Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Major Depressive Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Major Depressive Disorder:

Name: Major Depressive Disorder 57 12 73 72 36 29 6 15 39 70
Seasonal Affective Disorder 57 12 73 43 72 54 42 44 15 70
Unipolar Depression 57 72 54 17 70
Major Depressive Disorder, Response to Citalopram Therapy in 57 6
Unipolar Depression, Susceptibility to 57 6
Single Major Depressive Episode 12 70
Major Depressive Disorder 1 57 70
Major Depressive Disorder 2 57 70
Winter Depression 12 70
Mdd 57 72
Sad 43 72
Major Depressive Disorder and Accelerated Response to Antidepressant Drug Treatment 57
Major Depressive Disorder with a Seasonal Pattern 43
Seasonal Affective Disorder, Susceptibility to 57
Recurrent Major Depressive Episodes 70
Depression in a Seasonal Pattern 43
Affective Disorder, Seasonal 43
Recurrent Major Depression 12
Depressive Disorder, Major 44
Seasonal Mood Disorder 43
Depression; Seasonal 43
Seasonal Depression 43


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060167 DOID:1470
OMIM® 57 608516
KEGG 36 H01646
ICD9CM 34 296.2 296.3
NCIt 50 C34796
SNOMED-CT 67 268621008 36923009
ICD10 32 F32 F33.9
UMLS 70 C0024517 C0041696 C0085159 more

Summaries for Major Depressive Disorder

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Seasonal affective disorder is a mental health condition that is triggered by the changing of the seasons. This condition is a subtype of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Major depressive disorder is characterized by prolonged sadness and a general lack of interest, while bipolar disorder is characterized by similar depressive episodes alternating with periods of abnormally high energy and activity (hypomania or mania). People with seasonal affective disorder have signs and symptoms of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder only during certain months of the year. Major depressive disorder is more common than bipolar disorder among people with seasonal affective disorder. This condition usually begins in a person's twenties or thirties.The signs and symptoms that occur during depressive episodes in people with seasonal affective disorder are similar to those of major depressive disorder, including a loss of interest or enjoyment in activities, a decrease in energy, a depressed mood, and low self-esteem. In most people with seasonal affective disorder, depression and other features appear in the fall and winter months and subside in the spring and summer months. In these individuals, additional symptoms often include weight gain due to increased cravings for carbohydrates and an increase in sleep (hypersomnia). Affected individuals with underlying bipolar disorder typically have alternating episodes of depression in the fall and winter months and mania during the spring and summer months.In about 10 percent of people with seasonal affective disorder, the condition has the opposite seasonal pattern, occurring in the spring and summer months and stopping during the fall and winter months. These individuals usually have a loss of appetite and sleep, unlike those with symptoms in the fall and winter.For those affected, it is estimated that symptoms of seasonal affective disorder are present during 40 percent of the year. In some individuals, seasonal affective disorder does not recur every year. Thirty to 50 percent of affected individuals do not show symptoms of the disorder in consecutive winters. In about 40 percent of individuals with seasonal affective disorder, depressive episodes continue after winter and do not alleviate in the summer months, leading to a change in diagnosis to either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.Individuals with seasonal affective disorder tend to have another psychological condition, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an eating disorder, anxiety disorder, or panic disorder.

MalaCards based summary : Major Depressive Disorder, also known as seasonal affective disorder, is related to mental depression and depression, and has symptoms including mental and behavioral signs and symptoms and depressive symptoms. An important gene associated with Major Depressive Disorder is HTR2A (5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Serotonergic synapse and Neuroscience. The drugs Valsartan and Fentanyl have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotype is behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology : 12 An endogenous depression that is characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

MedlinePlus : 42 Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It usually starts in the late fall and early winter and goes away during the spring and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but that is a lot less common. Symptoms of SAD may include Sadness Gloomy outlook Feeling hopeless, worthless, and irritable Loss of interest or pleasure in activities you used to enjoy Low energy Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping Carbohydrate cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, and those who live far from the equator. You are also more likely to have SAD if you or your family members have depression. The exact causes of SAD are unknown. Researchers have found that people with SAD may have an imbalance of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too much melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep, and not enough vitamin D. The main treatment for SAD is light therapy. The idea behind light therapy is to replace the sunshine that you miss during the fall and winter months. You sit in front of a light therapy box every morning to get daily exposure to bright, artificial light. But some people with SAD do not respond to light therapy alone. Antidepressant medicines and talk therapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or combined with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

KEGG : 36 Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, and a high risk of suicide. Accumulated evidence suggests that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of MDD although the pathogenesis of MDD remains unknown. Mutations in genes involved in brain serotonin synthesis, have been identified in patients. Brain serotonin deficiency has been hypothesized to play a role in a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including MDD. Several efficacious treatments for MDD are available, including different forms of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Recently, selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, SNRIs,) have become the first-line antidepressant drug treatment of depression and replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) due to fewer side-effects and ease of use.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Major depressive disorder: A common psychiatric disorder. It is a complex trait characterized by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. A major depressive episode is characterized by at least 2 weeks during which there is a new onset or clear worsening of either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. Four additional symptoms must also be present including changes in appetite, weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; or recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. The episode must be accompanied by distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Wikipedia : 73 Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by... more...

More information from OMIM: 608516

Related Diseases for Major Depressive Disorder

Diseases in the Major Depressive Disorder family:

Major Depressive Disorder 1 Major Depressive Disorder 2

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 577)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mental depression 33.8 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
2 depression 33.8 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DISC2
3 endogenous depression 33.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
4 anxiety 33.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
5 bipolar disorder 32.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 PCLO HTR2A HTR1A
6 mood disorder 32.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
7 personality disorder 32.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
8 generalized anxiety disorder 32.5 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
9 post-traumatic stress disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 HTR2A FKBP5 CRH BDNF APOE
10 panic disorder 32.4 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
11 schizophrenia 32.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
12 dysthymic disorder 32.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH BDNF
13 sexual disorder 32.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
14 obsessive-compulsive disorder 32.2 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
15 alcohol dependence 32.2 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
16 borderline personality disorder 32.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
17 alcohol use disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
18 acute stress disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR1A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
19 melancholia 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
20 bipolar i disorder 32.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
21 social phobia 32.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
22 psychotic disorder 32.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
23 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 32.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
24 migraine with or without aura 1 31.9 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH
25 substance abuse 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH BDNF
26 atypical depressive disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
27 agoraphobia 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH
28 eating disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A CRH BDNF
29 disease of mental health 31.7 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 PCLO HTR2A HTR1A
30 tobacco addiction 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD4 CRH CHRM2
31 fibromyalgia 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A CRH BDNF
32 substance dependence 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 DRD4 CRH CHRM2 BDNF
33 sleep apnea 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF APOE
34 anorexia nervosa 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH BDNF
35 postpartum depression 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH BDNF
36 hypochondriasis 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
37 phobia, specific 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
38 chronic fatigue syndrome 31.6 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
39 adjustment disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
40 conduct disorder 31.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 DRD4
41 sleep disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF APOE
42 bulimia nervosa 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD4 BDNF
43 autism 31.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
44 irritable bowel syndrome 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
45 mild cognitive impairment 31.4 BDNF APOE
46 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH BDNF APOE
47 parkinson disease, late-onset 31.4 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 BDNF
48 tardive dyskinesia 31.4 HTR2A DRD4
49 paranoid schizophrenia 31.4 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
50 somatization disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH

Comorbidity relations with Major Depressive Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 53)

Acute Cystitis Adjustment Disorder
Alcohol Use Disorder Alzheimer Disease
Anorexia Nervosa Anxiety
Atypical Depressive Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder
Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder
Bronchitis Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebral Degeneration Conversion Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Delusional Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder
Dysthymic Disorder Eating Disorder
Esophagitis Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Heart Disease Histrionic Personality Disorder
Hypertension, Essential Hypochondriasis
Hypothyroidism Iron Deficiency Anemia
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Major Affective Disorder 9
Mitral Valve Disease Mood Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Opioid Addiction
Osteoarthritis Osteoporosis
Paralytic Ileus Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Personality Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizophrenia
Schizophreniform Disorder Somatization Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder:

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Major Depressive Disorder

Clinical features from OMIM®:

608516 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Major Depressive Disorder:

mental and behavioral signs and symptoms; depressive symptoms

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.4 APOE BDNF CHRM2 CRH DRD4 FKBP5

Drugs & Therapeutics for Major Depressive Disorder

Drugs for Major Depressive Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 490)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 137862-53-4 60846
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Suvorexant Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1030377-33-3
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 91374-20-8, 91374-21-9 497540 5095
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Trazodone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19794-93-5 5533
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54739-18-3 5324346 3404
Methohexital Approved Phase 4 151-83-7 9034
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585 135398745
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 77337-76-9 71158
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360
Moclobemide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71320-77-9 4235
Phenelzine Approved Phase 4 51-71-8 3675
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Asenapine Approved Phase 4 85650-56-2, 65576-45-6 3001386
Desipramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-47-5 2995
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
Imipramine Approved Phase 4 50-49-7 3696
Clomipramine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 303-49-1 2801
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
Selegiline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 14611-51-9 26757 5195
Zolpidem Approved Phase 4 82626-48-0 5732
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
Trimipramine Approved Phase 4 739-71-9 5584 4055
Protriptyline Approved Phase 4 438-60-8 4976
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
Isocarboxazid Approved Phase 4 59-63-2 3759
Maprotiline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10262-69-8 4011
Doxepin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1668-19-5 667477 667468
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2029)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01764867 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Mirtazapine;Fluoxetine;Citalopram;Escitalopram;Paroxetine;Sertraline;Fluvoxamine;Venlafaxine;Duloxetine;Mirtazapine;Bupropion;Trazodone
2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01460212 Phase 4 SSRI antidepressants
3 Randomized,Controlled and Open-label Study of Buspirone add-on Treatment in Patients With Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02273154 Phase 4 Buspirone;Paroxetine
4 The Effect and Reliability of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder or Anxiety Disorders Unknown status NCT03122158 Phase 4 Escitalopram
5 THE AIUNI - Integral Assessment in Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT02268487 Phase 4 Sertraline
6 Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in the Pathophysiology and Treatment Response of Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01699490 Phase 4 Fluoxetine + Valsartan;Fluoxetine + Placebo
7 Multi-dimensional Diagnosis,Individualized Therapy,and Management Technique for Major Depressive Disorder:Based on Clinical and Pathological Characteristics Unknown status NCT03219008 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;fluoxetine + Amfebutamone;Fluvoxamine;Lithium+fluvoxamine;Mirtazapine/SNRIs;mirtazapine + SNRIs
8 Vortioxetine Versus Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Social Anxiety Disorder Unknown status NCT02294305 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Placebo
9 Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Clinical Peculiarities, Biological Markers, and Treatment Efficacy Unknown status NCT03187093 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Escitalopram
10 A Randomised Trial Investigating the Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. Unknown status NCT01483053 Phase 4 Agomelatine;Escitalopram
11 Effect of Escitalopram vs. Reboxetine on Somatic and Visceral Sensitivity of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: a Randomized, Double Blind Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00209807 Phase 4 escitalopram;Reboxetine
12 Ketamine Co-induction for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder; a Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03666494 Phase 4 Ketamine Hydrochloride;Propofol;Fentanyl
13 Prediction of Individual Treatment Response Based on Brain Changes at the Early Phase of Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder Using Machine Learning Classification Analysis Unknown status NCT02330679 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine;Placebo
14 Escitalopram and Sleep Architecture in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT00442481 Phase 4 Escitalopram
15 Interactions Between The Serotonin Transporter And Sympathetic Nervous System Activation In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder - Understanding The Link Between The Brain And The Heart Unknown status NCT01568307 Phase 4 Participants will be prescribed an approved selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant.
16 Phase 4 Study of Escitalopram Treatment and Biomarkers in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01997580 Phase 4 escitalopram
17 A Six Week, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled, Suvorexant Augmentation Study of Antidepressant Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder With Residual Insomnia Unknown status NCT02669030 Phase 4 suvorexant;Placebo
18 Beta-arrestins and Response to Venlafaxine in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02051413 Phase 4 Venlafaxine extended release
19 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients Diagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02213016 Phase 4
20 Assessing Tolerability and Efficacy of Vortioxetine Versus SSRIs in Elderly Patients With Depression: a Pragmatic, Multicenter, Open-label, Parallel-group, Superiority, Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT03779789 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Sertraline;citalopram;Escitalopram;Paroxetine;Fluoxetine;Fluvoxamine
21 Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants Unknown status NCT01204086 Phase 4 Venlafaxine;Fluoxetine
22 Brain Mechanisms and Targeting Insomnia in Major Depression Unknown status NCT00628914 Phase 4 escitalopram and eszopiclone;Escitalopram, eszopiclone, and placebo;Escitalopram
23 The Effect of Quetiapine XR in Depressive Patients Showing Aberrant N100 Amplitude Slope Unknown status NCT01357967 Phase 4 SSRI monotherapy;Seroquel XR adjunctive
24 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Major Depression in Midlife Women: Effects on Brain Structure and Functioning, Mood, and Quality of Life Unknown status NCT00889369 Phase 4 Duloxetine
25 International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression Unknown status NCT00693849 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Sertraline;Venlafaxine-XR
26 Neurochemical,Metabonomics and Neuroimaging Characterization of TCM Diagnostic Subtypes of Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02346682 Phase 4 venlafaxine
27 A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Fluoxetine With Bupropion for Impulsivity and Suicidality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid Alcoholism (Abuse or Dependence) Unknown status NCT00449007 Phase 4 fluoxetine;bupropion
28 Hyperventilation and ECT Seizure Duration: Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Therapeutic Outcome With Comparisons Between Etomidate and Ketamine in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02924090 Phase 4 Etomidate;Ketamine
29 A Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Unknown status NCT01556971 Phase 4 Botox;Saline Solution
30 Prospective 24-week Study, Comparing Clinical Outcomes Between Switching Antidepressants and Maintaining the Same Antidepressant in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who do Not Show a 20% Reduction in Symptoms at Week 2 Unknown status NCT00519012 Phase 4 Sertraline to Paroxetine;Paroxetine to Sertraline
31 A Placebo Controlled Trial of the Dopamine D-2 Receptor Agonist Ropinirole in Treatment of 60 Patients With Refractory Bipolar I and II Depression. Unknown status NCT00335205 Phase 4 ropinirole
32 Phase 4 Study on the Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognition and the IL-6-gp130-System in Individuals With Major Depression Unknown status NCT00291239 Phase 4
33 Phase 4 Study of Clinical Pharmacogenomics of Antidepressant Response Unknown status NCT00269334 Phase 4 Using Citalopram(drug) or Paroxetine(drug)
34 White Matter Structure and Response to Treatment With Antidepressants: a Study of Desvenlafaxine in Major Depression. A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01492621 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
35 Inflammatory Markers and Cognitive Function in Major Depression:a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01391221 Phase 4 Duloxetine
36 Escitalopram Treatment of Major Depression in Diabetes Mellitus: An Open Label Unknown status NCT00650897 Phase 4 Escitalopram
37 Phase 4 Study of Vitamin D3 Supplementation for Outcomes in Patients With Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01390662 Phase 4
38 Duloxetine for Chronic Depression: a Double-blind Study Completed NCT00360724 Phase 4 Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
39 A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study of Memantine Augmentation in Antidepressant Nonresponders or Incomplete Responders Completed NCT00344682 Phase 4 memantine;Placebo
40 ECT Pulse Amplitude and Medial Temporal Lobe Engagement Completed NCT02999269 Phase 4
41 A 8-week, Rater-blind, Active-controlled, Randomized Study to Compare the Effectiveness of Venlafaxine With Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01824433 Phase 4 venlafaxine;fluoxetine
42 An Open-label Long-term Study of Escitalopram in Children 7 to 11 Years of Age With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01198795 Phase 4 Escitalopram
43 A Controlled Trial of Venlafaxine XR for Major Depression After Spinal Cord Injury: A Multi-site Study Completed NCT00592384 Phase 4 venlafaxine XR;placebo
44 EEG Biomarkers of Response in Depression Completed NCT00759122 Phase 4 venlafaxine (Effexor);placebo
45 A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparison of the Efficacy, Safety, and Relapse of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) to ECT Plus Agomelatine in the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT04181567 Phase 4 agomelatine;Placebo
46 Neurophysiologic Monitoring of Antidepressant Treatment Completed NCT01360190 Phase 4 fluoxetine
47 A Pilot Study of Double-blind Comparison of Vilazodone to Paroxetine in Geriatric Depression Completed NCT01608295 Phase 4 Vilazodone; Viibryd;Paroxetine; Paxil
48 Neurophysiologic Predictors of Outcome With rTMS Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT00956514 Phase 4
49 Duloxetine for Perimenopausal Depression Completed NCT00517985 Phase 4 Duloxetine
50 Neural, Genetic, and Peripheral Correlates of SSRI Pharmaco-Response Completed NCT01251471 Phase 4 Escitalopram

Search NIH Clinical Center for Major Depressive Disorder

Cochrane evidence based reviews: seasonal affective disorder

Genetic Tests for Major Depressive Disorder

Genetic tests related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Major Depressive Disorder 29 FKBP5 HTR2A TPH2

Anatomical Context for Major Depressive Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Major Depressive Disorder:

Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Amygdala, Pituitary, Cingulate Cortex, Thyroid

Publications for Major Depressive Disorder

Articles related to Major Depressive Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 25666)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. 61 6 57
16642436 2006
Lack of association of TPH2 exon XI polymorphisms with major depression and treatment resistance. 6 57
16027738 2005
Loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. 6 57
15629698 2005
A negative regulator of MAP kinase causes depressive behavior. 61 57
20953200 2010
Depression Case Control (DeCC) Study fails to support involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene in recurrent major depressive disorder. 61 57
19181679 2009
The breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22q11 is associated with bipolar disorder. 61 57
15866548 2005
The power of sample size and homogenous sampling: association between the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and major depressive disorder. 57 61
15691525 2005
Increased risk for recurrent major depression in DYT1 dystonia mutation carriers. 57 61
15326234 2004
Genome-wide linkage survey for genetic loci that influence the development of depressive disorders in families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 57 61
14582139 2003
A polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter promoter gene is associated with DSM-IV depression subtypes in seasonal affective disorder. 61 57
14593433 2003
The association of the D2S2944 124 bp allele with recurrent early onset major depressive disorder in women. 57 61
12898573 2003
Sequence variations in CREB1 cosegregate with depressive disorders in women. 61 57
12851637 2003
Genetics of recurrent early-onset depression (GenRED): design and preliminary clinical characteristics of a repository sample for genetic linkage studies. 57 61
12707949 2003
Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 61 57
12457397 2002
Genome survey for susceptibility loci for recurrent, early-onset major depression: results at 10cM resolution. 61 57
11992563 2002
D2S2944 identifies a likely susceptibility locus for recurrent, early-onset, major depression in women. 61 57
12082563 2002
Malignancy of recurrent, early-onset major depression: a family study. 57 61
11803516 2001
Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample: are there different genetic and environmental contributions for men and women? 57 61
10359473 1999
A hospital-based twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression. 57 61
8629888 1996
Increased concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. A possible trait marker of major depressive disorder. 61 57
7715797 1994
Seasonal Affective Disorder: Common Questions and Answers. 61 42
33252911 2020
Brainstem volume mediates seasonal variation in depressive symptoms: A cross sectional study in the UK Biobank cohort. 61 42
32108162 2020
Seasonal variation in specific depressive symptoms: A population based study. 42 61
31630036 2020
Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression: evidence from a genetic isolate. 57
20071666 2010
Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. 57
19728071 2009
Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins. 57
19618259 2009
Functional properties of missense variants of human tryptophan hydroxylase 2. 6
19319927 2009
Cortical thinning in persons at increased familial risk for major depression. 57
19329490 2009
Molecular genetics of bipolar disorder and depression. 57
17239033 2007
The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. 57
16402130 2006
Haplotype analysis reveals tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 1 gene variants associated with major depression. 57
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Two different putative genetic animal models of childhood depression. 57
16095569 2006
Familial clustering of major depression and anxiety disorders in Australian and Dutch twins and siblings. 57
16354503 2005
Association study of CREB1 and childhood-onset mood disorders. 57
15999345 2005
The dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair-repeat polymorphism and mood disorders: a meta-analysis. 57
15860340 2005
Association analysis of monoamine genes with measures of depression and anxiety in a selected community sample of siblings. 57
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Influence of serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms on hippocampal volumes in late-life depression. 57
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Polymorphisms in FKBP5 are associated with increased recurrence of depressive episodes and rapid response to antidepressant treatment. 57
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Genome-wide linkage analysis of a composite index of neuroticism and mood-related scales in extreme selected sibships. 57
15351774 2004
Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. 57
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Can "blue" genes affect mood and movement? 57
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Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. 57
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Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. 57
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Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. 57
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Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? 57
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Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. 57
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Genetic segregation analysis of early-onset recurrent unipolar depression. 57
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Polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene associated with susceptibility to major depression. 57
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Variations for Major Depressive Disorder

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Major Depressive Disorder:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 TPH2 NM_173353.4(TPH2):c.1322G>A (p.Arg441His) SNV risk factor 3162 rs120074175 GRCh37: 12:72425324-72425324
GRCh38: 12:72031544-72031544
2 HTR2A NM_000621.4(HTR2A):c.614-2211T>C SNV drug response 226025 rs7997012 GRCh37: 13:47411985-47411985
GRCh38: 13:46837850-46837850
3 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.364C>A (p.Leu122Met) SNV not provided 88639 rs587778876 GRCh37: 19:45411917-45411917
GRCh38: 19:44908660-44908660
4 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.451C>A (p.Leu151Met) SNV not provided 88640 rs587778877 GRCh37: 19:45412004-45412004
GRCh38: 19:44908747-44908747

Expression for Major Depressive Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Major Depressive Disorder.

Pathways for Major Depressive Disorder

Pathways related to Major Depressive Disorder according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Serotonergic synapse hsa04726

GO Terms for Major Depressive Disorder

Cellular components related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 synapse GO:0045202 9.8 SLC6A4 PCLO HTR2A HTR1A CRH CHRM2
2 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.43 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2
3 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.35 PCLO HTR2A DRD4 CHRM2 APOE
4 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.33 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2
5 dendrite GO:0030425 9.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2 BDNF APOE

Biological processes related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.72 HTR2A DRD4 APOE
2 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.67 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4
3 memory GO:0007613 9.65 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
4 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.65 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH CHRM2
5 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.56 SLC6A4 HTR1A
6 behavior GO:0007610 9.54 HTR2A HTR1A
7 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.52 HTR2A DRD4
8 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.51 DRD4 CRH
9 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.46 HTR1A DRD4
10 aromatic amino acid family metabolic process GO:0009072 9.43 TPH2 TPH1
11 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.4 HTR2A HTR1A
12 indolalkylamine biosynthetic process GO:0046219 9.37 TPH2 TPH1
13 serotonin biosynthetic process GO:0042427 9.32 TPH2 TPH1
14 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.26 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2
15 regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014062 9.16 HTR1A CRH
16 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 8.92 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2

Molecular functions related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.46 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2
2 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016714 9.32 TPH2 TPH1
3 tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity GO:0004510 9.26 TPH2 TPH1
4 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.13 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A
5 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 8.92 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2

Sources for Major Depressive Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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