Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Major Depressive Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Major Depressive Disorder:

Name: Major Depressive Disorder 56 12 74 73 36 29 6 15 39 71
Seasonal Affective Disorder 56 12 74 25 73 54 42 43 15 71
Unipolar Depression 56 73 54 17 71
Major Depressive Disorder, Response to Citalopram Therapy in 56 6
Unipolar Depression, Susceptibility to 56 6
Single Major Depressive Episode 12 71
Major Depressive Disorder 1 56 71
Major Depressive Disorder 2 56 71
Winter Depression 12 71
Mdd 56 73
Sad 25 73
Major Depressive Disorder and Accelerated Response to Antidepressant Drug Treatment 56
Major Depressive Disorder with a Seasonal Pattern 25
Seasonal Affective Disorder, Susceptibility to 56
Recurrent Major Depressive Episodes 71
Depression in a Seasonal Pattern 25
Affective Disorder, Seasonal 25
Recurrent Major Depression 12
Depressive Disorder, Major 43
Seasonal Mood Disorder 25
Depression; Seasonal 25
Seasonal Depression 25


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060167 DOID:1470
OMIM 56 608516
KEGG 36 H01646
ICD9CM 34 296.2 296.3
NCIt 49 C34796
SNOMED-CT 67 268621008 36923009
ICD10 32 F32 F33.9
UMLS 71 C0024517 C0041696 C0085159 more

Summaries for Major Depressive Disorder

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Seasonal affective disorder is a mental health condition that is triggered by the changing of the seasons. This condition is a subtype of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Major depressive disorder is characterized by prolonged sadness and a general lack of interest, while bipolar disorder is characterized by similar depressive episodes alternating with periods of abnormally high energy and activity (hypomania or mania). People with seasonal affective disorder have signs and symptoms of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder only during certain months of the year. Major depressive disorder is more common than bipolar disorder among people with seasonal affective disorder. This condition usually begins in a person's twenties or thirties. The signs and symptoms that occur during depressive episodes in people with seasonal affective disorder are similar to those of major depressive disorder, including a loss of interest or enjoyment in activities, a decrease in energy, a depressed mood, and low self-esteem. In most people with seasonal affective disorder, depression and other features appear in the fall and winter months and subside in the spring and summer months. In these individuals, additional symptoms often include weight gain due to increased cravings for carbohydrates and an increase in sleep (hypersomnia). Affected individuals with underlying bipolar disorder typically have alternating episodes of depression in the fall and winter months and mania during the spring and summer months. In about 10 percent of people with seasonal affective disorder, the condition has the opposite seasonal pattern, occurring in the spring and summer months and stopping during the fall and winter months. These individuals usually have a loss of appetite and sleep, unlike those with symptoms in the fall and winter. For those affected, it is estimated that symptoms of seasonal affective disorder are present during 40 percent of the year. In some individuals, seasonal affective disorder does not recur every year. Thirty to 50 percent of affected individuals do not show symptoms of the disorder in consecutive winters. In about 40 percent of individuals with seasonal affective disorder, depressive episodes continue after winter and do not alleviate in the summer months, leading to a change in diagnosis to either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Individuals with seasonal affective disorder tend to have another psychological condition, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an eating disorder, anxiety disorder, or panic disorder.

MalaCards based summary : Major Depressive Disorder, also known as seasonal affective disorder, is related to depression and mental depression, and has symptoms including mental and behavioral signs and symptoms and depressive symptoms. An important gene associated with Major Depressive Disorder is HTR2A (5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Serotonergic synapse and Neuroscience. The drugs Etomidate and Valsartan have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and testes, and related phenotype is behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology : 12 An endogenous depression that is characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

MedlinePlus : 42 Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It usually starts in the late fall and early winter and goes away during the spring and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but that is a lot less common. Symptoms of SAD may include Sadness Gloomy outlook Feeling hopeless, worthless, and irritable Loss of interest or pleasure in activities you used to enjoy Low energy Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping Carbohydrate cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, and those who live far from the equator. You are also more likely to have SAD if you or your family members have depression. The exact causes of SAD are unknown. Researchers have found that people with SAD may have an imbalance of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too much melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep, and not enough vitamin D. The main treatment for SAD is light therapy. The idea behind light therapy is to replace the sunshine that you miss during the fall and winter months. You sit in front of a light therapy box every morning to get daily exposure to bright, artificial light. But some people with SAD do not respond to light therapy alone. Antidepressant medicines and talk therapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or combined with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

KEGG : 36 Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, and a high risk of suicide. Accumulated evidence suggests that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of MDD although the pathogenesis of MDD remains unknown. Mutations in genes involved in brain serotonin synthesis, have been identified in patients. Brain serotonin deficiency has been hypothesized to play a role in a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including MDD. Several efficacious treatments for MDD are available, including different forms of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Recently, selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, SNRIs,) have become the first-line antidepressant drug treatment of depression and replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) due to fewer side-effects and ease of use.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Major depressive disorder: A common psychiatric disorder. It is a complex trait characterized by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. A major depressive episode is characterized by at least 2 weeks during which there is a new onset or clear worsening of either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. Four additional symptoms must also be present including changes in appetite, weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; or recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. The episode must be accompanied by distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Wikipedia : 74 Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by... more...

More information from OMIM: 608516

Related Diseases for Major Depressive Disorder

Diseases in the Major Depressive Disorder family:

Major Depressive Disorder 1 Major Depressive Disorder 2

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 581)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 depression 34.9 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DISC2
2 mental depression 34.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
3 anxiety 33.9 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
4 endogenous depression 33.9 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
5 bipolar disorder 32.8 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
6 personality disorder 32.7 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
7 mood disorder 32.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
8 panic disorder 32.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
9 generalized anxiety disorder 32.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
10 obsessive-compulsive disorder 32.4 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
11 alcohol dependence 32.4 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
12 sexual disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
13 borderline personality disorder 32.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
14 constipation 32.3 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
15 post-traumatic stress disorder 32.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
16 alcohol use disorder 32.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD3 CRH BDNF
17 melancholia 32.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
18 avoidant personality disorder 32.1 TPH1 SLC6A4 DRD4
19 psychotic disorder 32.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
20 acute stress disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 FKBP5 CRH BDNF
21 migraine with or without aura 1 32.1 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
22 dysthymic disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DISC2 CRH BDNF
23 bipolar i disorder 32.1 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
24 substance abuse 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 CRH
25 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 32.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
26 agoraphobia 32.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
27 schizophrenia 32.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
28 social phobia 32.0 SLC6A4 HTR1A BDNF
29 atypical depressive disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
30 fibromyalgia 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
31 tobacco addiction 31.9 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 CRH
32 eating disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD3 CRH BDNF
33 sleep disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF APOE
34 substance dependence 31.8 TPH1 SLC6A4 DRD4 DRD3 CRH CHRM2
35 disease of mental health 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 CRH
36 postpartum depression 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH BDNF
37 anorexia nervosa 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH
38 hypochondriasis 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
39 sleep apnea 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF APOE
40 chronic fatigue syndrome 31.7 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH
41 alzheimer disease 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 CRH
42 conduct disorder 31.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 DRD4
43 irritable bowel syndrome 31.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
44 autism 31.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
45 bulimia nervosa 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD4 CRH BDNF
46 adjustment disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
47 paranoid schizophrenia 31.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
48 parkinson disease, late-onset 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
49 neurotic disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
50 phobia, specific 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH

Comorbidity relations with Major Depressive Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 52)

Acute Cystitis Adjustment Disorder
Alzheimer Disease Anorexia Nervosa
Anxiety Atypical Depressive Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder Bipolar Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder Bronchitis
Cerebral Atherosclerosis Cerebral Degeneration
Conversion Disorder Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Delusional Disorder
Dependent Personality Disorder Dysthymic Disorder
Eating Disorder Esophagitis
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Heart Disease
Histrionic Personality Disorder Hypertension, Essential
Hypochondriasis Hypothyroidism
Iron Deficiency Anemia Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Major Affective Disorder 9 Mitral Valve Disease
Mood Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Opioid Addiction Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis Paralytic Ileus
Paranoid Personality Disorder Paranoid Schizophrenia
Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset Personality Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Respiratory Failure Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder
Somatization Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder:

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Major Depressive Disorder

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Major Depressive Disorder:

mental and behavioral signs and symptoms, depressive symptoms

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.4 APOE BDNF CHRM2 CRH DRD3 DRD4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Major Depressive Disorder

Drugs for Major Depressive Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 522)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Etomidate Approved Phase 4 33125-97-2 36339 667484
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 137862-53-4 60846
Reboxetine Approved, Experimental Phase 4 98769-81-4, 71620-89-8 123628 65856
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 91374-20-8, 91374-21-9 497540 5095
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Brexpiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 913611-97-9 11978813
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
Selegiline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 14611-51-9 5195 26757
Trazodone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19794-93-5 5533
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68693-11-8 4236
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Tranylcypromine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155-09-9 441233
Moclobemide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71320-77-9 4235
Desipramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-47-5 2995
Asenapine Approved Phase 4 65576-45-6, 85650-56-2 3001386
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 77337-76-9 71158
Imipramine Approved Phase 4 50-49-7 3696
Nortriptyline Approved Phase 4 72-69-5 4543
Methohexital Approved Phase 4 151-83-7 9034
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Doxepin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1668-19-5 667477 667468
Protriptyline Approved Phase 4 438-60-8 4976
Trimipramine Approved Phase 4 739-71-9 5584 4055
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Isocarboxazid Approved Phase 4 59-63-2 3759
Maprotiline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10262-69-8 4011
Zolpidem Approved Phase 4 82626-48-0 5732
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-83-0 5994
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
Alendronate Approved Phase 4 66376-36-1, 121268-17-5 2088
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2443)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 4 Study of Escitalopram Treatment and Biomarkers in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01997580 Phase 4 escitalopram
2 Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in the Pathophysiology and Treatment Response of Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01699490 Phase 4 Fluoxetine + Valsartan;Fluoxetine + Placebo
3 The Effect and Reliability of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder or Anxiety Disorders Unknown status NCT03122158 Phase 4 Escitalopram
4 Vortioxetine Versus Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Social Anxiety Disorder Unknown status NCT02294305 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Placebo
5 Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants Unknown status NCT01204086 Phase 4 Venlafaxine;Fluoxetine
6 Beta-arrestins and Response to Venlafaxine in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02051413 Phase 4 Venlafaxine extended release
7 THE AIUNI - Integral Assessment in Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT02268487 Phase 4 Sertraline
8 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01460212 Phase 4 SSRI antidepressants
9 Randomized,Controlled and Open-label Study of Buspirone add-on Treatment in Patients With Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02273154 Phase 4 Buspirone;Paroxetine
10 Exploring Alterations of Central Autonomic Modulation in Patients With Bipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01213121 Phase 4 Quetiapine
11 Escitalopram and Sleep Architecture in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT00442481 Phase 4 Escitalopram
12 Effect of Escitalopram vs. Reboxetine on Somatic and Visceral Sensitivity of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: a Randomized, Double Blind Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00209807 Phase 4 escitalopram;Reboxetine
13 A Dimensional Approach to Evaluate Reward Processing in Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Treatment With Desvenlafaxine Unknown status NCT02859103 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
14 Hyperventilation and ECT Seizure Duration: Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Therapeutic Outcome With Comparisons Between Etomidate and Ketamine in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02924090 Phase 4 Etomidate;Ketamine
15 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Major Depression in Midlife Women: Effects on Brain Structure and Functioning, Mood, and Quality of Life Unknown status NCT00889369 Phase 4 Duloxetine
16 Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01764867 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Mirtazapine;Fluoxetine;Citalopram;Escitalopram;Paroxetine;Sertraline;Fluvoxamine;Venlafaxine;Duloxetine;Mirtazapine;Bupropion;Trazodone
17 A Randomised Trial Investigating the Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. Unknown status NCT01483053 Phase 4 Agomelatine;Escitalopram
18 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients Diagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02213016 Phase 4
19 A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Fluoxetine With Bupropion for Impulsivity and Suicidality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid Alcoholism (Abuse or Dependence) Unknown status NCT00449007 Phase 4 fluoxetine;bupropion
20 The Effect of Quetiapine XR in Depressive Patients Showing Aberrant N100 Amplitude Slope Unknown status NCT01357967 Phase 4 SSRI monotherapy;Seroquel XR adjunctive
21 Brain Mechanisms and Targeting Insomnia in Major Depression Unknown status NCT00628914 Phase 4 escitalopram and eszopiclone;Escitalopram, eszopiclone, and placebo;Escitalopram
22 Hippocampal Volume in Young Patients With Major Depression Before and After Combined Antidepressive Therapy - a Monocentric, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT00150839 Phase 4 Mirtazapine;Venlafaxine
23 Prediction of Individual Treatment Response Based on Brain Changes at the Early Phase of Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder Using Machine Learning Classification Analysis Unknown status NCT02330679 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine;Placebo
24 Phase 4 Study on the Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognition and the IL-6-gp130-System in Individuals With Major Depression Unknown status NCT00291239 Phase 4
25 Inflammatory Markers and Cognitive Function in Major Depression:a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01391221 Phase 4 Duloxetine
26 A Placebo Controlled Trial of the Dopamine D-2 Receptor Agonist Ropinirole in Treatment of 60 Patients With Refractory Bipolar I and II Depression. Unknown status NCT00335205 Phase 4 ropinirole
27 Escitalopram Treatment of Major Depression in Diabetes Mellitus: An Open Label Unknown status NCT00650897 Phase 4 Escitalopram
28 White Matter Structure and Response to Treatment With Antidepressants: a Study of Desvenlafaxine in Major Depression. A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01492621 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
29 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Enriched Enrollment Randomized Withdrawal Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Milnacipran in the Treatment of Pain Due to Osteoarthritis Unknown status NCT01329406 Phase 4 Milnacipran;Placebo
30 Neurochemical,Metabonomics and Neuroimaging Characterization of TCM Diagnostic Subtypes of Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02346682 Phase 4 venlafaxine
31 Phase 4 Study of Vitamin D3 Supplementation for Outcomes in Patients With Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01390662 Phase 4
32 Phase 3 Reboxetine Treatment in Depressed Children and Adolescents an 8-Week, Open Study Unknown status NCT00426946 Phase 4 Reboxetine
33 Prospective 24-week Study, Comparing Clinical Outcomes Between Switching Antidepressants and Maintaining the Same Antidepressant in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who do Not Show a 20% Reduction in Symptoms at Week 2 Unknown status NCT00519012 Phase 4 Sertraline to Paroxetine;Paroxetine to Sertraline
34 Phase 4 Study of Clinical Pharmacogenomics of Antidepressant Response Unknown status NCT00269334 Phase 4 Using Citalopram(drug) or Paroxetine(drug)
35 Integrated Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers With Serious Mental Illness Unknown status NCT02845440 Phase 4
36 Effects of Low-dose Ketamine as an Adjunct to Propofol-based Anesthesia for Electroconvulsive Therapy Unknown status NCT02579642 Phase 4 Ketamine;Placebo
37 A Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Unknown status NCT01556971 Phase 4 Botox;Saline Solution
38 Predictors of Response to Augmentation With Ziprasidone (Geodon®) in Major Depressive Disorder : A 13-week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial Completed NCT01168674 Phase 4 ziprasidone;Sugar pill
39 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ramelteon in the Treatment of Sleep and Mood in Patients With Seasonal Affective Disorder Completed NCT00502320 Phase 4 Ramelteon;Placebo
40 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Relapse Prevention Study With Vilazodone in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01573598 Phase 4 Placebo;Vilazodone;Vilazodone
41 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Fixed-dose Study of Vilazodone in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01473394 Phase 4 Dose-matched placebo;Vilazodone
42 Lilly's Emotional and Physical Symptoms of Depression Study Completed NCT00479726 Phase 4 duloxetine hydrochloride
43 A Phase 4 Comparison of Duloxetine Dosing Strategies in the Treatment of Korean Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT00960986 Phase 4 Duloxetine hydrochloride
44 An Open Label Study Assessing Paxil CR (Paroxetine CR) in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Discontinued Treatment With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or a Selective Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor Due to Intolerability Completed NCT00049972 Phase 4 paroxetine CR
45 An Open-label Long-term Study of Escitalopram in Children 7 to 11 Years of Age With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01198795 Phase 4 Escitalopram
46 A Double-blind, Placebo- and Active-controlled, Fixed-dose Study of Vilazodone in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01473381 Phase 4 Vilazodone;Placebo to citalopram;Placebo to vilazodone;Citalopram
47 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Relapse-Prevention Study With Levomilnacipran ER in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT02288325 Phase 4 Levomilnacipran ER;Placebo
48 A Multicenter, Parallel-Group, Randomized, 10-Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of 50 mg Of DVS SR In The Treatment Of Peri- And Postmenopausal Women With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01121484 Phase 4 desvenlafaxine succinate sustained-release;placebo
49 Aripiprazole for the Augmentation of Antidepressant Therapy: An Observational, Outpatients Study in Inadequate Responders Diagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder Completed NCT01429831 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
50 Comparison of Tianeptine Versus Escitalopram for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-label Study Completed NCT01309776 Phase 4 Tianeptine;Escitalopram

Search NIH Clinical Center for Major Depressive Disorder

Cochrane evidence based reviews: seasonal affective disorder

Genetic Tests for Major Depressive Disorder

Genetic tests related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Major Depressive Disorder 29 FKBP5 HTR2A TPH2

Anatomical Context for Major Depressive Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Major Depressive Disorder:

Brain, Cortex, Testes, Prefrontal Cortex, Heart, Amygdala, Pituitary

Publications for Major Depressive Disorder

Articles related to Major Depressive Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 23924)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. 56 6 61
16642436 2006
Lack of association of TPH2 exon XI polymorphisms with major depression and treatment resistance. 56 6
16027738 2005
Loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. 56 6
15629698 2005
A negative regulator of MAP kinase causes depressive behavior. 61 56
20953200 2010
Depression Case Control (DeCC) Study fails to support involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene in recurrent major depressive disorder. 61 56
19181679 2009
The breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22q11 is associated with bipolar disorder. 61 56
15866548 2005
The power of sample size and homogenous sampling: association between the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and major depressive disorder. 61 56
15691525 2005
Increased risk for recurrent major depression in DYT1 dystonia mutation carriers. 56 61
15326234 2004
Genome-wide linkage survey for genetic loci that influence the development of depressive disorders in families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 56 61
14582139 2003
A polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter promoter gene is associated with DSM-IV depression subtypes in seasonal affective disorder. 56 61
14593433 2003
The association of the D2S2944 124 bp allele with recurrent early onset major depressive disorder in women. 61 56
12898573 2003
Sequence variations in CREB1 cosegregate with depressive disorders in women. 56 61
12851637 2003
Genetics of recurrent early-onset depression (GenRED): design and preliminary clinical characteristics of a repository sample for genetic linkage studies. 56 61
12707949 2003
Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 56 61
12457397 2002
Genome survey for susceptibility loci for recurrent, early-onset major depression: results at 10cM resolution. 61 56
11992563 2002
D2S2944 identifies a likely susceptibility locus for recurrent, early-onset, major depression in women. 61 56
12082563 2002
Malignancy of recurrent, early-onset major depression: a family study. 61 56
11803516 2001
Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample: are there different genetic and environmental contributions for men and women? 61 56
10359473 1999
A hospital-based twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression. 61 56
8629888 1996
Increased concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. A possible trait marker of major depressive disorder. 61 56
7715797 1994
Has the sun set for seasonal affective disorder and HPA axis studies? A systematic review and future prospects. 61 42
31299439 2019
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among the blind and patients with serious visual impairment. 61 42
31488794 2019
Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression: evidence from a genetic isolate. 56
20071666 2010
Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins. 56
19618259 2009
Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. 56
19728071 2009
Functional properties of missense variants of human tryptophan hydroxylase 2. 6
19319927 2009
Cortical thinning in persons at increased familial risk for major depression. 56
19329490 2009
Molecular genetics of bipolar disorder and depression. 56
17239033 2007
The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. 56
16402130 2006
Haplotype analysis reveals tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 1 gene variants associated with major depression. 56
16165107 2006
Two different putative genetic animal models of childhood depression. 56
16095569 2006
Familial clustering of major depression and anxiety disorders in Australian and Dutch twins and siblings. 56
16354503 2005
Association study of CREB1 and childhood-onset mood disorders. 56
15999345 2005
Influence of serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms on hippocampal volumes in late-life depression. 56
15867107 2005
Association analysis of monoamine genes with measures of depression and anxiety in a selected community sample of siblings. 56
15729745 2005
The dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair-repeat polymorphism and mood disorders: a meta-analysis. 56
15860340 2005
Polymorphisms in FKBP5 are associated with increased recurrence of depressive episodes and rapid response to antidepressant treatment. 56
15565110 2004
Genome-wide linkage analysis of a composite index of neuroticism and mood-related scales in extreme selected sibships. 56
15351774 2004
Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. 56
15229186 2004
Can "blue" genes affect mood and movement? 56
15326229 2004
Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. 56
12900317 2003
Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. 56
12869766 2003
Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. 56
12796225 2003
Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? 56
11352363 2001
Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. 56
11007705 2000
Genetic segregation analysis of early-onset recurrent unipolar depression. 56
9399885 1997
Evidence-based health policy--lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. 56
8966556 1996
Polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene associated with susceptibility to major depression. 56
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The lifetime history of major depression in women. Reliability of diagnosis and heritability. 56
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Continuity and discontinuity of affective disorders and schizophrenia. Results of a controlled family study. 56
8215813 1993

Variations for Major Depressive Disorder

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Major Depressive Disorder:

6 ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 TPH2 NM_173353.4(TPH2):c.1322G>A (p.Arg441His)SNV risk factor 3162 rs120074175 12:72425324-72425324 12:72031544-72031544
2 HTR2A NM_000621.4(HTR2A):c.614-2211T>CSNV drug response 226025 rs7997012 13:47411985-47411985 13:46837850-46837850
3 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.364C>A (p.Leu122Met)SNV not provided 88639 rs587778876 19:45411917-45411917 19:44908660-44908660
4 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.451C>A (p.Leu151Met)SNV not provided 88640 rs587778877 19:45412004-45412004 19:44908747-44908747

Expression for Major Depressive Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Major Depressive Disorder.

Pathways for Major Depressive Disorder

Pathways related to Major Depressive Disorder according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Serotonergic synapse hsa04726

GO Terms for Major Depressive Disorder

Cellular components related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 synapse GO:0045202 9.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD3 CRH CHRM2
2 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.43 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2
3 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.35 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 CHRM2 APOE
4 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.33 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2
5 dendrite GO:0030425 9.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2 BDNF APOE

Biological processes related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 33)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.11 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 CRH CHRM2
2 response to drug GO:0042493 9.92 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD3 CRH BDNF
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.83 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CRH CHRM2
4 memory GO:0007613 9.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
5 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.76 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 APOE
6 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.75 DRD3 CRH BDNF
7 social behavior GO:0035176 9.73 SLC6A4 DRD4 DRD3
8 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.66 DRD4 DRD3
9 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.65 SLC6A4 HTR1A
10 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.65 DRD4 DRD3
11 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.65 HTR2A DRD3
12 behavioral fear response GO:0001662 9.65 HTR1A DRD4 BDNF
13 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.64 DRD4 DRD3
14 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.64 DRD4 DRD3
15 behavior GO:0007610 9.63 HTR2A HTR1A
16 locomotory exploration behavior GO:0035641 9.63 CRH APOE
17 regulation of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization GO:0099149 9.62 DRD4 DRD3
18 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.62 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 BDNF
19 inhibitory postsynaptic potential GO:0060080 9.61 DRD4 BDNF
20 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.61 HTR1A DRD4
21 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.6 DRD4 DRD3
22 aromatic amino acid family metabolic process GO:0009072 9.59 TPH2 TPH1
23 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.58 HTR2A HTR1A
24 indolalkylamine biosynthetic process GO:0046219 9.55 TPH2 TPH1
25 fear response GO:0042596 9.54 DRD4 BDNF
26 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.54 DRD4 DRD3 APOE
27 serotonin biosynthetic process GO:0042427 9.51 TPH2 TPH1
28 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.49 DRD4 DRD3
29 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.43 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
30 regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014062 9.4 HTR1A CRH
31 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.33 DRD4 DRD3 CRH
32 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.26 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2
33 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 8.92 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 CHRM2

Molecular functions related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing: