Aliases & Classifications for Macular Holes

MalaCards integrated aliases for Macular Holes:

Name: Macular Holes 12 55 15 73
Macular Hole 12 15

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:7633
MeSH 44 D012167
NCIt 50 C34795
UMLS 73 C0024441

Summaries for Macular Holes

MalaCards based summary : Macular Holes, also known as macular hole, is related to microvascular complications of diabetes 5 and vitreous detachment. An important gene associated with Macular Holes is TGFB2 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Human cytomegalovirus infection and Immune response IFN gamma signaling pathway. The drugs Ranibizumab and Verteporfin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotype is immune system.

Wikipedia : 76 A macular hole is a small break in the macula, located in the center of the eye''s light-sensitive... more...

Related Diseases for Macular Holes

Diseases related to Macular Holes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 121)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 30.8 ANGPT2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
2 vitreous detachment 30.7 KCNMA1 LHFPL5 VEGFA
3 macular dystrophy, dominant cystoid 30.7 SERPINF1 VEGFA
4 central retinal vein occlusion 30.6 SERPINF1 VEGFA
5 macular retinal edema 30.5 CCL2 KCNMA1 VEGFA
6 retinal vein occlusion 30.4 CCL2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
7 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 30.3 CCL2 KCNMA1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
8 vitreoretinopathy, neovascular inflammatory 30.1 ADM CCL2 TGFB2
9 diabetic macular edema 30.1 CCL2 SERPINF1 VEGFA
10 microvascular complications of diabetes 1 29.8 ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
11 retinal disease 11.1
12 retinal detachment 11.0
13 myopia 10.7
14 cataract 10.5
15 microvascular complications of diabetes 2 10.4
16 degos 'en cocarde' erythrokeratoderma 10.4
17 alport syndrome, x-linked 10.3
18 retinitis 10.3
19 retinitis pigmentosa 10.3
20 leber congenital amaurosis 4 10.3
21 coats disease 10.3
22 uveitis 10.3
23 neuropathy 10.2
24 chorioretinitis 10.2
25 exudative vitreoretinopathy 10.2
26 telangiectasis 10.2
27 macular telangiectasia type 2 10.2
28 preretinal fibrosis 10.1 TGFB2 VEGFA
29 neovascular glaucoma 10.1 TGFB2 VEGFA
30 choroideremia 10.1
31 neuroretinitis 10.1
32 kuhnt-junius degeneration 10.1
33 optic nerve disease 10.1
34 scotoma 10.1
35 streptococcal group a invasive disease 10.1
36 shaken baby syndrome 10.1
37 pyogenic granuloma 10.1 ANGPT2 VEGFA
38 angiodysplasia 10.1 ANGPT2 VEGFA
39 background diabetic retinopathy 10.1 ANGPT2 VEGFA
40 diabetic cataract 10.1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
41 lipodermatosclerosis 10.1 ANGPT2 VEGFA
42 eales disease 10.1 SERPINF1 VEGFA
43 peyronie's disease 10.1 CCL2 TGFB2
44 coloboma of macula 10.0
45 myotonic dystrophy 1 10.0
46 bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy 10.0
47 gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina 10.0
48 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 10.0
49 acute insulin response 10.0
50 stargardt disease 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Macular Holes:



Diseases related to Macular Holes

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Macular Holes

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Macular Holes:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.28 ADM ALOX5AP ANGPT2 CCL2 MIF PTGDS

Drugs & Therapeutics for Macular Holes

Drugs for Macular Holes (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 105)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 347396-82-1 459903
2
Verteporfin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129497-78-5
3 Immunologic Factors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
4 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
5 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
6 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
7 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 4
8 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
9
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 53-86-1 3715
10
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 15307-86-5 3033
11
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 3 78281-72-8 151075
12
Dinoprostone Approved Phase 3 363-24-6 5280360
13
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 9004-61-9 53477741
14
Lutein Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3,Not Applicable 127-40-2 6433159
15
Bromfenac Approved July 1997 Phase 3 91714-94-2 60726
16 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 3
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
18 Plasminogen Phase 3,Phase 2
19 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
20 Tocolytic Agents Phase 3
21 Lubricant Eye Drops Phase 3
22 Analgesics Phase 3
23 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 3
24 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 3
26 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
27 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
28 Mitogens Phase 2
29
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1,Not Applicable 50-02-2 5743
30
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1,Not Applicable 1177-87-3
31 Hormones Phase 1,Not Applicable
32 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1,Not Applicable
33 glucocorticoids Phase 1,Not Applicable
34 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 1,Not Applicable
35 BB 1101 Phase 1,Not Applicable
36 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate Phase 1
37 Autonomic Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
38 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 1,Not Applicable
39 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 1,Not Applicable
40 Antiemetics Phase 1,Not Applicable
41 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
42
protease inhibitors Phase 1,Not Applicable
43
Temazepam Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 846-50-4 5391
44
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 124-94-7 31307
45
Mycophenolic acid Approved 24280-93-1 446541
46
Infliximab Approved 170277-31-3
47
Methotrexate Approved 59-05-2, 1959-05-2 126941
48
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 50-24-8 5755
49
Azathioprine Approved 446-86-6 2265
50
rituximab Approved 174722-31-7 10201696

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 125)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Study of Surgery in Patients With Idiopathic Macular Hole Unknown status NCT02905409 Phase 4
2 Effects of Different Area of Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling (ILM) Peeling on Anatomical Outcomes in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02930369 Phase 4
3 Assessment of Patients Treated With JETREA® for Vitreomacular Traction Completed NCT02035748 Phase 4 Ocriplasmin
4 Ocriplasmin for Vitreomacular Traction/Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Completed NCT02322229 Phase 4 Ocriplasmin 0.125 mg in a 0.1 mL volume
5 Cohort Study of the Clinical Course of Macular Diseases in Kagawa Recruiting NCT02321267 Phase 4 ranibizumab, aflibercept, pegaptanib, verteporphin
6 Day Regimes of CONbercept on CytokinEs of PDR Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy - Trial (CONCEPT) Recruiting NCT03506750 Phase 4 IVC
7 Brilliant Blue Versus Indocyanine Green Unknown status NCT01083004 Phase 3
8 Safety and Efficacy of Double Staining With Brilliant Blue G for Macular Surgery Unknown status NCT01820520 Phase 3 brilliant blue G
9 Ocriplasmin for Treatment for Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Including Macular Hole Completed NCT01429441 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin
10 Association of Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Brilliant Blue in Chromovitrectomy Completed NCT01627977 Phase 3
11 Trial of Microplasmin Intravitreal Injection for Non-Surgical Treatment of Focal Vitreomacular Adhesion. The MIVI-TRUST (TG-MV-007) Trial. Completed NCT00798317 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin 125µg;Placebo
12 PGE2 Levels in Patient Treated With NSAIDs Completed NCT03597867 Phase 3 Dicloftil;Nevanac;Indom;Yellox
13 A Phase III Study of A01016 in Subjects With Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Completed NCT01889251 Phase 3 Ocriplasmin;Sham injection
14 Effects of Pneumatic Vitreolysis on Vitreomacular Traction Recruiting NCT03647267 Phase 3
15 Intravitreal Microplasmin in Patients Undergoing Surgical Vitrectomy Completed NCT00123279 Phase 2 Microplasmin
16 Effects of Pneumatic Vitreolysis on Macular Hole Recruiting NCT03677869 Phase 2
17 Analysis of Aqueous and Vitreous Humor Recruiting NCT02067013 Phase 2 Ranibizumab
18 Study of OT-551 Eye Drops to Prevent or Delay Progression of Nuclear Cataracts Following Vitreous Removal Terminated NCT00333060 Phase 2 OT-551 ophthalmic solution
19 PK Study of Iontophoretic Dexamethasone Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution in Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy Completed NCT02644694 Phase 1 Dexamethasone Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution
20 Inverted ILM Repositioning as Treatment for Full Thickness Macular Holes Unknown status NCT01228188 Not Applicable
21 Early Vitrectomy for Impending Macular Hole Unknown status NCT01121965 Not Applicable
22 Macular Hole Surgery With and Without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Unknown status NCT01687829
23 The Intravitreal Autologous Platelet Concentrate Injection as an Adjunct of Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Refractory Macular Holes Unknown status NCT02081170 Not Applicable
24 Comparison of Postoperative Aqueous Flare After 20G Versus 23G Pars Plana Vitrectomy Unknown status NCT01969929 Not Applicable
25 Early Vitrectomy for Macular Tractional Maculopathy Unknown status NCT01121978 Not Applicable
26 Double Endotamponade With Perfluorodecalin and Silicone Oil in Retinal Detachment Surgery. Unknown status NCT01959568 Not Applicable
27 Comparison of Two Techniques for Epiretinal or Internal Limiting Membrane Peel Unknown status NCT00892619 Not Applicable
28 Optical Coherence Tomography - Rescan During Dissection of Macular Membranes Unknown status NCT02748421 Not Applicable
29 Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Eye Unknown status NCT02614625
30 Causes of Visual Loss in Retinal Disease Unknown status NCT01613963 Immunosuppressive Agents
31 Optical Coherence Tomography-based Positioning for Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02650739
32 Preoperative Progression of Macular Holes Completed NCT02203929
33 Postoperative Positioning After Surgery for Macular Holes Completed NCT01974310 Not Applicable
34 Foveal Cone Outer Segment Resumption to Predict Visual Recovery After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01381965 Not Applicable
35 Observation of Recovery of Foveal Cone Microstructures After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01306487
36 High Myopia Macular Hole and Retinal Detachment Treated With Double ILM Flaps Completed NCT03174639 Not Applicable
37 Air Tamponade in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT01680068 Not Applicable
38 Macular Hole After Diabetic Vitrectomy Completed NCT03525899
39 Unveiling Preclinical Idiopathic Macular Hole Formation Completed NCT02180633
40 Air Tamponade in Macular Holes < 400 μm Completed NCT02028481 Not Applicable
41 Trial of Prognostic Factors and Surgical Methods for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Holes Completed NCT00302328 Not Applicable
42 Fundus Autofluorescence After Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02628262
43 Comparative Study Between Early Vitrectomy and Observation for Spontaneous Closure of Traumatic Macular Hole Completed NCT01509092 Not Applicable
44 Alleviated Positioning for Small Macular Holes Completed NCT00190164 Not Applicable
45 Outcome of Idiopathic Macular Hole Completed NCT00941291
46 Microperimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Idiopathic Macular Hole Completed NCT01757600
47 Optical Coherence Tomography in Gas-filled Eyes Completed NCT01266746
48 Brillant Blue Versus Indocyanine Green for Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT00757471 Not Applicable
49 Impact of C3F8 or SF6 Use and Length of Face-down Positioning (7 vs 14 Days Respectively) in Macular Hole Surgery Completed NCT02073266 Not Applicable
50 Effects of Macular Buckle Versus Vitrectomy on Macular Hole and Macular Detachment in Highly Myopic Eyes Completed NCT03433547 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Macular Holes

Genetic Tests for Macular Holes

Anatomical Context for Macular Holes

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Macular Holes:

41
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Whole Blood, Bone

Publications for Macular Holes

Articles related to Macular Holes:

(show top 50) (show all 1469)
# Title Authors Year
1
Surgical Outcome after Lamellar Macular Hole Associated with Epiretinal Membrane. ( 30308511 )
2019
2
Lamellar macular holes: surgical outcome of 106 patients with long-term follow-up. ( 29785511 )
2018
3
Bilateral recurrent macular holes. ( 29946573 )
2018
4
Pilot Evaluation of a New Surgical Technique for Persistent or Recurrent Large Macular Holes. ( 29664984 )
2018
5
Bilateral giant macular holes: A rare manifestation of Alport syndrome. ( 29873249 )
2018
6
One-Year Results after Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Transposition for Surgical Repair of Macular Holes with Respect to Microperimetry. ( 29936501 )
2018
7
A Review of Surgical Outcomes and Advances for Macular Holes. ( 29850211 )
2018
8
Non-inverted pedicle internal limiting membrane transposition for large macular holes. ( 29844368 )
2018
9
Best surgical technique and outcomes for large macular holes: retrospective multicentre study in Japan. ( 29671948 )
2018
10
Multi-Scale Segmentation and Surface Fitting for Measuring 3-D Macular Holes. ( 29408786 )
2018
11
Microstructural retinal regeneration after internal limiting membrane flap surgery for repair of large macular holes: a 1-year follow-up study. ( 29744761 )
2018
12
Incidence of Macular Holes in the Fellow Eye without Vitreomacular Detachment at Baseline. ( 29895011 )
2018
13
Evaluation of TGF-Beta 2 and VEGF<i>I+</i> Gene Expression Levels in Epiretinal Membranes and Internal Limiting Membranes in the Course of Retinal Detachments, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Macular Holes, and Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes. ( 29850215 )
2018
14
Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling. ( 29760571 )
2018
15
Lamellar macular holes in the eyes with pathological myopia. ( 29725825 )
2018
16
MACULAR HOLE HYDRODISSECTION: Surgical Technique for the Treatment of Persistent, Chronic, and Large Macular Holes. ( 29303907 )
2018
17
SPONTANEOUS CLOSURE OF SIMULTANEOUS IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLES DOCUMENTED BY SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY. ( 29847534 )
2018
18
THE CURRENT SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE, RECURRENT, OR PERSISTENT MACULAR HOLES. ( 29300247 )
2018
19
Vitreoretinal Interface Characteristics in Eyes with Idiopathic Macular Holes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. ( 29755819 )
2018
20
Atypical epiretinal tissue in full-thickness macular holes: pathogenic and prognostic significance. ( 29699982 )
2018
21
SURGICAL OUTCOMES AFTER INVERTED INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE FLAP VERSUS CONVENTIONAL PEELING FOR VERY LARGE MACULAR HOLES. ( 29689027 )
2018
22
Autologous Neurosensory Retinal Transplantation for Unclosed and Large Macular Holes. ( 29788031 )
2018
23
Two cases of repeating recurrences and spontaneous closures of macular holes in vitrectomized eyes. ( 29748866 )
2018
24
Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Full-Thickness Macular Holes: Appearance and Artifacts. ( 29443360 )
2018
25
Comparative Evaluation of Standard ILM Peel With Inverted ILM Flap Technique In Large Macular Holes: A Prospective, Randomized Study. ( 29664979 )
2018
26
Acute full-thickness macular hole after uneventful femtosecond-assisted cataract surgery and its spontaneous closure. ( 29785998 )
2018
27
CONCOMITANT MACULAR HOLE AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY AFTER BLUNT EYE TRAUMA. ( 27824317 )
2018
28
MACULAR HOLE FORMATION FOLLOWED BY SPONTANEOUS CLOSURE AFTER PNEUMATIC RETINOPEXY IN A PATIENT WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA. ( 29757814 )
2018
29
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy complicated with full thickness macular hole: A case report. ( 29879073 )
2018
30
LAMELLAR MACULAR HOLE WITH LAMELLAR HOLE-ASSOCIATED EPIRETINAL PROLIFERATION IN FAMILIAL EXUDATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY. ( 30134364 )
2018
31
NEW SURGICAL INSTRUMENT FOR AUTOLOGOUS INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY MACULAR HOLES. ( 29117068 )
2018
32
Inverted ILM flap, free ILM flap and conventional ILM peeling for large macular holes. ( 29479478 )
2018
33
Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Macular Holes: Is it Ready for Prime Time? ( 29528984 )
2018
34
Inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for large macular holes: a systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis. ( 29532170 )
2018
35
Long-Term Results of Vitrectomy for Macular Holes after Failure of Vitreolysis. ( 29566375 )
2018
36
Epiretinal Proliferations Associated with Lamellar Macular Holes: Clinical and Surgical Implications. ( 29590656 )
2018
37
Long-term follow-up of lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes over at least 5 years. ( 29623462 )
2018
38
The Relationship Between Blue-Fundus Autofluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes With Lamellar Macular Holes. ( 30025144 )
2018
39
Comparative study of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap and ILM peeling technique in large macular holes: a randomized-control trial. ( 30029621 )
2018
40
STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMELLAR MACULAR HOLES. ( 30067606 )
2018
41
The Manchester Large Macular Hole Study: Is it Time to Reclassify Large Macular Holes? ( 30071212 )
2018
42
Repeat Surgery in Failed Primary Vitrectomy for Macular Holes Operated With the Inverted ILM Flap Technique. ( 30114306 )
2018
43
Effects of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes on the healing of large and refractory macular holes. ( 30167916 )
2018
44
ASSESSMENT OF ANATOMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES WITH OCRIPLASMIN TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH VITREOMACULAR TRACTION WITH OR WITHOUT MACULAR HOLES: Results of OVIID-1 Trial. ( 30308558 )
2018
45
PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRACTIONAL AND DEGENERATIVE LAMELLAR MACULAR HOLES: Functional and Anatomical Results. ( 30312255 )
2018
46
Clinical and morphological comparisons of idiopathic macular holes between stage 3 and stage 4. ( 30315410 )
2018
47
Ocriplasmin versus vitrectomy for the treatment of macular holes. ( 30340707 )
2018
48
Accuracy of deep learning, a machine learning technology, using ultra-wide-field fundus ophthalmoscopy for detecting idiopathic macular holes. ( 30370184 )
2018
49
Macular Detachment for the Treatment of Persistent Full-Thickness Macular Holes. ( 30383713 )
2018
50
Surgical Repair of Traumatic Macular Holes With Extreme Macular Pathology Using an Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique. ( 30395675 )
2018

Variations for Macular Holes

Expression for Macular Holes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Macular Holes.

Pathways for Macular Holes

GO Terms for Macular Holes

Cellular components related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF PTGDS
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF PTGDS

Biological processes related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of angiogenesis GO:0016525 9.65 ANGPT2 SERPINF1 TGFB2
2 kidney development GO:0001822 9.63 SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
3 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.62 MIF SERPINF1 TGFB2 VEGFA
4 positive regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045766 9.56 ADM ANGPT2 CXCL8 VEGFA
5 angiogenesis GO:0001525 9.55 ANGPT2 CCL2 CXCL8 TGFB2 VEGFA
6 cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus GO:0044344 9.54 CCL2 CXCL8
7 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.54 CCL2 CXCL8 TGFB2
8 protein homotrimerization GO:0070207 9.52 ALOX5AP MIF
9 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 9.51 CXCL8 TGFB2
10 prostaglandin biosynthetic process GO:0001516 9.49 MIF PTGDS
11 induction of positive chemotaxis GO:0050930 9.43 CXCL8 VEGFA
12 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.43 ADM CCL2 CXCL8 MIF TGFB2 VEGFA
13 PERK-mediated unfolded protein response GO:0036499 9.4 CCL2 CXCL8
14 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.02 ADM ANGPT2 KCNMA1 TGFB2 VEGFA

Molecular functions related to Macular Holes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.35 ADM ANGPT2 CCL2 MIF TGFB2
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.02 CCL2 CXCL8 MIF TGFB2 VEGFA

Sources for Macular Holes

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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