MCID: LSS001
MIFTS: 45

Loiasis

Categories: Eye diseases, Infectious diseases, Muscle diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Loiasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Loiasis:

Name: Loiasis 12 73 20 58 3 44 15 17 32
Loa Loa Filariasis 20
African Eye Worm 20

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
loiasis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13523
ICD9CM 34 125.2
MeSH 44 D008118
NCIt 50 C34784
SNOMED-CT 67 44250009
ICD10 32 B74.3
MESH via Orphanet 45 D008118
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 B74.3
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0023968
Orphanet 58 ORPHA2404
UMLS 70 C0023968

Summaries for Loiasis

CDC : 3 Loiasis, called African eye worm by most people, is caused by the parasitic worm Loa loa. It is passed on to humans through the repeated bites of deerflies (also known as mango flies or mangrove flies) of the genus Chrysops. The flies that pass on the parasite breed in certain rain forests of West and Central Africa. Infection with the parasite can also cause repeated episodes of itchy swellings of the body known as Calabar swellings. Knowing whether someone has a Loa loa infection has become more important in Africa because the presence of people with Loa loa infection has limited programs to control or eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis). There may be more than 29 million people who are at risk of getting loaisis in affected areas of Central and West Africa.

MalaCards based summary : Loiasis, also known as loa loa filariasis, is related to onchocerciasis and mansonelliasis. An important gene associated with Loiasis is IL10 (Interleukin 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and ERK Signaling. The drugs Diethylcarbamazine and Ivermectin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, skin and bone, and related phenotypes are digestive/alimentary and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 A filariasis that involves parasitic infection of the skin and eyes caused by the nematode Loa loa, which is transmitted through the bite of a deer fly or mango fly. The disease is characterized by episodic angioedema in the arms and legs, and cyst-like enlargements of the connective tissue around the sheaths of muscle tendons. Dead worms may cause chronic abscesses, which may lead to the formation of granulomatous reactions and fibrosis.

Wikipedia : 73 Loa loa filariasis is a skin and eye disease caused by the nematode worm Loa loa. Humans contract this... more...

Related Diseases for Loiasis

Diseases related to Loiasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 349)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 onchocerciasis 30.2 IL5 IL4 IL13 EPX CCL11
2 mansonelliasis 30.2 IL5 IL10
3 ascaris lumbricoides infection 30.0 IL5 IL13
4 trypanosomiasis 29.8 IL9 IL4 IL10
5 endomyocardial fibrosis 29.6 IL5 IL4 IL10 EPX
6 hyper ige syndrome 29.5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL11
7 schistosomiasis 29.5 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
8 hypereosinophilic syndrome 29.3 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX
9 strongyloidiasis 29.1 IL5 IL4 IL13 CD4 CCL11
10 filarial elephantiasis 28.7 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 GPT2
11 skin disease 28.6 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4 CCL11
12 elephantiasis 28.5 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 GPT2 CD4
13 filariasis 10.6
14 volvulus of midgut 10.3
15 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.3 IL10 CCL3
16 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.3 IL4 IL10
17 acute gonococcal cervicitis 10.3 IL4 IL10
18 autoimmune hepatitis type 1 10.3 IL4 IL10
19 acute asthma 10.3 IL5 IL4
20 basidiobolomycosis 10.3 IL4 IL10
21 eales disease 10.3 IL4 IL10
22 aztreonam allergy 10.3 IL5 IL13
23 cefaclor allergy 10.3 IL5 IL13
24 atopic keratoconjunctivitis 10.3 IL5 IL4
25 cefuroxime allergy 10.3 IL5 IL13
26 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.3 IL5 IL13
27 toxic oil syndrome 10.3 IL5 IL4
28 cough variant asthma 10.3 IL5 IL4
29 loeffler syndrome 10.3 IL5 IL13
30 inflammatory bowel disease 18 10.3 IL4 IL10
31 orange allergy 10.3 IL5 IL13
32 chromoblastomycosis 10.3 IL4 CCL3
33 neurodermatitis 10.2 IL4 IL13
34 proteinuria, chronic benign 10.2
35 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 10.2
36 arthropathy 10.2
37 paragonimiasis 10.2 IL5 IL13
38 vasomotor rhinitis 10.2 IL5 IL13
39 loeffler endocarditis 10.2 IL5 EPX
40 acute graft versus host disease 10.2 IL4 IL10
41 childhood-onset asthma 10.2 IL13 EPX
42 disseminated eosinophilic collagen disease 10.2 IL5 EPX
43 psoriasis 15 10.2 IL4 IL13
44 vernal conjunctivitis 10.2 IL4 EPX
45 scleritis 10.2 IL5 IL4
46 encephalopathy 10.2
47 orofacial granulomatosis 10.2 IL4 IL10 CCL3
48 jak3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency 10.2 IL9 IL4
49 vulvovaginitis 10.2 IL10 CCL11
50 cow milk allergy 10.2 IL5 IL4 IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Loiasis:



Diseases related to Loiasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Loiasis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Loiasis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.63 CD4 IL10 IL13 IL4 IL5 IL9
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.56 CCL11 CD4 EPX IL10 IL13 IL4
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.23 CCL11 CD4 EPX IL10 IL13 IL4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Loiasis

Drugs for Loiasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Diethylcarbamazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 90-89-1 3052
2
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 70288-86-7 6474909
3 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
5 Anthelmintics Phase 4
6
Reslizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 2 241473-69-8
7 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2
8 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 2
9 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
10 Antibodies Phase 2
11 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Comparison Between the Post-Treatment Reactions After Single-dose Ivermectin or DEC in Subjects With Loa Loa Infection Completed NCT01593722 Phase 4 Diethylcarbamazine;Ivermectin
2 A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study of Single-Dose Humanized Anti-IL5 Antibody (Reslizumab) for the Reduction of Eosinophilia Following Diethylcarbamazine Treatment of Loa Loa Infection Completed NCT01111305 Phase 2 Reslizumab;Diethylcarbamazine
3 Spontaneous Antigenemia in Loiasis, A Study of the Loiasis Antigens Responsible for Cross-reactivity in the Rapid Diagnostic Test for Lymphatic Filariasis Active, not recruiting NCT04258670

Search NIH Clinical Center for Loiasis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: loiasis

Genetic Tests for Loiasis

Anatomical Context for Loiasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Loiasis:

40
Eye, Skin, Bone, Lung, Bone Marrow, Spleen, T Cells

Publications for Loiasis

Articles related to Loiasis:

(show top 50) (show all 444)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Genome editing as control tool for filarial infections. 61
33581654 2021
2
Preliminary comparison between an in-house real-time PCR vs microscopy for the diagnosis of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans. 61
33484727 2021
3
Infection-associated Immune Perturbations Resolve 1 Year Following Treatment for Loa loa. 61
32055862 2021
4
Semiannual Treatment of Albendazole Alone is Efficacious for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Randomized Open-label Trial in Cote d'Ivoire. 61
33674871 2021
5
Human filariasis-contributions of the Litomosoides sigmodontis and Acanthocheilonema viteae animal model. 61
33547508 2021
6
IL-10 and Its Related Superfamily Members IL-19 and IL-24 Provide Parallel/Redundant Immune-Modulation in Loa loa Infection. 61
32561912 2021
7
Computational Design and Preliminary Serological Analysis of a Novel Multi-Epitope Vaccine Candidate against Onchocerciasis and Related Filarial Diseases. 61
33494344 2021
8
Why onchocerciasis transmission persists after 15 annual ivermectin mass drug administrations in South-West Cameroon. 61
33431378 2021
9
Validation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of Loa loa infection in Chrysops spp in experimental and natural field conditions. 61
33407819 2021
10
The efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. 61
33397429 2021
11
Slithering Through the Bone Marrow: Loiasis in a Patient With Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus-1-Associated Adult T-Cell Lymphoma. 61
33335934 2020
12
Collateral Impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) for Onchocerciasis on Parasitological Indicators of Loa loa Infection. 61
33322724 2020
13
Moxidectin: an oral treatment for human onchocerciasis. 61
32715787 2020
14
Burden of disease in Gabon caused by loiasis: a cross-sectional survey. 61
32585133 2020
15
Uncovering the burden of loiasis: first estimates from Gabon. 61
32585134 2020
16
Individual risk of post-ivermectin serious adverse events in subjects infected with Loa loa. 61
33294807 2020
17
Clinical, serological and DNA testing in Bengo Province, Angola further reveals low filarial endemicity and opportunities for disease elimination. 61
33072898 2020
18
Immunomodulatory Therapy for the Management of Loiasis. 61
33326992 2020
19
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study of single-dose humanized anti-IL5 antibody (reslizumab) for the reduction of eosinophilia following diethylcarbamazine treatment of Loa loa infection. 61
32910141 2020
20
Generation of Loa loa infective larvae by experimental infection of the vector, Chrysops silacea. 61
32804951 2020
21
Diethylcarbamazine activates TRP channels including TRP-2 in filaria, Brugia malayi. 61
32724078 2020
22
The impact of four years of semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: A community-based study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 61
32574160 2020
23
Performance of two serodiagnostic tests for loiasis in a Non-Endemic area. 61
32453734 2020
24
Projected Number of People With Onchocerciasis-Loiasis Coinfection in Africa, 1995 to 2025. 61
31304961 2020
25
Encephalopathy in a patient with loiasis treated with albendazole: A case report. 61
31676328 2020
26
Loa loa filariasis in a tropical savanna area: report of one case in Ouagadougou. 61
31975376 2020
27
Imported Infections in Rural Mid-West United States - A Report from a Tertiary Care Center. 61
32308221 2020
28
[Loiasis: A tropical parasitosis in the Primary Care Clinic]. 61
31256922 2020
29
Comparison of immune responses to Loa loa stage-specific antigen extracts in Loa loa-exposed BALB/c mice upon clearance of infection. 61
32033624 2020
30
Loiasis in sub-Saharan migrants living in Spain with emphasis of cases from Equatorial Guinea. 61
32029005 2020
31
Eye diseases in travelers. 61
32212152 2020
32
Nonsurgical management of photoaversive ocular and systemic loiasis in Michigan. 61
32676267 2020
33
Imported loiasis in France: a retrospective analysis of 167 cases with comparison between sub-Saharan and non sub-Saharan African patients. 61
31959110 2020
34
[Loiasis (African eye worm): about a case]. 61
33282085 2020
35
Implications for annual retesting after a test-and-not-treat strategy for onchocerciasis elimination in areas co-endemic with Loa loa infection: an observational cohort study. 61
31676244 2020
36
Brugia malayi galectin 2 is a tandem-repeat type galectin capable of binding mammalian polysaccharides. 61
31738955 2020
37
Safety and effectiveness of apheresis in the treatment of infectious diseases: A systematic review. 61
31622632 2019
38
New promising method to assess microfilarial Loa loa load on the peripheral blood. 61
31630909 2019
39
Implementation of test-and-treat with doxycycline and temephos ground larviciding as alternative strategies for accelerating onchocerciasis elimination in an area of loiasis co-endemicity: the COUNTDOWN consortium multi-disciplinary study protocol. 61
31801631 2019
40
Atypical Clinical Manifestations of Loiasis and Their Relevance for Endemic Populations. 61
31696139 2019
41
Presence of adult Loa loa in the anterior chamber of the eye along with microfilaremia from nonendemic region: A rare presentation from India. 61
31867260 2019
42
BioStruct-Africa: empowering Africa-based scientists through structural biology knowledge transfer and mentoring - recent advances and future perspectives. 61
31490179 2019
43
Analysis of severe adverse effects following community-based ivermectin treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 61
31420005 2019
44
Efficacy of High-Dose Albendazole with Ivermectin for Treating Imported Loiasis, Italy. 61
31310225 2019
45
Reaching the last mile: main challenges relating to and recommendations to accelerate onchocerciasis elimination in Africa. 61
31269966 2019
46
Anti-Wolbachia therapy for onchocerciasis & lymphatic filariasis: Current perspectives. 61
31496523 2019
47
Review of the National Program for Onchocerciasis Control in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 61
31200509 2019
48
Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a single co-administered dose of diethylcarbamazine, albendazole and ivermectin in adults with and without Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Côte d'Ivoire. 61
31107869 2019
49
Myeloblasts and atypical bone marrow: Fortuitous discovery of the filiarial nematode loa loa in the bone marrow during a work-up for prolymphocytic T-cell leukemia. 61
31145082 2019
50
Differences in the Clinical and Laboratory Features of Imported Onchocerciasis in Endemic Individuals and Temporary Residents. 61
30761981 2019

Variations for Loiasis

Expression for Loiasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Loiasis.

Pathways for Loiasis

Pathways related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.86 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX
2
Show member pathways
13.68 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
3
Show member pathways
13.55 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
4
Show member pathways
13.4 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
5
Show member pathways
13.27 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
6
Show member pathways
13.22 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
7
Show member pathways
13.15 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
8
Show member pathways
12.67 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX
9
Show member pathways
12.54 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL10 CD4
10
Show member pathways
12.53 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
11
Show member pathways
12.34 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
12
Show member pathways
12.26 IL5 IL4 IL13 CCL11
13
Show member pathways
12.19 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
14 11.94 IL5 IL4 IL10 CD4
15 11.93 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL11
16
Show member pathways
11.87 IL4 CD4 CCL3
17 11.81 IL5 IL4 CD4
18 11.72 IL5 IL4 IL13
19 11.64 IL5 IL4 IL10 CCL11
20 11.62 IL5 IL4 IL10
21 11.6 IL5 IL4 IL13 CCL3 CCL11
22 11.49 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
23 11.4 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
24 11.26 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13
25 11.12 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
26 11.09 IL13 CD4
27 10.97 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
28 10.88 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
29 10.83 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
30 10.75 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13

GO Terms for Loiasis

Cellular components related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.23 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 EPX

Biological processes related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.02 IL5 IL4 IL10 CD4 CCL3 CCL11
2 negative regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050728 9.72 IL4 IL13 IL10
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.65 IL9 IL5 IL13 CCL3 CCL11
4 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.58 IL4 IL13
5 negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045671 9.58 IL4 CCL3
6 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.57 IL13 IL10
7 eosinophil chemotaxis GO:0048245 9.56 CCL3 CCL11
8 positive regulation of calcium-mediated signaling GO:0050850 9.54 CD4 CCL3
9 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.54 IL5 IL4 IL13
10 macrophage activation GO:0042116 9.52 IL4 IL13
11 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.51 IL4 IL10
12 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.5 IL4 IL13 IL10
13 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.5 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4 CCL3
14 positive regulation of mast cell degranulation GO:0043306 9.49 IL4 IL13
15 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.46 IL4 IL10
16 negative regulation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity GO:1903660 9.43 IL4 IL13
17 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.4 IL4 IL10
18 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 9.33 IL5 IL13 IL10
19 immune response GO:0006955 9.23 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4

Molecular functions related to Loiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.46 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL10
2 CCR chemokine receptor binding GO:0048020 9.26 CCL3 CCL11
3 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.17 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CCL3
4 cytokine receptor binding GO:0005126 9.13 IL9 IL4 IL13

Sources for Loiasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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