listeria-GEN Recruiting NCT03357536
6 Genetic Susceptibility and Biomarkers in Listeriosis (MONALISA-GENBIO) Enrolling by invitation NCT02924220

Search NIH Clinical Center for Listeriosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: listeriosis

Genetic Tests for Listeriosis

Anatomical Context for Listeriosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Listeriosis:

40
T Cells, Brain, Liver, Testes, Neutrophil, Placenta, Skin

Publications for Listeriosis

Articles related to Listeriosis:

(show top 50) (show all 4059)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Outbreak of Listeriosis in South Africa Associated with Processed Meat. 42 61
32053299 2020
2
A population model for the 2017/18 listeriosis outbreak in South Africa. 61 42
32163438 2020
3
Quasimetagenomic source tracking of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream. 42
31996135 2020
4
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection. 61 54
17111046 2006
5
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is regulated by IFN-gamma in the mouse placenta during Listeria monocytogenes infection. 54 61
12517946 2003
6
Listeriolysin and IrpA are major protein targets of the human humoral response against Listeria monocytogenes. 61 54
9284184 1997
7
Maternal-neonatal listeriosis. 61
32363991 2020
8
Attribution of Listeria monocytogenes human infections to food and animal sources in Northern Italy. 61
32138991 2020
9
Toward a Better Understanding of Listeriosis Risk among Older Adults in the United States: Characterizing Dietary Patterns and the Sociodemographic and Economic Attributes of Consumers with These Patterns. 61
32221521 2020
10
Large Nationwide Outbreak of Invasive Listeriosis Associated with Blood Sausage, Germany, 2018-2019. 61
32568037 2020
11
Current aspects of listeriosis. 61
32147188 2020
12
Listeria monocytogenes septicemia and meningoencephalitis associated with relapsed and refractory follicular lymphoma. 61
32033853 2020
13
[Liver involvement in listeriosis? Think of a hepatitis E virus coinfection]. 61
32241098 2020
14
Listeria infection after treatment with alemtuzumab: a case report and literature review. Would antibiotic prophylaxis be considered? 61
32487792 2020
15
Survival and Virulence of Listeria monocytogenes During Storage on Chocolate Liquor, Corn Flakes, and Dry-Roasted, Shelled Pistachios at 4ºC and 23ºC. 61
32556209 2020
16
Glycotyping and Specific Separation of Listeria monocytogenes with a Novel Bacteriophage Protein Tool Kit. 61
32358009 2020
17
Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in camel meat. 61
32432315 2020
18
Solid organ donation after death from listeria encephalitis: A case report. 61
32303115 2020
19
Causes of fever in pregnant women with acute undifferentiated fever: a prospective multicentric study. 61
31955353 2020
20
Host syndecan-1 promotes listeriosis by inhibiting intravascular neutrophil extracellular traps. 61
32453780 2020
21
Development of a multiplex real-time PCR to differentiate the four major Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in isolates from meat processing plants. 61
31948615 2020
22
Listeria monocytogenes at the human-wildlife interface: black bears (Ursus americanus) as potential vehicles for Listeria. 61
31713354 2020
23
Engineered Reporter Phages for Rapid Bioluminescence-Based Detection and Differentiation of Viable Listeria Cells. 61
32245761 2020
24
In vitro and in vivo anti-Listeria effect of Succinoglycan Riclin through regulating MAPK/IL-6 axis and metabolic profiling. 61
32057883 2020
25
Morin inhibits Listeria monocytogenes virulence in vivo and in vitro by targeting listeriolysin O and inflammation. 61
32398085 2020
26
Links between S-adenosylmethionine and Agr-based quorum sensing for biofilm development in Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. 61
32134563 2020
27
Decontamination of seeds destined for edible sprout production from Listeria by using chitosan coating with synergetic lysozyme-nisin mixture. 61
32122502 2020
28
Listeria monocytogenes, a model in infection biology. 61
32185900 2020
29
L-lactate in cerebrospinal fluid can be used as a biomarker of encephalitis in cattle. 61
32255910 2020
30
Life Saving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support Use in Neonatal Listeriosis. 61
32286032 2020
31
Contributions of a LysR Transcriptional Regulator to Listeria monocytogenes Virulence and Identification of Its Regulons. 61
32179628 2020
32
A Proteogenomic Resource Enabling Integrated Analysis of Listeria Genotype-Proteotype-Phenotype Relationships. 61
32091902 2020
33
TLR9 Sensing of Self-DNA Controls Cell-Mediated Immunity to Listeria Infection via Rapid Conversion of Conventional CD4+ T Cells to Treg. 61
32268093 2020
34
Draft Genome Sequence of a Listeria monocytogenes Isolate of Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Complex Type 2521 from Ready-to-Eat Meat Sausage Related to an Outbreak (Sigma1) in Germany. 61
32354979 2020
35
Micro/nanoencapsulation strategy to improve the efficiency of natural antimicrobials against Listeria monocytogenes in food products. 61
32323558 2020
36
Comparison of the intensity of biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes using classical culture-based method and digital droplet PCR. 61
32303851 2020
37
Synergistic Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and Caffeic Acid with Fosfomycin on Growth Inhibition of a Resistant Listeria monocytogenes Strain. 61
32280897 2020
38
Genetic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Invasive Listeriosis in China. 61
32150465 2020
39
Zoonotic implications of camel diseases in Iran. 61
32160657 2020
40
Risk-based assessment and criteria specification of the microbial safety of wastewater reuse in food processing: Managing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in pasteurized fluid milk. 61
31927094 2020
41
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to form biofilm on surfaces relevant to the mushroom production environment. 61
31783343 2020
42
The Beneficial Effect of Eco-Friendly Green Nanoparticles Using Garcinia mangostana Peel Extract against Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes in Female BALB/c Mice. 61
32235366 2020
43
Strain Variability of Listeria monocytogenes under NaCl Stress Elucidated by a High-Throughput Microbial Growth Data Assembly and Analysis Protocol. 61
31900307 2020
44
Listeria monocytogenes Response to Anaerobic Environments. 61
32178387 2020
45
PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Ready-to-Eat Foods, the Food Processing Environment, and Clinical Samples in South Africa. 61
32073615 2020
46
Contamination Pathways can Be Traced along the Poultry Processing Chain by Whole Genome Sequencing of Listeria innocua. 61
32183339 2020
47
Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin on Listeria monocytogenes. 61
31027868 2020
48
Septicemic listeriosis during adalimumab- and golimumab-based treatment for ulcerative colitis: case presentation and literature review. 61
31222454 2020
49
Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis in China During 2008-2017. 61
31556722 2020
50
Experimental listeriosis: A study of purinergic and cholinergic inflammatory pathway. 61
31882365 2020

Variations for Listeriosis

Expression for Listeriosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Listeriosis.

Pathways for Listeriosis

Pathways related to Listeriosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.87 TNF MBL2 KLRG1 ITGAX ITGAM IL7R
2
Show member pathways
13.27 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL7R IL10 CD4
3
Show member pathways
13.24 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL7R IL10 IFNB1
4
Show member pathways
12.65 TNF PRF1 IL10 ICOSLG CD8A CD4
5
Show member pathways
12.54 TNF PRF1 ITGAX ITGAM ACTA1
6 12.02 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL10 IFNB1
7 11.98 ITGAM ICOSLG CD8A CD4
8 11.76 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL10
9 11.76 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL7R IL10 CD8A
10 11.72 TNF ITGAM IL7R CD8A CD4
11 11.63 TNF ITGAM IL10
12
Show member pathways
11.53 TNF PRF1 CD8A
13 11.49 ITGAX ITGAM ACTA1
14 11.4 TNF ITGAM IL7R IL10 CD8A CD4
15 11.39 TNF ITGAM ACTA1
16 11.23 IL7R CD8A CD4
17 11.2 TNF IL10 IDO1
18 11.09 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL7R IL10 IFNB1
19 11.02 TNF IL10 IFNB1 CD4

GO Terms for Listeriosis

Cellular components related to Listeriosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.76 TNF MBL2 LXN LIPI ITGAM IL10
2 cell surface GO:0009986 9.43 TNF MBL2 ITGAX ITGAM CD4 CCR6
3 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.23 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL7R ICOSLG CD8A

Biological processes related to Listeriosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface receptor signaling pathway GO:0007166 9.77 KLRG1 IL7R IFNB1 CD8A CD4
2 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.67 TNF IFNB1 CCR6
3 cellular defense response GO:0006968 9.63 PRF1 KLRG1 CCR6
4 immune response GO:0006955 9.63 TNF IL7R IL10 CD8A CD4 CCR6
5 T cell activation GO:0042110 9.61 ICOSLG CD8A CD4
6 negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process GO:0070233 9.52 IL7R IDO1
7 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.51 TNF IL10
8 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.5 IL7R IL10 IFNB1
9 immune system process GO:0002376 9.5 MBL2 KLRG1 ITGAM IDO1 ICOSLG CD8A
10 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.48 TNF IL10
11 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.4 TNF IL10
12 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.26 TNF IL10
13 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.1 TNF ITGAX ITGAM IL10 IFNB1 CD4

Molecular functions related to Listeriosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor activity GO:0038023 8.92 KLRG1 ITGAX CD4 CCR6

Sources for Listeriosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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