LCM
MCID: LYM009
MIFTS: 47

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Muscle diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis:

Name: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis 12 54 3 43 15 71 32
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Encephalomyelitis 12
Non-Arthropod Borne Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis 71
Lymphocytic Meningoencephalitis 12
Lymphocytic Meningitis 12
Lcm 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12155
MeSH 43 D008216
SNOMED-CT 67 398136003
ICD10 32 A87.2
UMLS 71 C0024266 C0153014

Summaries for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

CDC : 3 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, or LCM, is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a member of the family Arenaviridae, that was initially isolated in 1933. The primary host of LCMV is the common house mouse, Mus musculus. Infection in house mouse populations may vary by geographic location, though it is estimated that 5% of house mice throughout the United States carry LCMV and are able to transmit virus for the duration of their lives without showing any sign of illness. Other types of rodents, such as hamsters, are not the natural reservoirs but can become infected with LCMV from wild mice at the breeder, in the pet store, or home environment. Humans are more likely to contract LCMV from house mice, but infections from pet rodents have also been reported.

MalaCards based summary : Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, also known as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus encephalomyelitis, is related to argentine hemorrhagic fever and lassa fever. An important gene associated with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis is DAG1 (Dystroglycan 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Akt Signaling. The drugs Vaccines and Antiviral Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, b cells and brain, and related phenotypes are Decreased vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection and Decreased vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in infection located in brain, or located in meninges, or located in brain and meninges, has material basis in Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which is transmitted by common house mouse, Mus musculus. The infection has symptom fever, has symptom lack of appetite, has symptom headache, has symptom muscle aches, has symptom malaise, has symptom nausea, and has symptom vomiting.

Wikipedia : 74 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic... more...

Related Diseases for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Diseases related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 344)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 argentine hemorrhagic fever 30.8 DDX58 DAG1 CLEC4G
2 lassa fever 30.8 IRF3 DDX58 DAG1 CLEC4G
3 vaccinia 30.5 MAVS IRF3 IL6 CD80
4 mumps 30.3 IRF9 IL6 CXCL8
5 toxoplasmosis 30.3 TLR2 MYD88 IL6
6 acute transverse myelitis 30.3 IL6 CXCL8
7 cytomegalovirus infection 30.3 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
8 bolivian hemorrhagic fever 30.2 DDX58 DAG1
9 q fever 30.1 TLR2 MYD88 IL6
10 myelitis 30.1 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8
11 herpes simplex 30.1 TLR2 IRF3 IL6 DDX58
12 exanthem 29.9 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8
13 stomatitis 29.9 IL6 DDX58 CXCL8 ADAR
14 leprosy 3 29.8 TLR2 IL6 CXCL8
15 haemophilus influenzae 29.7 TLR2 CXCL8
16 bacterial meningitis 29.7 TLR2 IL6 CXCL8
17 chikungunya 29.7 MAVS IL6 DDX58
18 trypanosomiasis 29.7 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
19 leishmaniasis 29.6 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
20 viral encephalitis 29.5 IL6 DDX58 CXCL8
21 encephalitis 29.5 TLR2 IRF3 IL6 DDX58 DDX3X CLEC4G
22 autoimmune disease 29.3 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8 CD86 CD80
23 mouth disease 29.3 IRF3 IL6 ICOSLG DDX58
24 listeriosis 29.2 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 ICOSLG
25 immune deficiency disease 29.2 TLR2 IL6 ICOSLG CD86 CD80
26 colitis 29.0 TLR2 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8
27 agammaglobulinemia 29.0 TLR2 IL6 ICOSLG
28 diabetes mellitus, type i 28.7 TLR2 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8 CD86 CD80
29 bacterial infectious disease 28.2 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 ICOSLG CXCL8
30 thrombocytopenia 28.1 TLR2 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 ADAR
31 measles 27.6 TLR2 MYD88 IRF9 IRF3 IL6 DDX58
32 viral infectious disease 27.4 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6
33 systemic lupus erythematosus 27.2 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 ICOSLG DDX58
34 mollaret meningitis 11.7
35 mantle cell lymphoma 11.6
36 hydrocephalus 10.6
37 chorioretinitis 10.5
38 aseptic meningitis 10.5
39 meningitis 10.5
40 meningoencephalitis 10.5
41 glomerulonephritis 10.5
42 central nervous system disease 10.5
43 nervous system disease 10.5
44 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.5
45 microcephaly 10.4
46 cerebellar hypoplasia 10.3
47 pertussis 10.3
48 rabies 10.3
49 congenital hydrocephalus 10.3
50 growth hormone deficiency 10.3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis:



Diseases related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection GR00241-A-1 9.17 ADAL CDK15 GBF1
2 Decreased vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection GR00241-A-2 9.17 ADAL CDK15 GBF1
3 Decreased vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection GR00356-A-1 9.17 CDK15
4 Decreased lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection GR00241-A-3 9.13 ADAL CDK15 GBF1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.22 ADAR AXL CD80 CD86 DAG1 DDX3X
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.2 ADAL ADAR AXL CD86 CLEC4G DAG1
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.18 ADAL ADAR AXL CD80 CD86 CLEC4G
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.07 ADAR AXL CD80 CD86 CLEC4G DDX58
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.76 ADAR AXL CLEC4G DDX58 IL6 MYD88
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.7 ADAR AXL CD80 CD86 DAG1 DDX3X
7 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 ADAL ADAR AXL GBF1 IL6 IRF9

Drugs & Therapeutics for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Drugs for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Vaccines Phase 2
2 Antiviral Agents Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized, Placebo-Control, Phase 2 Study of HB-101, a Bivalent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Vaccine, in CMV-Seronegative Recipient (R-) Patients Awaiting Kidney Transplantation From Living CMV-Seropositive Donors (D+). Recruiting NCT03629080 Phase 2
2 Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Phase I Dose-escalating Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Vaccine Against Human Cytomegalovirus Completed NCT02798692 Phase 1
3 Comparative Study of Peripheral Facial Paralysis Sequelae Based on the Initial Medical Care of Lyme Disease Among Children Recruiting NCT03981874

Search NIH Clinical Center for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Genetic Tests for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Anatomical Context for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis:

40
T Cells, B Cells, Brain, Nk Cells, Liver, Spleen, Bone

Publications for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Articles related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis:

(show top 50) (show all 3034)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Host mechanisms in viral hepatitis. 61 54
20460887 2010
2
Receptor binding and cell entry of Old World arenaviruses reveal novel aspects of virus-host interaction. 54 61
19324387 2009
3
Basolateral entry and release of New and Old World arenaviruses from human airway epithelia. 54 61
18417570 2008
4
Old World arenavirus infection interferes with the expression of functional alpha-dystroglycan in the host cell. 61 54
17761532 2007
5
Posttranslational modification of alpha-dystroglycan, the cellular receptor for arenaviruses, by the glycosyltransferase LARGE is critical for virus binding. 61 54
16254363 2005
6
O Mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan is essential for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus receptor function. 61 54
16254364 2005
7
IL-7 receptor alpha chain expression distinguishes functional subsets of virus-specific human CD8+ T cells. 61 54
15947093 2005
8
Electron microscopy of an alpha-dystroglycan fragment containing receptor sites for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and laminin, and use of the receptoid body as a reagent to neutralize virus. 61 54
15246261 2004
9
n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Impede the TCR Mobility and the TCR-pMHC Interaction of Anti-Viral CD8+ T Cells. 61
32545480 2020
10
Retinoic Acid Modulates Hyperactive T Cell Responses and Protects Vitamin A-Deficient Mice against Persistent Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection. 61
32284332 2020
11
DNA hypermethylation during tuberculosis dampens host immune responsiveness. 61
32125282 2020
12
Upregulation of CD47 Is a Host Checkpoint Response to Pathogen Recognition. 61
32576678 2020
13
Functions of acetylcholine-producing lymphocytes in immunobiology. 61
32126362 2020
14
Identification of the dietary supplement capsaicin as an inhibitor of Lassa virus entry. 61
32528827 2020
15
Lentiviral-Vector-Based Dendritic Cell Vaccine Synergizes with Checkpoint Blockade to Clear Chronic Viral Infection. 61
32497512 2020
16
Preceding Viral Infections Do Not Imprint Long-Term Changes in Regulatory T Cell Function. 61
32433493 2020
17
Protein Kinase C-η Deficiency Does Not Impair Antiviral Immunity and CD8+ T Cell Activation. 61
32198145 2020
18
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Abl2 Kinase Regulate Distinct Steps of Human Papillomavirus 16 Endocytosis. 61
32188731 2020
19
A dual role for hepatocyte-intrinsic canonical NF-κB signaling in virus control. 61
31954207 2020
20
Trigger-dependent differences determine therapeutic outcome in murine primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 61
32419134 2020
21
Modulation of the humoral immune response by constitutively active STAT6 expression in murine B cells. 61
31803941 2020
22
Contribution of STAT1 to innate and adaptive immunity during type I interferon-mediated lethal virus infection. 61
32310998 2020
23
Cyclophilin D Regulates Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Survival in a Cell-Extrinsic Manner. 61
32332052 2020
24
CD49a+CD49b+ NK cells induced by viral infection reflect an activated state of conventional NK cells. 61
32335843 2020
25
TNIK signaling imprints CD8+ T cell memory formation early after priming. 61
32242021 2020
26
Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Inhibits Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Function and Development. 61
32169845 2020
27
Chikungunya Virus Evades Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Responses To Establish Persistent Infection in Joint-Associated Tissues. 61
32102875 2020
28
Immunotherapeutic Blockade of CD47 Inhibitory Signaling Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Viral Infection. 61
32294445 2020
29
A Randomized Dose-Escalating Phase I Trial of a Replication-Deficient Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Vector-Based Vaccine Against Human Cytomegalovirus. 61
32313928 2020
30
Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Derived Macrophages Exhibit Distinctive Early Immune Response to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection. 61
32255741 2020
31
The histone methyltransferase EZH2 primes the early differentiation of follicular helper T cells during acute viral infection. 61
30842630 2020
32
Spatiotemporal regulation of type I interferon expression determines the antiviral polarization of CD4+ T cells. 61
32066949 2020
33
Structural insight into arenavirus replication machinery. 61
32214249 2020
34
Chronic viral infections impinge on naive bystander CD8 T cells. 61
32220007 2020
35
Chronic virus infection drives CD8 T cell-mediated thymic destruction and impaired negative selection. 61
32094187 2020
36
LCMV-specific CD4 T cell dependent polyclonal B-cell activation upon persistent viral infection is short lived and extrafollicular. 61
31724162 2020
37
Emerging and neglected zoonoses in transplant population. 61
32257849 2020
38
Landornamides: Antiviral Ornithine-Containing Ribosomal Peptides Discovered through Genome Mining. 61
32163654 2020
39
Re-defining T-Cell Exhaustion: Subset, Function, and Regulation. 61
32158590 2020
40
Map3k14 as a Regulator of Innate and Adaptive Immune Response during Acute Viral Infection. 61
32033109 2020
41
Prediction of cancer neoepitopes needs new rules. 61
31952902 2020
42
PD-1+ stemlike CD8 T cells are resident in lymphoid tissues during persistent LCMV infection. 61
32034098 2020
43
Genetic Deficiency of Interferon-γ Reveals Interferon-γ-Independent Manifestations of Murine Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. 61
31400073 2020
44
Loss of Resistance to Mousepox during Chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection Is Associated with Impaired T-Cell Responses and Can Be Rescued by Immunization. 61
31826990 2020
45
Chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Infection Causes Susceptibility to Mousepox and Impairs Natural Killer Cell Maturation and Function. 61
31776282 2020
46
Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Rodent-borne Hantavirus and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain. 61
32011204 2020
47
PD-1 Expression during Acute Infection Is Repressed through an LSD1-Blimp-1 Axis. 61
31811020 2020
48
Profiling Virus-Specific Tcf1+ T Cell Repertoires During Acute and Chronic Viral Infection. 61
32547546 2020
49
A cell-based, infectious-free, platform to identify inhibitors of lassa virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) activity. 61
31786250 2020
50
The Variable Genomic NK Cell Receptor Locus Is a Key Determinant of CD4+ T Cell Responses During Viral Infection. 61
32153566 2020

Variations for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Expression for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis.

Pathways for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Pathways related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.96 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6
2
Show member pathways
13.33 TYRO3 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8 CD80
3
Show member pathways
13.27 MYD88 IRF9 IRF3 IL6 DDX58 CXCL8
4
Show member pathways
12.86 TLR2 MYD88 IRF9 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
5
Show member pathways
12.8 IL6 ICOSLG DAG1 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
6
Show member pathways
12.65 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
7 12.6 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6
8
Show member pathways
12.52 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6
9 12.51 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF3 DDX58
10
Show member pathways
12.48 MYD88 MAVS IRF3 IL6 DDX58 ADAR
11
Show member pathways
12.43 MYD88 MAVS IRF3 DDX58 DDX3X CXCL8
12
Show member pathways
12.25 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6
13 12.24 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
14
Show member pathways
12.23 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
15
Show member pathways
12.21 IRF9 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8 ADAR
16
Show member pathways
12.21 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
17
Show member pathways
12.13 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
18 11.99 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
19 11.97 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
20
Show member pathways
11.9 TLR2 IL6 CD86 CD80
21
Show member pathways
11.83 TLR2 IL6 CD86 CD80
22
Show member pathways
11.78 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
23 11.73 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8
24 11.69 TLR2 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
25 11.53 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
26 11.43 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8
27 11.4 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
28 10.94 TYRO3 IL6 CXCL8 CD80 AXL
29
Show member pathways
10.72 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 DDX58 ADAR

GO Terms for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

Biological processes related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 43)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.22 TYRO3 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IL6 ICOSLG
2 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 10.09 MYD88 IL6 DDX3X AXL ADAR
3 immune response GO:0006955 10.07 TLR2 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
4 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.07 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 DDX58 DDX3X
5 innate immune response GO:0045087 10.06 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF3 DDX58 DDX3X
6 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.04 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8 AXL
7 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.96 MYD88 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
8 defense response to virus GO:0051607 9.91 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 IL6 DDX58 ADAR
9 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.87 MYD88 IRF3 IL6 CXCL8 CD86 CD80
10 response to virus GO:0009615 9.84 MYD88 DDX58 DDX3X ADAR
11 phagocytosis GO:0006909 9.83 TYRO3 MYD88 AXL
12 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.83 IL6 CD86 CD80
13 T cell costimulation GO:0031295 9.8 ICOSLG CD86 CD80
14 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.8 MYD88 IRF9 IRF3 ADAR
15 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 9.79 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS
16 negative regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042130 9.78 CLEC4G CD86 CD80
17 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.78 TLR2 MYD88 IL6 DDX58
18 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion GO:2000778 9.77 TLR2 MAVS DDX58
19 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.77 TLR2 MYD88 IRF3
20 viral entry into host cell GO:0046718 9.73 TYRO3 DAG1 CLEC4G CD86 CD80 AXL
21 negative regulation of type I interferon production GO:0032480 9.72 MAVS IRF3 DDX58
22 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.71 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS DDX58
23 immune system process GO:0002376 9.7 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3 ICOSLG
24 positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process GO:0045086 9.69 CD86 CD80
25 cellular response to exogenous dsRNA GO:0071360 9.69 MAVS IRF3 DDX58
26 positive regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060340 9.68 MAVS IRF3
27 natural killer cell differentiation GO:0001779 9.68 TYRO3 AXL
28 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.68 TLR2 CXCL8
29 positive regulation of interferon-alpha secretion GO:1902741 9.67 MAVS DDX58
30 vagina development GO:0060068 9.67 TYRO3 AXL
31 positive regulation of interferon-alpha production GO:0032727 9.67 MAVS IRF3 DDX58 DDX3X
32 secretion by cell GO:0032940 9.66 TYRO3 AXL
33 ovulation cycle GO:0042698 9.65 TYRO3 AXL
34 positive regulation of response to cytokine stimulus GO:0060760 9.65 MAVS DDX58
35 response to peptidoglycan GO:0032494 9.64 MYD88 IL6
36 positive regulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 production GO:0071651 9.63 MAVS DDX3X
37 positive regulation of myeloid dendritic cell cytokine production GO:0002735 9.63 MAVS DDX58
38 positive regulation of interferon-beta secretion GO:0035549 9.61 MAVS DDX58
39 negative regulation of lymphocyte activation GO:0051250 9.58 TYRO3 AXL
40 type I interferon biosynthetic process GO:0045351 9.58 MYD88 IRF3
41 forebrain cell migration GO:0021885 9.57 TYRO3 AXL
42 positive regulation of interferon-beta production GO:0032728 9.55 TLR2 MAVS IRF3 DDX58 DDX3X
43 viral process GO:0016032 9.36 TYRO3 MAVS IRF3 GBF1 DDX58 DDX3X

Molecular functions related to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.93 TYRO3 TLR2 MYD88 MAVS IRF9 IRF3
2 adenosine deaminase activity GO:0004000 9.26 ADAR ADAL
3 Toll-like receptor binding GO:0035325 9.16 TLR2 MYD88
4 virus receptor activity GO:0001618 9.1 TYRO3 DAG1 CLEC4G CD86 CD80 AXL

Sources for Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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