Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Major Depressive Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Major Depressive Disorder:

Name: Major Depressive Disorder 57 11 42 75 73 28 5 14 38 71
Seasonal Affective Disorder 57 11 42 75 73 53 41 43 14 71
Unipolar Depression 57 42 73 53 16 71
Depression 42 75 28 5 41 63
Depressive Disorder 42 53 71
Mdd 57 42 73
Major Depressive Disorder, Response to Citalopram Therapy in 57 5
Unipolar Depression, Susceptibility to 57 5
Single Major Depressive Episode 11 71
Major Depressive Disorder 1 57 71
Major Depressive Disorder 2 57 71
Clinical Depression 42 71
Depressive Syndrome 53 71
Winter Depression 11 71
Major Depression 42 53
Sad 42 73
Major Depressive Disorder and Accelerated Response to Antidepressant Drug Treatment 57
Major Depressive Disorder with a Seasonal Pattern 42
Seasonal Affective Disorder, Susceptibility to 57
Recurrent Major Depressive Episodes 71
Depression in a Seasonal Pattern 42
Affective Disorder, Seasonal 42
Recurrent Major Depression 11
Seasonal Mood Disorder 42
Depression; Seasonal 42
Seasonal Depression 42
Mental Depression 71


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:0060167 DOID:1470
OMIM® 57 608516
ICD9CM 34 296.2 296.3
NCIt 49 C34796
SNOMED-CT 68 268621008 36923009
ICD10 31 F32 F33.9
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 21061000119107 35489007 78667006
UMLS 71 C0011570 C0011581 C0024517 more

Summaries for Major Depressive Disorder

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Seasonal affective disorder is a mental health condition that is triggered by the changing of the seasons. This condition is a subtype of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Major depressive disorder is characterized by prolonged sadness and a general lack of interest, while bipolar disorder is characterized by similar depressive episodes alternating with periods of abnormally high energy and activity (hypomania or mania). People with seasonal affective disorder have signs and symptoms of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder only during certain months of the year. Major depressive disorder is more common than bipolar disorder among people with seasonal affective disorder. This condition usually begins in a person's twenties or thirties.The signs and symptoms that occur during depressive episodes in people with seasonal affective disorder are similar to those of major depressive disorder, including a loss of interest or enjoyment in activities, a decrease in energy, a depressed mood, and low self-esteem. In most people with seasonal affective disorder, depression and other features appear in the fall and winter months and subside in the spring and summer months. In these individuals, additional symptoms often include weight gain due to increased cravings for carbohydrates and an increase in sleep (hypersomnia). Affected individuals with underlying bipolar disorder typically have alternating episodes of depression in the fall and winter months and mania during the spring and summer months.In about 10 percent of people with seasonal affective disorder, the condition has the opposite seasonal pattern, occurring in the spring and summer months and stopping during the fall and winter months. These individuals usually have a loss of appetite and sleep, unlike those with symptoms in the fall and winter.For those affected, it is estimated that symptoms of seasonal affective disorder are present during 40 percent of the year. In some individuals, seasonal affective disorder does not recur every year. Thirty to 50 percent of affected individuals do not show symptoms of the disorder in consecutive winters. In about 40 percent of individuals with seasonal affective disorder, depressive episodes continue after winter and do not alleviate in the summer months, leading to a change in diagnosis to either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.Individuals with seasonal affective disorder tend to have another psychological condition, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an eating disorder, anxiety disorder, or panic disorder.

MalaCards based summary: Major Depressive Disorder, also known as seasonal affective disorder, is related to anxiety and endogenous depression, and has symptoms including mental and behavioral signs and symptoms, dejection emotional and depressed reaction. An important gene associated with Major Depressive Disorder is HTR2A (5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signal Transduction and Neuroscience. The drugs Valsartan and Fluvoxamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, prefrontal cortex and cortex, and related phenotypes are depression and behavior/neurological

MedlinePlus: 41 Depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. If you are one of the more than 19 million teens and adults in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist and interfere with your everyday life. Symptoms can include: Feeling sad or "empty" Loss of interest in favorite activities Overeating, or not wanting to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at any age, but it often begins in teens and young adults. It is much more common in women. Women can also get postpartum depression after the birth of a baby. Some people get seasonal affective disorder in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

PubMed Health : 63 Depression: We all feel sad or lethargic every now and then. And we have all felt down or even desperate at some point in our lives. These phases are a normal part of life, and people usually feel better again after a while. Things are different for people who have depression. Their sadness and negative thoughts last longer and overshadow all of their thoughts and actions. Depression can arise without any triggering events or for no apparent reasons. People often feel like they are stuck in a black hole. They feel cheerless, lack motivation and self-confidence, and think of themselves as worthless. This can make it difficult to do everyday things like going to work or studying. Friends, family and hobbies are often neglected. They don't sleep well. Depression can also make family and friends feel worried, anxious and helpless. Often they want to help but don't know how. It's not always easy for them to tell whether it's a passing phase or a serious illness.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: 73 A common psychiatric disorder. It is a complex trait characterized by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. A major depressive episode is characterized by at least 2 weeks during which there is a new onset or clear worsening of either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. Four additional symptoms must also be present including changes in appetite, weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; or recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. The episode must be accompanied by distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Disease Ontology 11 Major depressive disorder: An endogenous depression that is characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Seasonal affective disorder: A mental depression that involves presentation of depressive symptoms only during a specific season of the year.

Wikipedia 75 Depression: Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as clinical depression, is a mental disorder characterized... more...

Seasonal affective disorder: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset, in which people who have normal mental... more...

More information from OMIM: 608516

Related Diseases for Major Depressive Disorder

Diseases in the Major Depressive Disorder family:

Major Depressive Disorder 1 Major Depressive Disorder 2

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2500)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anxiety 33.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
2 endogenous depression 33.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
3 mental depression 33.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 NOTCH3 MAOA
4 dysthymic disorder 33.1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
5 bipolar disorder 33.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
6 atypical depressive disorder 32.9 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
7 mood disorder 32.9 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
8 psychotic disorder 32.7 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
9 schizophrenia 32.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
10 personality disorder 32.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
11 generalized anxiety disorder 32.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
12 post-traumatic stress disorder 32.5 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
13 panic disorder 32.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
14 alcohol use disorder 32.3 SLC6A4 MAOA CRH BDNF
15 obsessive-compulsive disorder 32.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
16 alcohol dependence 32.3 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
17 borderline personality disorder 32.2 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
18 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 32.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A
19 melancholia 32.1 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
20 acute stress disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 NR3C1 HTR2A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
21 disease of mental health 32.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF-AS
22 social phobia 32.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
23 bipolar i disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
24 migraine with or without aura 1 32.0 TPH1 SLC6A4 NOTCH3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
25 substance abuse 32.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
26 binswanger's disease 32.0 NOTCH3 CRH
27 agoraphobia 31.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
28 tobacco addiction 31.9 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
29 postpartum depression 31.8 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
30 eating disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
31 alzheimer disease, familial, 1 31.8 TPH1 SLC6A4 NOTCH3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
32 fibromyalgia 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
33 substance dependence 31.8 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
34 alexithymia 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A CRH BDNF
35 bowel dysfunction 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR1A
36 anorexia nervosa 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
37 pain agnosia 31.7 HTR1A CRH BDNF
38 dementia 31.7 NOTCH3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
39 headache 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
40 parkinson disease, late-onset 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
41 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.7 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF-AS
42 sleep disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
43 hypochondriasis 31.7 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
44 chronic fatigue syndrome 31.7 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR1A CRH BDNF
45 diarrhea 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR1A BDNF
46 phobia, specific 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
47 conduct disorder 31.6 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA
48 bulimia nervosa 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A BDNF
49 autism 31.6 SLC6A4 NR3C1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
50 adjustment disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF

Comorbidity relations with Major Depressive Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 53)

Acute Cystitis Adjustment Disorder
Alcohol Use Disorder Alzheimer Disease, Familial, 1
Anorexia Nervosa Anxiety
Atypical Depressive Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder
Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder
Bronchitis Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebral Degeneration Conversion Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Delusional Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder
Dysthymic Disorder Eating Disorder
Esophagitis Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Heart Disease Histrionic Personality Disorder
Hypertension, Essential Hypochondriasis
Hypothyroidism Iron Deficiency Anemia
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Major Affective Disorder 9
Mitral Valve Disease Mood Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Opiate Dependence
Osteoarthritis Osteoporosis
Paralytic Ileus Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Personality Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizophrenia
Schizophreniform Disorder Somatization Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder:

Diseases related to Major Depressive Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Major Depressive Disorder

Human phenotypes related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 depression 30 HP:0000716

Clinical features from OMIM®:

608516 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

UMLS symptoms related to Major Depressive Disorder:

mental and behavioral signs and symptoms; dejection emotional; depressed reaction; depression aggravated; affective symptoms; behavioral symptoms; schizophrenic language; depressive symptoms; depressed - symptom

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.73 BDNF CHRM2 CRH FKBP5 HTR1A HTR2A
2 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 BDNF CHRM2 CRH NOTCH3 NR3C1 TPH1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Major Depressive Disorder

PubMed Health treatment related to Major Depressive Disorder: 63

Many people who have depression find it hard to accept that fact. One possible reason for this is that they are ashamed about having a mental health problem and don't want their friends, family and colleagues to find out. Some people don't want to have treatment as a result. But treatment can often shorten depressive episodes and relieve people's symptoms. There are various treatment options for depression . The main treatments are psychological treatment, such as cognitive behavioral therapy , and/or medication. Which type of treatment is the most appropriate, where it should take place and how long it lasts will depend on several factors, including how severe the person’s depression is, their personal circumstances, and how their symptoms develop over time. People can talk to a therapist about the advantages and disadvantages of the possible treatments, as well as what they expect from treatment and any fears they might have.

Drugs for Major Depressive Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 766)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 137862-53-4 60846
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54739-18-3 5324346 3404
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Trimipramine Approved Phase 4 739-71-9 5584
Copper Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-50-8 27099
Norethisterone Approved Phase 4 68-22-4 199472 6230
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
Sildenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139755-83-2, 171599-83-0 5212 135398744
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 45588096
Phenelzine Approved Phase 4 51-71-8 3675
Methohexital Approved Phase 4 151-83-7 9034
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 41100-52-1, 19982-08-2 4054
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Zolpidem Approved Phase 4 82626-48-0 5732
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
Nefazodone Approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 82752-99-6, 83366-66-9 4449
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
Desipramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-47-5 2995
Curcumin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 458-37-7, 84765-67-3 969516
Levoleucovorin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2, 58-05-9, 73951-54-9 149436 6006
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 91374-21-9 5095
Rasagiline Approved Phase 4 136236-51-6 3052776
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
Leuprolide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53714-56-0 657181
Raloxifene Approved, Investigational Phase 4 82640-04-8, 84449-90-1 5035
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Atomoxetine Approved Phase 4 82248-59-7, 83015-26-3 54841
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Bazedoxifene Approved, Investigational Phase 4 198481-32-2 154257
Efavirenz Approved, Investigational Phase 4 154598-52-4 64139
Benzatropine Approved Phase 4 86-13-5 1201549
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
Isocarboxazid Approved Phase 4 59-63-2 3759
Protriptyline Approved Phase 4 438-60-8 4976
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
Alendronic acid Approved Phase 4 121268-17-5, 66376-36-1 2088
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental Phase 4 90566-53-3 4659387 5311101
Doxylamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 562-10-7, 469-21-6 3162
Rilpivirine Approved Phase 4 500287-72-9 6451164
Racivir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143491-57-0, 143491-54-7 60877
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6, 119141-88-7 9568614 4594
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537 59227

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 8006)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in the Pathophysiology and Treatment Response of Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01699490 Phase 4 Fluoxetine + Valsartan;Fluoxetine + Placebo
2 A Six Week, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled, Suvorexant Augmentation Study of Antidepressant Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder With Residual Insomnia Unknown status NCT02669030 Phase 4 suvorexant;Placebo
3 Prospective 24-week Study, Comparing Clinical Outcomes Between Switching Antidepressants and Maintaining the Same Antidepressant in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who do Not Show a 20% Reduction in Symptoms at Week 2 Unknown status NCT00519012 Phase 4 Sertraline to Paroxetine;Paroxetine to Sertraline
4 Vortioxetine Versus Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Social Anxiety Disorder Unknown status NCT02294305 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Placebo
5 Escitalopram and Sleep Architecture in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT00442481 Phase 4 Escitalopram
6 Phase 4 Study of Escitalopram Treatment and Biomarkers in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01997580 Phase 4 escitalopram
7 A Prospective Post Marketing Surveillance Study Study for the Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of the Predictix Antidepressant (PAD) Clinician Software Support Tool in Prescribing Antidepressant Medication/s for the Treatment of Patients Suffering From Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT04138290 Phase 4
8 Agomelatine Added to SSRIs or SNRIs for Early-nonresponsive Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT04589143 Phase 4 Agomelatine;Placebos
9 Personalized Indications for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Antidepressants in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder and Persistent Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02752542 Phase 4 Pharmacotherapy
10 Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Clinical Peculiarities, Biological Markers, and Treatment Efficacy Unknown status NCT03187093 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Escitalopram
11 Prediction of Individual Treatment Response Based on Brain Changes at the Early Phase of Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder Using Machine Learning Classification Analysis Unknown status NCT02330679 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine;Placebo
12 Ketamine Co-induction for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder; a Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03666494 Phase 4 Ketamine Hydrochloride;Propofol;Fentanyl
13 Effect of Escitalopram vs. Reboxetine on Somatic and Visceral Sensitivity of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: a Randomized, Double Blind Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00209807 Phase 4 escitalopram;Reboxetine
14 The Effect and Reliability of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder or Anxiety Disorders Unknown status NCT03122158 Phase 4 Escitalopram
15 Interactions Between The Serotonin Transporter And Sympathetic Nervous System Activation In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder - Understanding The Link Between The Brain And The Heart Unknown status NCT01568307 Phase 4 Participants will be prescribed an approved selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant.
16 A Randomised Trial Investigating the Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. Unknown status NCT01483053 Phase 4 Agomelatine;Escitalopram
17 Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01764867 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Mirtazapine;Fluoxetine;Citalopram;Paroxetine;Sertraline;Fluvoxamine;Venlafaxine;Duloxetine;Bupropion;Trazodone
18 A Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Unknown status NCT01556971 Phase 4 Botox;Saline Solution
19 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients Diagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02213016 Phase 4
20 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01460212 Phase 4 SSRI antidepressants
21 Hyperventilation and ECT Seizure Duration: Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Therapeutic Outcome With Comparisons Between Etomidate and Ketamine in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02924090 Phase 4 Etomidate;Ketamine
22 International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression Unknown status NCT00693849 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Sertraline;Venlafaxine-XR
23 Patient Stratification and Treatment Response Prediction in Neuropharmacotherapy Using Hybrid Positron Emmission Tomography/Magnetic Resconance Imaging (PET/MR) Unknown status NCT02711215 Phase 4 Citalopram;Escitalopram (Mirtazapine/Duloxetine/Venlafaxine);Placebo
24 Ketamine Enhancement of rTMS for Refractory Depression Unknown status NCT04352621 Phase 4 intranasal ketamine
25 A Multicenter, 52-week, Provider- Randomized, Pragmatic Trial to Assess the Differences in ABILIFY MYCITE - a Digital Medicine System (DMS) Versus Treatment as Usual (TAU) for Adults With Schizophrenia, Bipolar I Disorder, or Major Depression Currently Using Aripiprazole Unknown status NCT03881449 Phase 4
26 THE AIUNI - Integral Assessment in Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT02268487 Phase 4 Sertraline
27 Brain Mechanisms and Targeting Insomnia in Major Depression Unknown status NCT00628914 Phase 4 escitalopram and eszopiclone;Escitalopram, eszopiclone, and placebo;Escitalopram
28 A Placebo Controlled Trial of the Dopamine D-2 Receptor Agonist Ropinirole in Treatment of 60 Patients With Refractory Bipolar I and II Depression. Unknown status NCT00335205 Phase 4 ropinirole
29 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Major Depression in Midlife Women: Effects on Brain Structure and Functioning, Mood, and Quality of Life Unknown status NCT00889369 Phase 4 Duloxetine
30 Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants Unknown status NCT01204086 Phase 4 Venlafaxine;Fluoxetine
31 The Effect of Quetiapine XR in Depressive Patients Showing Aberrant N100 Amplitude Slope Unknown status NCT01357967 Phase 4 SSRI monotherapy;Seroquel XR adjunctive
32 Phase 4 Study of Vitamin D3 Supplementation for Outcomes in Patients With Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01390662 Phase 4
33 Intramuscular Ketamine Versus Escitalopram and Aripiprazole in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Patients With Treatment-resistant Depression Unknown status NCT04234776 Phase 4 Ketamine
34 Escitalopram Treatment of Major Depression in Diabetes Mellitus: An Open Label Unknown status NCT00650897 Phase 4 Escitalopram
35 Randomized Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of MYnd Analytics Directed Therapy in Depression Unknown status NCT03328052 Phase 4
36 D-cycloserine for Relapse Prevention Following Intravenous Ketamine in Treatment-resistant Depression Unknown status NCT02772211 Phase 4 Ketamine;D-cycloserine;Placebo
37 Clinical Trial of the Use of Ketamine in Treatment Resistant Depression Unknown status NCT02610712 Phase 4 Ketamine
38 A 12 Week, Open Label, Efficacy and Safety Study of Desvenlafaxine in the Treatment of Vascular Depression Unknown status NCT01974934 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine Succinate
39 Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Bipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01938859 Phase 4 Lithium;Quetiapine;Shuganjieyu capsule
40 A Comparative Trial of TMS Approaches to Treating Depression Unknown status NCT01906905 Phase 4
41 Cymbalta for Depression as a Complication of Bereavement Unknown status NCT00658931 Phase 4 Drug treatment with Cymbalta
42 Randomized,Controlled and Open-label Study of Buspirone add-on Treatment in Patients With Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02273154 Phase 4 Buspirone;Paroxetine
43 Influenza Vaccine as a Novel Experimental Model of the Behavioral Immune Response in Depression Unknown status NCT03756246 Phase 4
44 TMSFOS: Preliminary Study to Investigate the Effect of rTMS and SSRI Antidepressants on Leukocyte Expression of the C-FOS and DUSP1 Genes in Patients Treated for Depression Unknown status NCT02042573 Phase 4 SSRI (SEROPLEX ou ZOLOFT)
45 Accurate Clinical Study of Medication in Patients With Depression Via Pharmacogenomics (PGx) and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Venlafaxine Unknown status NCT04207385 Phase 4 Venlafaxine
46 a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Shu Gan yi Yang Capsule in the Treatment of Depression Associated With Erectile Dysfunction (Stagnation of Liver qi and Kidney Deficiency) Unknown status NCT03290313 Phase 4 shu gan yi yang capsule;shu gan yi yang capsule simulation agent
47 Treatment Prediction in Adolescent and Adult Depression Unknown status NCT00106197 Phase 4 Bupropion
48 Sequence Towards Remission in Depression Unknown status NCT01628783 Phase 4 escitalopram 10 mg;Placebo
49 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Antidepressant Maintenance for Major Depression Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT00162916 Phase 4 citalopram;Placebo
50 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Escitalopram in the Prevention of Depression in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT00140257 Phase 4 Escitalopram

Search NIH Clinical Center for Major Depressive Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Amitriptyline Hydrochloride
Bupropion hydrobromide
Bupropion Hydrochloride
buspirone hydrochloride
Citalopram hydrobromide
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
Desipramine Hydrochloride
Doxepin Hydrochloride
Escitalopram oxalate
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Fluvoxamine Maleate
Imipramine Hydrochloride
Imipramine pamoate
Kava preparation
Lithium Aspartate
Lithium Carbonate
lithium citrate
Maprotiline Hydrochloride
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Nortriptyline Hydrochloride
Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Phenelzine Sulfate
Pramipexole dihydrochloride
Protriptyline Hydrochloride
selegiline hydrochloride
Sertraline Hydrochloride
Tranylcypromine sulfate
Trazodone Hydrochloride
Tricyclic Antidepressant [EPC]
Trimipramine Maleate
Venlafaxine hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: seasonal affective disorder

Genetic Tests for Major Depressive Disorder

Genetic tests related to Major Depressive Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Depression 28
2 Major Depressive Disorder 28 FKBP5 HTR2A TPH2

Anatomical Context for Major Depressive Disorder

Organs/tissues related to Major Depressive Disorder:

MalaCards : Brain, Prefrontal Cortex, Cortex, Heart, Breast, Spinal Cord, Temporal Lobe
ODiseA: Peripheral Nerve, Brain

Publications for Major Depressive Disorder

Articles related to Major Depressive Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 58670)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. 53 62 57 5
15629698 2005
Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. 62 57 5
16642436 2006
Lack of association of TPH2 exon XI polymorphisms with major depression and treatment resistance. 57 5
16027738 2005
Haplotype analysis reveals tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 1 gene variants associated with major depression. 53 62 57
16165107 2006
Sequence variations in CREB1 cosegregate with depressive disorders in women. 53 62 57
12851637 2003
Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 53 62 57
12457397 2002
A negative regulator of MAP kinase causes depressive behavior. 62 57
20953200 2010
Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression: evidence from a genetic isolate. 62 57
20071666 2010
Depression Case Control (DeCC) Study fails to support involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene in recurrent major depressive disorder. 62 57
19181679 2009
Cortical thinning in persons at increased familial risk for major depression. 62 57
19329490 2009
Molecular genetics of bipolar disorder and depression. 62 57
17239033 2007
The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. 62 57
16402130 2006
Influence of serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms on hippocampal volumes in late-life depression. 62 57
15867107 2005
The breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22q11 is associated with bipolar disorder. 62 57
15866548 2005
The power of sample size and homogenous sampling: association between the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and major depressive disorder. 62 57
15691525 2005
Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. 53 57
15229186 2004
Increased risk for recurrent major depression in DYT1 dystonia mutation carriers. 62 57
15326234 2004
Genome-wide linkage survey for genetic loci that influence the development of depressive disorders in families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. 62 57
14582139 2003
A polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter promoter gene is associated with DSM-IV depression subtypes in seasonal affective disorder. 62 57
14593433 2003
The association of the D2S2944 124 bp allele with recurrent early onset major depressive disorder in women. 62 57
12898573 2003
Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. 62 57
12900317 2003
Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. 62 57
12869766 2003
Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. 62 57
12796225 2003
Genetics of recurrent early-onset depression (GenRED): design and preliminary clinical characteristics of a repository sample for genetic linkage studies. 62 57
12707949 2003
Genome survey for susceptibility loci for recurrent, early-onset major depression: results at 10cM resolution. 62 57
11992563 2002
D2S2944 identifies a likely susceptibility locus for recurrent, early-onset, major depression in women. 62 57
12082563 2002
Malignancy of recurrent, early-onset major depression: a family study. 62 57
11803516 2001
Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? 62 57
11352363 2001
Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. 62 57
11007705 2000
Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample: are there different genetic and environmental contributions for men and women? 62 57
10359473 1999
Genetic segregation analysis of early-onset recurrent unipolar depression. 62 57
9399885 1997
Polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene associated with susceptibility to major depression. 62 57
8602004 1996
A hospital-based twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression. 62 57
8629888 1996
Increased concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. A possible trait marker of major depressive disorder. 62 57
7715797 1994
The lifetime history of major depression in women. Reliability of diagnosis and heritability. 62 57
8215812 1993
Onset of major depression in early adulthood. Increased familial loading and specificity. 62 57
6508504 1984
Blue-Light Therapy for Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. 62 41
35522196 2022
Elucidating treatment targets and mediators within a confirmatory efficacy trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy for winter depression. 62 41
35550645 2022
Effect of Hometown Seasonality on Undergraduate Students' Risk of Developing Seasonal Affective Disorder. 62 41
34877542 2021
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 5
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Loss of Nardilysin, a Mitochondrial Co-chaperone for α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase, Promotes mTORC1 Activation and Neurodegeneration. 5
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Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins. 57
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Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. 57
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A loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 segregating with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. 5
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Two different putative genetic animal models of childhood depression. 57
16095569 2006
Familial clustering of major depression and anxiety disorders in Australian and Dutch twins and siblings. 57
16354503 2005
Association study of CREB1 and childhood-onset mood disorders. 57
15999345 2005
Association analysis of monoamine genes with measures of depression and anxiety in a selected community sample of siblings. 57
15729745 2005
The dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair-repeat polymorphism and mood disorders: a meta-analysis. 57
15860340 2005
Polymorphisms in FKBP5 are associated with increased recurrence of depressive episodes and rapid response to antidepressant treatment. 57
15565110 2004

Variations for Major Depressive Disorder

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Major Depressive Disorder:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 OGDHL NM_018245.3(OGDHL):c.2174A>T (p.Asn725Ile) SNV Affects
1292053 GRCh37: 10:50947852-50947852
GRCh38: 10:49739806-49739806
2 NOTCH3 NM_000435.3(NOTCH3):c.634T>C (p.Cys212Arg) SNV Pathogenic
812745 rs1555729455 GRCh37: 19:15302816-15302816
GRCh38: 19:15192005-15192005
3 TPH2 NM_173353.4(TPH2):c.1322G>A (p.Arg441His) SNV Risk Factor
3162 rs120074175 GRCh37: 12:72425324-72425324
GRCh38: 12:72031544-72031544
4 HTR2A NM_000621.5(HTR2A):c.614-2211T>C SNV Drug Response
226025 GRCh37: 13:47411985-47411985
GRCh38: 13:46837850-46837850
5 TWNK NM_021830.5(TWNK):c.1121G>A (p.Arg374Gln) SNV Likely Pathogenic
426106 rs1554887097 GRCh37: 10:102749088-102749088
GRCh38: 10:100989331-100989331
6 NOTCH3 NM_000435.3(NOTCH3):c.1136G>C (p.Cys379Ser) SNV Likely Pathogenic
812744 rs1599391986 GRCh37: 19:15300140-15300140
GRCh38: 19:15189329-15189329
7 MRE11 NM_005591.4(MRE11):c.229G>A (p.Glu77Lys) SNV Uncertain Significance
481777 rs779269083 GRCh37: 11:94219175-94219175
GRCh38: 11:94486009-94486009
8 MRE11 NM_005591.4(MRE11):c.1727G>A (p.Arg576Gln) SNV Uncertain Significance
127974 rs139461096 GRCh37: 11:94180441-94180441
GRCh38: 11:94447275-94447275
9 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.364C>A (p.Leu122Met) SNV Not Provided
88639 rs587778876 GRCh37: 19:45411917-45411917
GRCh38: 19:44908660-44908660
10 APOE NM_000041.4(APOE):c.451C>A (p.Leu151Met) SNV Not Provided
88640 rs587778877 GRCh37: 19:45412004-45412004
GRCh38: 19:44908747-44908747

Copy number variations for Major Depressive Disorder from CNVD:

6 (show all 23)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 30014 1 239103312 239231293 Duplication RGS7 Depressive disorder
2 46482 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication ANXA11 Depressive disorder
3 46483 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication TMEM254 Depressive disorder
4 46484 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication PLAC9 Depressive disorder
5 46485 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication SFTPD Depressive disorder
6 49583 11 108105203 108301884 Duplication DDX10 Depressive disorder
7 96990 15 97399748 97770838 Duplication LRRC28 Depressive disorder
8 96991 15 97399748 97770838 Duplication TTC23 Depressive disorder
9 188464 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication CENPC Depressive disorder
10 188465 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication EPHA5 Depressive disorder
11 188466 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication GNRHR Depressive disorder
12 188467 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication STAP1 Depressive disorder
13 188468 11 117276569 117305325 Duplication TMPRSS13 Depressive disorder
14 188469 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication UBA6 Depressive disorder
15 192627 5 115261015 115369537 Duplication AP3S1 Depressive disorder
16 196524 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication SPDL1 Depressive disorder
17 196525 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication DOCK2 Depressive disorder
18 196526 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication SLIT3 Depressive disorder
19 198486 5 25121416 25298271 Duplication CDH10 Depressive disorder
20 223205 7 17201925 17473214 Duplication AHR Depressive disorder
21 223742 7 24922773 25040936 Duplication OSBPL3 Depressive disorder
22 228816 7 8241584 8363438 Duplication ICA1 Depressive disorder
23 237111 8 21188347 21318056 Duplication GFRA2 Depressive disorder

Expression for Major Depressive Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Major Depressive Disorder.

Pathways for Major Depressive Disorder

Pathways related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
2 12.31 TPH2 TPH1 NOTCH3 HTR1A
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.18 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
10.89 SLC6A4 MAOA
Show member pathways
11 10.4 TPH2 TPH1

GO Terms for Major Depressive Disorder

Cellular components related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.13 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2
2 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 8.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A CHRM2

Biological processes related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.88 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.85 HTR2A HTR1A CHRM2
3 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.56 HTR2A HTR1A
4 aromatic amino acid metabolic process GO:0009072 9.46 TPH2 TPH1
5 behavior GO:0007610 9.32 HTR2A HTR1A
6 serotonin biosynthetic process GO:0042427 9.26 TPH2 TPH1
7 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 9.02 HTR2A HTR1A CHRM2

Molecular functions related to Major Depressive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.73 HTR2A HTR1A CHRM2
2 tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity GO:0004510 9.26 TPH2 TPH1
3 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016714 9.16 TPH2 TPH1
4 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A

Sources for Major Depressive Disorder

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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