Aliases & Classifications for Macular Holes

MalaCards integrated aliases for Macular Holes:

Name: Macular Holes 12 55 15 73
Macular Hole 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:7633
MeSH 44 D012167
NCIt 50 C34795
SNOMED-CT 68 193388002 232006002
UMLS 73 C0024441

Summaries for Macular Holes

MalaCards based summary : Macular Holes, also known as macular hole, is related to central retinal vein occlusion and macular dystrophy, dominant cystoid. An important gene associated with Macular Holes is TGFB2 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. The drugs Ranibizumab and Verteporfin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotype is immune system.

Wikipedia : 76 A macular hole is a small break in the macula, located in the center of the eye\'s light-sensitive... more...

Related Diseases for Macular Holes

Diseases related to Macular Holes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 104)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 central retinal vein occlusion 30.5 SERPINF1 VEGFA
2 macular dystrophy, dominant cystoid 30.2 KCNMA1 VEGFA
3 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 30.2 ANGPT2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
4 vitreous detachment 30.1 KCNMA1 LHFPL5 VEGFA
5 macular retinal edema 29.9 KCNMA1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
6 retinal vein occlusion 29.4 CCL2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
7 vitreoretinopathy, neovascular inflammatory 29.3 ADM CCL2 TGFB2
8 diabetic macular edema 28.8 CCL2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
9 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 28.0 CCL2 KCNMA1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
10 microvascular complications of diabetes 1 27.4 ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
11 retinal disease 11.0
12 retinitis 10.9
13 retinal detachment 10.8
14 myopia 10.5
15 preretinal fibrosis 10.3 TGFB2 VEGFA
16 neovascular glaucoma 10.3 TGFB2 VEGFA
17 pyogenic granuloma 10.3 ANGPT2 VEGFA
18 background diabetic retinopathy 10.3 ANGPT2 VEGFA
19 cataract 10.2
20 choroiditis 10.2
21 diabetic cataract 10.2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
22 poems syndrome 10.2 ANGPT2 VEGFA
23 lipodermatosclerosis 10.2 ANGPT2 VEGFA
24 alport syndrome, x-linked 10.2
25 vitreous disease 10.2 TGFB2 VEGFA
26 coats disease 10.2
27 eales disease 10.1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
28 microvascular complications of diabetes 2 10.1
29 lymphangioma 10.1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
30 aging 10.1
31 neuropathy 10.1
32 retinitis pigmentosa 10.0
33 choroideremia 10.0
34 leber congenital amaurosis 4 10.0
35 exudative vitreoretinopathy 10.0
36 neuroretinitis 10.0
37 scotoma 10.0
38 bullous keratopathy 10.0 CXCL8 TGFB2
39 sapho syndrome 10.0 CXCL8 VEGFA
40 retinal vascular disease 10.0 ANGPT2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
41 peyronie's disease 10.0 CCL2 TGFB2
42 myotonic dystrophy 1 9.9
43 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 9.9
44 stargardt disease 9.9
45 vitelliform macular dystrophy 9.9
46 vogt-koyanagi-harada disease 9.9
47 optic nerve disease 9.9
48 chorioretinitis 9.9
49 myotonic dystrophy 9.9
50 juvenile retinoschisis 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Macular Holes:



Diseases related to Macular Holes

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Macular Holes

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Macular Holes:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.28 ADM ALOX5AP ANGPT2 CCL2 MIF PTGDS

Drugs & Therapeutics for Macular Holes

Drugs for Macular Holes (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 95)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 347396-82-1 459903
2
Verteporfin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129497-78-5
3 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
4 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
5 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
6 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
7 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 4
8
Lutein Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3,Not Applicable 127-40-2 6433159
9 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
10 Plasminogen Phase 3,Phase 2
11 Mitogens Phase 2
12 Tetrahydrozoline Phase 2,Not Applicable
13 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1,Not Applicable 50-02-2 5743
15 glucocorticoids Phase 1,Not Applicable
16 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Hormones Phase 1,Not Applicable
18 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Dexamethasone acetate Phase 1,Not Applicable 1177-87-3
21
protease inhibitors Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
23 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate Phase 1
25 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
26 Antiemetics Phase 1,Not Applicable
27 BB 1101 Phase 1,Not Applicable
28 Autonomic Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
29 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 1,Not Applicable
30
rituximab Approved 174722-31-7 10201696
31
Infliximab Approved 170277-31-3
32
Methotrexate Approved 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 126941
33
Etanercept Approved, Investigational 185243-69-0
34
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 124-94-7 31307
35
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 50-24-8 5755
36
Mycophenolic acid Approved 24280-93-1 446541
37
Adalimumab Approved 331731-18-1 16219006
38
Azathioprine Approved 446-86-6 2265
39
Mycophenolate mofetil Approved, Investigational 128794-94-5 5281078
40
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 83-43-2 6741
41
Temazepam Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 846-50-4 5391
42
Dorzolamide Approved Not Applicable 120279-96-1 3154 5284549
43
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
44
Timolol Approved Not Applicable 26839-75-8 33624 5478
45
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
46
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 216974-75-3
47
Dipivefrin Approved Not Applicable 52365-63-6 3105
48
Iodine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 7553-56-2 807
49
Povidone-iodine Approved Not Applicable 25655-41-8
50
Povidone Approved Not Applicable 9003-39-8

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 116)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of Different Area of Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling (ILM) Peeling on Anatomical Outcomes in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02930369 Phase 4
2 Assessment of Patients Treated With JETREA® for Vitreomacular Traction Completed NCT02035748 Phase 4 Ocriplasmin
3 Ocriplasmin for Vitreomacular Traction/Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Completed NCT02322229 Phase 4 Ocriplasmin 0.125 mg in a 0.1 mL volume
4 Study of Surgery in Patients With Idiopathic Macular Hole Recruiting NCT02905409 Phase 4
5 Cohort Study of the Clinical Course of Macular Diseases in Kagawa Recruiting NCT02321267 Phase 4 ranibizumab, aflibercept, pegaptanib, verteporphin
6 Day Regimes of CONbercept on CytokinEs of PDR Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy - Trial (CONCEPT) Recruiting NCT03506750 Phase 4 IVC
7 Brilliant Blue Versus Indocyanine Green Unknown status NCT01083004 Phase 3
8 Safety and Efficacy of Double Staining With Brilliant Blue G for Macular Surgery Unknown status NCT01820520 Phase 3 brilliant blue G
9 Ocriplasmin for Treatment for Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Including Macular Hole Completed NCT01429441 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin
10 Association of Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Brilliant Blue in Chromovitrectomy Completed NCT01627977 Phase 3
11 Trial of Microplasmin Intravitreal Injection for Non-Surgical Treatment of Focal Vitreomacular Adhesion. The MIVI-TRUST (TG-MV-007) Trial. Completed NCT00798317 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin 125µg;Placebo
12 A Phase III Study of A01016 in Subjects With Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Completed NCT01889251 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin;Sham injection
13 A Safety And Efficacy Study Of Alg-1001 In Human Subjects With Symptomatic Focal Vitreomacular Adhesion Completed NCT02153476 Phase 2 2.0mg of ALG-1001;Balanced Salt Solution
14 Intravitreal Microplasmin in Patients Undergoing Surgical Vitrectomy Completed NCT00123279 Phase 2 Microplasmin
15 Analysis of Aqueous and Vitreous Humor Recruiting NCT02067013 Phase 2 Ranibizumab
16 Study of OT-551 Eye Drops to Prevent or Delay Progression of Nuclear Cataracts Following Vitreous Removal Terminated NCT00333060 Phase 2 OT-551 ophthalmic solution
17 PK Study of Iontophoretic Dexamethasone Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution in Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy Completed NCT02644694 Phase 1 Dexamethasone Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution
18 Inverted ILM Repositioning as Treatment for Full Thickness Macular Holes Unknown status NCT01228188 Not Applicable
19 Early Vitrectomy for Impending Macular Hole Unknown status NCT01121965 Not Applicable
20 Macular Hole Surgery With and Without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Unknown status NCT01687829
21 The Intravitreal Autologous Platelet Concentrate Injection as an Adjunct of Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Refractory Macular Holes Unknown status NCT02081170 Not Applicable
22 Comparison of Postoperative Aqueous Flare After 20G Versus 23G Pars Plana Vitrectomy Unknown status NCT01969929 Not Applicable
23 Early Vitrectomy for Macular Tractional Maculopathy Unknown status NCT01121978 Not Applicable
24 Double Endotamponade With Perfluorodecalin and Silicone Oil in Retinal Detachment Surgery. Unknown status NCT01959568 Not Applicable
25 Comparison of Two Techniques for Epiretinal or Internal Limiting Membrane Peel Unknown status NCT00892619 Not Applicable
26 Optical Coherence Tomography - Rescan During Dissection of Macular Membranes Unknown status NCT02748421 Not Applicable
27 Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Eye Unknown status NCT02614625
28 Causes of Visual Loss in Retinal Disease Unknown status NCT01613963 Immunosuppressive Agents
29 Optical Coherence Tomography-based Positioning for Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02650739
30 Preoperative Progression of Macular Holes Completed NCT02203929
31 Postoperative Positioning After Surgery for Macular Holes Completed NCT01974310 Not Applicable
32 Foveal Cone Outer Segment Resumption to Predict Visual Recovery After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01381965 Not Applicable
33 High Myopia Macular Hole and Retinal Detachment Treated With Double ILM Flaps Completed NCT03174639 Not Applicable
34 Observation of Recovery of Foveal Cone Microstructures After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01306487
35 Macular Hole After Diabetic Vitrectomy Completed NCT03525899
36 Air Tamponade in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01680068 Not Applicable
37 Unveiling Preclinical Idiopathic Macular Hole Formation Completed NCT02180633
38 Air Tamponade in Macular Holes < 400 μm Completed NCT02028481 Not Applicable
39 Fundus Autofluorescence After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02628262
40 Trial of Prognostic Factors and Surgical Methods for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Holes Completed NCT00302328 Not Applicable
41 Comparative Study Between Early Vitrectomy and Observation for Spontaneous Closure of Traumatic Macular Hole Completed NCT01509092 Not Applicable
42 Alleviated Positioning for Small Macular Holes Completed NCT00190164 Not Applicable
43 Outcome of Idiopathic Macular Hole Completed NCT00941291
44 Microperimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Idiopathic Macular Hole Completed NCT01757600
45 Optical Coherence Tomography in Gas-filled Eyes Completed NCT01266746
46 Brillant Blue Versus Indocyanine Green for Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT00757471 Not Applicable
47 Impact of C3F8 or SF6 Use and Length of Face-down Positioning (7 vs 14 Days Respectively) in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02073266 Not Applicable
48 Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Macular Hole Retinal Detachment in Highly Myopic Eyes Completed NCT02896972 Not Applicable
49 Macular Hole in Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT00737074
50 Elongation of Foveal Tissue After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01471912 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Macular Holes

Genetic Tests for Macular Holes

Anatomical Context for Macular Holes

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Macular Holes:

41
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Cortex

Publications for Macular Holes

Articles related to Macular Holes:

(show top 50) (show all 731)
# Title Authors Year
1
ILM peeling in macular hole retinal detachment: insert or not? ( 29909575 )
2018
2
Lamellar macular holes: surgical outcome of 106 patients with long-term follow-up. ( 29785511 )
2018
3
Bilateral recurrent macular holes. ( 29946573 )
2018
4
Pilot Evaluation of a New Surgical Technique for Persistent or Recurrent Large Macular Holes. ( 29664984 )
2018
5
Bilateral giant macular holes: A rare manifestation of Alport syndrome. ( 29873249 )
2018
6
Inverted internal limiting membrane insertion versus standard internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole retinal detachment in high myopia: one-year study. ( 29911271 )
2018
7
One-Year Results after Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Transposition for Surgical Repair of Macular Holes with Respect to Microperimetry. ( 29936501 )
2018
8
A Review of Surgical Outcomes and Advances for Macular Holes. ( 29850211 )
2018
9
Non-inverted pedicle internal limiting membrane transposition for large macular holes. ( 29844368 )
2018
10
Best surgical technique and outcomes for large macular holes: retrospective multicentre study in Japan. ( 29671948 )
2018
11
RECURRENT OPENING AND CLOSURE OF MACULAR HOLE AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT. ( 29315126 )
2018
12
Multi-Scale Segmentation and Surface Fitting for Measuring 3-D Macular Holes. ( 29408786 )
2018
13
Microstructural retinal regeneration after internal limiting membrane flap surgery for repair of large macular holes: a 1-year follow-up study. ( 29744761 )
2018
14
Incidence of Macular Holes in the Fellow Eye without Vitreomacular Detachment at Baseline. ( 29895011 )
2018
15
Evaluation of TGF-Beta 2 and VEGF<i>I+</i> Gene Expression Levels in Epiretinal Membranes and Internal Limiting Membranes in the Course of Retinal Detachments, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Macular Holes, and Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes. ( 29850215 )
2018
16
Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling. ( 29760571 )
2018
17
FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLE WITH MACULAR INTRACHOROIDAL CAVITATION IN A PATIENT WITH PATHOLOGIC MYOPIA. ( 29443802 )
2018
18
Lamellar macular holes in the eyes with pathological myopia. ( 29725825 )
2018
19
MACULAR HOLE HYDRODISSECTION: Surgical Technique for the Treatment of Persistent, Chronic, and Large Macular Holes. ( 29303907 )
2018
20
SPONTANEOUS CLOSURE OF SIMULTANEOUS IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLES DOCUMENTED BY SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY. ( 29847534 )
2018
21
MACULAR HOLE ASSOCIATED WITH TOXOPLASMOSIS: A SURGICAL CASE SERIES. ( 29975259 )
2018
22
Multiple Free Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Insertion in the Treatment of Macular Hole-Associated Retinal Detachment in High Myopia. ( 29874671 )
2018
23
THE CURRENT SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE, RECURRENT, OR PERSISTENT MACULAR HOLES. ( 29300247 )
2018
24
Vitreoretinal Interface Characteristics in Eyes with Idiopathic Macular Holes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. ( 29755819 )
2018
25
Atypical epiretinal tissue in full-thickness macular holes: pathogenic and prognostic significance. ( 29699982 )
2018
26
SURGICAL OUTCOMES AFTER INVERTED INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE FLAP VERSUS CONVENTIONAL PEELING FOR VERY LARGE MACULAR HOLES. ( 29689027 )
2018
27
Autologous Neurosensory Retinal Transplantation for Unclosed and Large Macular Holes. ( 29788031 )
2018
28
Two cases of repeating recurrences and spontaneous closures of macular holes in vitrectomized eyes. ( 29748866 )
2018
29
Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Full-Thickness Macular Holes: Appearance and Artifacts. ( 29443360 )
2018
30
Comparative Evaluation of Standard ILM Peel With Inverted ILM Flap Technique In Large Macular Holes: A Prospective, Randomized Study. ( 29664979 )
2018
31
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy complicated with full thickness macular hole: A case report. ( 29879073 )
2018
32
Internal limiting membrane flap transposition for surgical repair of macular holes in primary surgery and in persistent macular holes. ( 28967078 )
2017
33
Efficacy of the Perfluoro-N-Octane-Assisted Single-Layered Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Large Macular Holes. ( 28715813 )
2017
34
New insights into the pathoanatomy of macular holes based on features of optical coherence tomography. ( 28300548 )
2017
35
PREVALENCE OF FOVEOLAR LUCENCY WITH DIFFERENT GAS TAMPONADES IN SURGICALLY CLOSED MACULAR HOLES ASSESSED BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY. ( 28699926 )
2017
36
Surgical treatment and optical coherence tomographic evaluation for accidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes. ( 28282068 )
2017
37
INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING VERSUS INVERTED FLAP TECHNIQUE FOR TREATMENT OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A LARGE SERIES OF PATIENTS. ( 29232338 )
2017
38
Vitrectomy for full-thickness macular hole in adult-onset Coats' disease. ( 29133668 )
2017
39
Efficiency of the Hydraulic Centripetal Macular Displacement Technique in the Treatment of Traumatic Full-Thickness Macular Holes. ( 29117069 )
2017
40
Outcome of Full-Thickness Macular Hole Surgery in Choroideremia. ( 28753983 )
2017
41
Internal Limiting Membrane Retracting Door for Myopic Macular Holes. ( 28737535 )
2017
42
EFFICACY OF THE INVERTED INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE FLAP TECHNIQUE WITH VITRECTOMY FOR RETINAL DETACHMENT ASSOCIATED WITH MYOPIC MACULAR HOLES. ( 28225722 )
2017
43
Prevalence of anti-retinal antibodies in epiretinal membranes and macular holes. ( 29135070 )
2017
44
Macular hole in Stargardt disease: Clinical and ultra-structural observation. ( 28121212 )
2017
45
Internal Repair of Very Large, Myopic and Recurrent Macular Holes by Creation of a Central Retinal Detachment and Silicone Oil Tamponade. ( 28858063 )
2017
46
Current Management of Traumatic Macular Holes. ( 28239490 )
2017
47
OCT angiography in idiopathic macular holes, some methodological concerns. ( 28669040 )
2017
48
A Case of Unilateral Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with Full Thickness Macular Hole. ( 28936059 )
2017
49
Vitrectomy, Inner Limiting Membrane Peel, and Gas Tamponade in the Management of Traumatic Paediatric Macular Holes: A Case Series of 13 Patients. ( 28768260 )
2017
50
Idiopathic macular holes and direction of vitreomacular traction: structural changes and surgical outcomes. ( 28731057 )
2017

Variations for Macular Holes

Expression for Macular Holes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Macular Holes.

Pathways for Macular Holes

GO Terms for Macular Holes

Cellular components related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF PTGDS
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF PTGDS

Biological processes related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of angiogenesis GO:0016525 9.63 ANGPT2 SERPINF1 TGFB2
2 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.62 MIF SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
3 kidney development GO:0001822 9.61 SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
4 positive regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045766 9.56 ADM ANGPT2 CXCL8 VEGFA
5 angiogenesis GO:0001525 9.55 ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 TGFB2 VEGFA
6 cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus GO:0044344 9.54 CCL2 CXCL8
7 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.54 CCL2 CXCL8 TGFB2
8 protein homotrimerization GO:0070207 9.52 ALOX5AP MIF
9 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 9.51 CXCL8 TGFB2
10 prostaglandin biosynthetic process GO:0001516 9.49 MIF PTGDS
11 induction of positive chemotaxis GO:0050930 9.48 CXCL8 VEGFA
12 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.43 ADM CCL2 CXCL8 MIF TGFB2 VEGFA
13 PERK-mediated unfolded protein response GO:0036499 9.4 CCL2 CXCL8
14 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.02 ADM ANGPT2 KCNMA1 TGFB2 VEGFA

Molecular functions related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.35 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 MIF TGFB2
2 chemoattractant activity GO:0042056 9.16 MIF VEGFA
3 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.02 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF TGFB2 VEGFA

Sources for Macular Holes

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
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51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
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74 UMLS via Orphanet
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