MCID: LSS001
MIFTS: 44

Loiasis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Loiasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Loiasis:

Name: Loiasis 11 19 58 75 2 43 14 16 75 31 33
Loa Loa Filariasis 19 75
Mansonella Perstans Infections 19
Eye Worm Disease of Africa 33
African Eyeworm Disease 33
Loa Loa Infestation 33
African Eye Worm 19
Calabar Swelling 33
Mansonelliasis 19
Mansonellosis 19

Characteristics:


Prevelance:

<1/1000000 (Europe) 58

Age Of Onset:

All ages 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:13523
ICD9CM 34 125.2
MeSH 43 D008118
NCIt 49 C34784
SNOMED-CT 68 44250009
ICD10 31 B74.3
MESH via Orphanet 44 D008118
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 B74.3
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0023968
Orphanet 58 ORPHA2404
ICD11 33 709184369
UMLS 71 C0023968

Summaries for Loiasis

CDC: 2 Loiasis, called African eye worm by most people, is caused by the parasitic worm Loa loa. It is passed on to humans through the repeated bites of deerflies (also known as mango flies or mangrove flies) of the genus Chrysops. The flies that pass on the parasite breed in certain rain forests of West and Central Africa. Infection with the parasite can also cause repeated episodes of itchy swellings of the body known as Calabar swellings. Knowing whether someone has a Loa loa infection has become more important in Africa because the presence of people with Loa loa infection has limited programs to control or eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis). There may be more than 29 million people who are at risk of getting loaisis in affected areas of Central and West Africa.

MalaCards based summary: Loiasis, also known as loa loa filariasis, is related to filariasis and filarial elephantiasis. An important gene associated with Loiasis is IL10 (Interleukin 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Reslizumab and Levamisole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, skin and bone marrow.

GARD: 19 Loiasis is a form of filariasis (see this term), caused by the parasitic worm Loa loa, endemic to the forest and savannah regions of Central and Western Africa. Loiasis may either be asymptomatic or manifest as a large, transient area of localized, non-erythematous subcutaneous edema (Calabar swellings), adult worm migration through the sub-conjunctiva (''African eye worm'') and pruritus. Generalized itching, hives, muscle pains, arthralgias, fatigue, and adult worms visibly migrating under the surface of the skin may be observed. Severe complications such as encephalopathy have been reported in highly infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (see these terms).

Orphanet: 58 Loiasis is a form of filariasis (see this term), caused by the parasitic worm Loa loa, endemic to the forest and savannah regions of Central and Western Africa. Loiasis may either be asymptomatic or manifest as a large, transient area of localized, non-erythematous subcutaneous edema (Calabar swellings), adult worm migration through the sub-conjunctiva (''African eye worm'') and pruritus. Generalized itching, hives, muscle pains, arthralgias, fatigue, and adult worms visibly migrating under the surface of the skin may be observed. Severe complications such as encephalopathy have been reported in highly infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (see these terms).

Disease Ontology: 11 A filariasis that involves parasitic infection of the skin and eyes caused by the nematode Loa loa, which is transmitted through the bite of a deer fly or mango fly. The disease is characterized by episodic angioedema in the arms and legs, and cyst-like enlargements of the connective tissue around the sheaths of muscle tendons. Dead worms may cause chronic abscesses, which may lead to the formation of granulomatous reactions and fibrosis.

Wikipedia: 75 Loa loa filariasis is a skin and eye disease caused by the nematode worm Loa loa. Humans contract this... more...

Related Diseases for Loiasis

Diseases related to Loiasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 285)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 filariasis 31.2 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
2 filarial elephantiasis 30.3 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
3 schistosomiasis 29.8 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
4 hyper ige syndrome 29.7 IL4 IL10 CCL11
5 onchocerciasis 29.7 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 EPX CCL11
6 leprosy 3 29.6 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
7 ascaris lumbricoides infection 29.6 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
8 hypereosinophilic syndrome 29.4 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX CCL11
9 elephantiasis 29.3 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
10 endomyocardial fibrosis 29.3 IL5 IL4 IL10 EPX
11 strongyloidiasis 29.2 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL11
12 skin disease 28.9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
13 conjunctivitis 28.5 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX CCL11
14 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 27.8 TXNRD3 STH IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
15 dirofilariasis 11.0
16 volvulus of midgut 10.4
17 dipetalonemiasis 10.3
18 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.3 IL10 CCL3
19 arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1 10.3
20 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 10.3
21 arthropathy 10.3
22 osteoarthritis 10.3
23 acute diarrhea 10.2 STH IL10
24 clonorchiasis 10.2 STH IL10
25 mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia 10.2 IL4 IL10
26 miliary tuberculosis 10.2 IL4 IL10
27 critical covid-19 10.2 IL10 CCL3
28 giardiasis 10.2 STH IL10
29 laryngitis 10.2 IL4 IL10
30 inflammatory bowel disease 18 10.2 IL4 IL10
31 tick infestation 10.2 IL4 IL10
32 chromoblastomycosis 10.2 IL4 CCL3
33 fungal meningitis 10.2 IL4 IL10
34 tuberculoid leprosy 10.2 IL4 IL10
35 cercarial dermatitis 10.2 IL5 IL4
36 aztreonam allergy 10.2 IL5 IL13
37 immunoglobulin a deficiency 1 10.2 IL4 IL10
38 nickel allergic contact dermatitis 10.2 IL5 IL13
39 kimura disease 10.2 IL5 IL4
40 cefaclor allergy 10.2 IL5 IL13
41 cryptococcal meningitis 10.2 IL4 IL10
42 viral pneumonia 10.2 IL10 CCL3
43 cystic echinococcosis 10.1 IL4 IL10
44 norwegian scabies 10.1 IL5 IL13
45 encephalitis 10.1
46 aspirin-induced respiratory disease 10.1 IL5 IL13
47 blepharoconjunctivitis 10.1 IL4 IL13
48 contact blepharoconjunctivitis 10.1 IL5 CCL11
49 primary systemic mycosis 10.1 IL4 IL10
50 esophageal candidiasis 10.1 IL5 IL13

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Loiasis:



Diseases related to Loiasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Loiasis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Loiasis

Drugs for Loiasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Reslizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 2 241473-69-8
2
Levamisole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 2 14769-73-4 26879
3
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 564-25-0 54671203
4
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 70288-86-7 9812710 6427057
5
Moxidectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 113507-06-5 72728820
6 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 2
7 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
8 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
9 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2
10 Antibodies Phase 2
11 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 2
12 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
13 Antimalarials Phase 2
14 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
15 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 2
16 Anthelmintics Phase 2
17 Vitamins Phase 2
18
Imatinib Mesylate Phase 2 220127-57-1
19 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 2
20
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved 54965-21-8 2082
21
Diethylcarbamazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 90-89-1 3052
22 Antimitotic Agents
23 Tubulin Modulators

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 12)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Loiasis Cross-reactive Antigenemia and Treatment-related Adverse Events Completed NCT05085665 Phase 4 Ivermectin
2 Comparison Between the Post-Treatment Reactions After Single-dose Ivermectin or DEC in Subjects With Loa Loa Infection Completed NCT01593722 Phase 4 Diethylcarbamazine;Ivermectin
3 A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study of Single-Dose Humanized Anti-IL5 Antibody (Reslizumab) for the Reduction of Eosinophilia Following Diethylcarbamazine Treatment of Loa Loa Infection Completed NCT01111305 Phase 2 Reslizumab;Diethylcarbamazine
4 Randomized Clinical Trial, Double-blind, Dose-escalating of Drug Intensities, Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Levamisole in Loa Loa Microfilaremic Patients Completed NCT04049630 Phase 2 LEV 1 mg/kg;LEV 1,5 mg/kg;LEV 2,5 mg/kg;Placebo
5 Comparison of Early and Late Administration of Doxycycline in Their Efficacy Against Mansonella Perstans and in Development of Immunity Against Mycobacterial Infections Completed NCT02281643 Phase 2 Doxycycline
6 Treatment of Mansonella Perstans Infection in an Area Coendemic for Lymphatic Filariasis: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Doxycycline Completed NCT00340691 Phase 2 Doxycycline
7 Randomized Clinical Trial, Double-blind, Single-dose Drug and Escalating Infection Intensities, Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Moxidectin 2 mg, Ivermectin-controlled, in Loa Loa Microfilaremic Patients Recruiting NCT04049851 Phase 2 Moxidectin 2 MG Oral Tablet;Ivermectin 3Mg Tab;Placebo oral tablet
8 A Double-blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Dose Escalation Study to Examine the Efficacy and Microfilaricidal Kinetics and Safety of Imatinib for the Treatment of Loa Loa (A Pilot Study) Terminated NCT02644525 Phase 2 Imatinib Mesylate;Placebo
9 Spontaneous Antigenemia in Loiasis, A Study of the Loiasis Antigens Responsible for Cross-reactivity in the Rapid Diagnostic Test for Lymphatic Filariasis Unknown status NCT04258670
10 Studies on the Epidemiology and Control of Mansonella Perstans Infection in Uganda Completed NCT00215280 ivermectin and albendazole
11 Host Response to Infection and Treatment in the Filarial Diseases of Humans Recruiting NCT00001230
12 Evaluation of the Diagnosis Performances of DEC LTS-2 Skin Patch for Onchocerciasis in Central Africa Not yet recruiting NCT04035174

Search NIH Clinical Center for Loiasis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: loiasis

Genetic Tests for Loiasis

Anatomical Context for Loiasis

Organs/tissues related to Loiasis:

MalaCards : Eye, Skin, Bone Marrow, Spleen, T Cells, Bone, Liver

Publications for Loiasis

Articles related to Loiasis:

(show top 50) (show all 576)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Integrated xenosurveillance of Loa loa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans and Plasmodium falciparum using mosquito carcasses and faeces: A pilot study in Cameroon. 62
36322515 2022
2
A large case series of travel-related Mansonella perstans (vector-borne filarial nematode): a TropNet study in Europe. 62
35417002 2022
3
Loiasis from where you don't expect it: an illustrative case of misled diagnosis. 62
35532187 2022
4
Imported occult loiasis: diagnostic algorithm proposal for a difficult diagnosis. 62
35032386 2022
5
A call for loiasis to be added to the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases. 62
35500592 2022
6
Misleading eosinophil counts in migration-associated malaria: do not miss hidden helminthic co-infections. 62
35934309 2022
7
Distinct loiasis infection states and associated clinical and hematological manifestations in patients from Gabon. 62
36121900 2022
8
The impact of Loa loa microfilaraemia on research subject retention during a whole sporozoite malaria vaccine trial in Equatorial Guinea. 62
35394038 2022
9
Safety and Efficacy of Levamisole in Loiasis: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Clinical Trial. 62
34651190 2022
10
Comparison of three PCR-based methods to detect Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in long-term frozen storage dried blood spots. 62
35653502 2022
11
Loa loa in the Vitreous Cavity of the Eye: A Case Report and State of Art. 62
35914685 2022
12
Semiannual Treatment of Albendazole Alone is Efficacious for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Randomized Open-label Trial in Cote d'Ivoire. 62
33674871 2022
13
Spleen nodules in Loa loa infection: re-emerging knowledge and future perspectives. 62
35219405 2022
14
Vector control and entomological capacity for onchocerciasis elimination. 62
35379556 2022
15
Human Filariasis in Travelers and Migrants: A Retrospective 25-year Analysis at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. 62
34463732 2022
16
Characterization of a novel microfilarial antigen for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections. 62
35604906 2022
17
Colorimetric and Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Detection of Loa loa DNA in Human Blood Samples. 62
35626235 2022
18
A novel series of putative Brugia malayi histone demethylase inhibitors as potential anti-filarial drugs. 62
35294431 2022
19
Lessons from Large-Scale Tolerability and Acceptability Studies of Triple Drug Mass Drug Administration Performed to Support Policy Change and Accelerate Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. 62
35292585 2022
20
Atypical imported loiasis characterised by recurrent anaemia in a patient from China. 62
35092801 2022
21
Geostatistical modelling enables efficient safety assessment for mass drug administration with ivermectin in Loa loa endemic areas through a combined antibody and LoaScope testing strategy for elimination of onchocerciasis. 62
35139080 2022
22
Evaluation of LAMP for the diagnosis of Loa loa infection in dried blood spots compared to PCR-based assays and microscopy. 62
35170676 2022
23
Loiasis and diurnal microfilaremia: searching at the right moment. 62
34718684 2022
24
Loiasis is endemic in the Ndikinimeki Health District (Centre Region, Cameroon) but does not represent a hindrance to onchocerciasis elimination. 62
34755644 2022
25
The Human Filaria Loa loa: Update on Diagnostics and Immune Response. 62
35936385 2022
26
Advancing a Human Onchocerciasis Vaccine From Antigen Discovery to Efficacy Studies Against Natural Infection of Cattle With Onchocerca ochengi. 62
35444961 2022
27
Current perspective of new anti-Wolbachial and direct-acting macrofilaricidal drugs as treatment strategies for human filariasis. 62
35463816 2022
28
Human filariasis-contributions of the Litomosoides sigmodontis and Acanthocheilonema viteae animal model. 62
33547508 2021
29
Evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of various filarial nematodes to emodepside. 62
34339934 2021
30
An Integrated District Mapping Strategy for Loiasis to Enable Safe Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Gabon. 62
34781262 2021
31
Immunomodulatory Therapy for the Management of Loiasis. 62
33326992 2021
32
A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Pilot Study of Single-dose Humanized Anti-IL5 Antibody (Reslizumab) for the Reduction of Eosinophilia Following Diethylcarbamazine Treatment of Loa loa Infection. 62
32910141 2021
33
Loiasis. 62
34449182 2021
34
'Slash and clear' vector control for onchocerciasis elimination and epilepsy prevention: a protocol of a cluster randomised trial in Cameroonian villages. 62
34475178 2021
35
Diagnostic performance of capillary and venous blood samples in the detection of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia using light microscopy. 62
34398886 2021
36
Albendazole and Mebendazole as Anti-Parasitic and Anti-Cancer Agents: an Update. 62
34218593 2021
37
Unusual Localization of Blood-Borne Loa loa Microfilariae in the Skin Depends on Microfilarial Density in the Blood: Implications for Onchocerciasis Diagnosis in Coendemic Areas. 62
33909066 2021
38
Genome editing as control tool for filarial infections. 62
33581654 2021
39
A Case of Possible Loiasis Contracted in Cameroon and Diagnosed in Milan, Italy, and Review of Cases Published in Dermatological Journals. 62
34413738 2021
40
Serious adverse reactions associated with ivermectin: A systematic pharmacovigilance study in sub-Saharan Africa and in the rest of the World. 62
33878105 2021
41
Preliminary comparison between an in-house real-time PCR vs microscopy for the diagnosis of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans. 62
33484727 2021
42
Infection-associated Immune Perturbations Resolve 1 Year Following Treatment for Loa loa. 62
32055862 2021
43
IL-10 and Its Related Superfamily Members IL-19 and IL-24 Provide Parallel/Redundant Immune-Modulation in Loa loa Infection. 62
32561912 2021
44
Diagnosis of Ocular Loiasis in a Patient from a Dirofilaria-Endemic Area. 62
34431952 2021
45
An Adult Loa loa Worm in the Upper Eyelid: An Atypical Presentation of Loiasis in the United States. 62
33959400 2021
46
Why onchocerciasis transmission persists after 15 annual ivermectin mass drug administrations in South-West Cameroon. 62
33431378 2021
47
Computational Design and Preliminary Serological Analysis of a Novel Multi-Epitope Vaccine Candidate against Onchocerciasis and Related Filarial Diseases. 62
33494344 2021
48
Validation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of Loa loa infection in Chrysops spp in experimental and natural field conditions. 62
33407819 2021
49
An Overview of the Management of Mansonellosis. 62
34079424 2021
50
The efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. 62
33397429 2021

Variations for Loiasis

Expression for Loiasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Loiasis.

Pathways for Loiasis

Pathways related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 25)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.4 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
2
Show member pathways
13.32 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
3
Show member pathways
13.2 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
4
Show member pathways
13.13 CCL11 CCL3 IL10 IL13 IL4 IL5
5
Show member pathways
13.12 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
6
Show member pathways
12.42 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
7
Show member pathways
11.96 IL5 IL4 IL10
8 11.91 IL4 IL13 IL10
9 11.84 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL11
10 11.82 IL10 IL4 IL5
11 11.76 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
12 11.63 IL5 IL4 IL13
13 11.56 IL5 IL4 IL10
14 11.51 IL5 IL4 IL10 CCL11
15
Show member pathways
11.48 IL10 IL13 IL4 IL5
16 11.46 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
17 11.22 IL5 IL4 IL13
18 11.15 IL5 IL4 IL13 CCL3 CCL11
19 11.14 IL5 IL4
20 11.13 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
21 11.05 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
22 10.97 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
23 10.86 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11
24 10.71 IL5 IL4 IL13
25 10.68 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL11

GO Terms for Loiasis

Biological processes related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.85 IL5 IL4 IL13
2 eosinophil chemotaxis GO:0048245 9.78 CCL3 CCL11
3 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.76 IL4 IL10
4 positive regulation of mast cell degranulation GO:0043306 9.73 IL4 IL13
5 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.71 IL4 IL10
6 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.63 IL4 IL13 IL10
7 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.62 IL10 IL4
8 negative regulation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity GO:1903660 9.56 IL4 IL13
9 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 9.43 IL5 IL13 IL10
10 immune response GO:0006955 9.28 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11

Molecular functions related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.32 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3 CCL11

Sources for Loiasis

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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