CM
MCID: MLR004
MIFTS: 78

Malaria (CM)

Categories: Blood diseases, Genetic diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Malaria

MalaCards integrated aliases for Malaria:

Name: Malaria 57 12 73 20 58 54 42 3 44 15 17 70
Malaria, Cerebral, Susceptibility to 57 29 6
Susceptibility to Malaria 29 6 17
Malaria, Resistance to 57 29 6
Malaria, Cerebral 57 44 70
Cerebral Malaria 12 15 17
Malaria, Severe, Susceptibility to 57 6
Malaria, Severe, Resistance to 57 6
Induced Malaria 12 70
Resistance to Malaria Due to G6pd Deficiency 57
Malaria, Vivax, Protection Against 57
Malaria, Cerebral, Reduced Risk of 57
Malaria Due to G6pd Deficiency 57
Malaria, Protection Against 57
Malaria, Susceptibility to 57
Malarial Encephalitis 12
Malaria Cerebral 54
Malaria, Severe 57
Cm 48

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
malaria
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe),1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12365 DOID:14069
OMIM® 57 611162
ICD9CM 34 084
SNOMED-CT 67 154374002 53622003
ICD10 32 B50.0 B53.1 B54
MESH via Orphanet 45 D008288
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0024530
Orphanet 58 ORPHA673
UMLS 70 C0024530 C0024534 C0153122

Summaries for Malaria

OMIM® : 57 Malaria, a major cause of child mortality worldwide, is caused by mosquito-borne hematoprotozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Of the 4 species that infect humans, P. falciparum causes the most severe forms of malaria and is the major cause of death and disease. Although less fatal, P. malariae, P. ovale, and, in particular, P. vivax infections are major causes of morbidity. The parasite cycle involves a first stage in liver cells and a subsequent stage at erythrocytes, when malaria symptoms occur. A wide spectrum of phenotypes are observed, from asymptomatic infection to mild disease, including fever and mild anemia, to severe disease, including cerebral malaria, profound anemia, and respiratory distress. Genetic factors influence the response to infection, as well as disease progression and severity. Malaria is the strongest known selective pressure in the recent history of the human genome, and it is the evolutionary driving force behind sickle-cell disease (603903), thalassemia (see 141800), glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (300908), and other erythrocyte defects that together constitute the most common mendelian diseases of humans (Kwiatkowski, 2005; Campino et al., 2006). (611162) (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MalaCards based summary : Malaria, also known as malaria, cerebral, susceptibility to, is related to plasmodium falciparum malaria and plasmodium vivax malaria, and has symptoms including fever, angina pectoris and chest pain. An important gene associated with Malaria is HBB (Hemoglobin Subunit Beta), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway and Toxoplasmosis. The drugs Piperaquine and Sulfanilamide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, spleen and endothelial, and related phenotypes are nausea and vomiting and fever

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease characterized as a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium in the red blood cells, transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever that coincide with mass destruction of blood cells and the release of toxic substances by the parasite at the end of each reproductive cycle.

GARD : 20 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. Infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. Treatment depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired.

MedlinePlus : 42 Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the United States. The disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. If you travel to these countries, you are at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. A blood test can diagnose it. It can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with drugs. The type of drug depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected. Malaria can be prevented. When traveling to areas where malaria is found See your doctor for medicines that protect you Wear insect repellent with DEET Cover up Sleep under mosquito netting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC : 3 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented.

Wikipedia : 73 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes... more...

Related Diseases for Malaria

Diseases related to Malaria via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 894)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasmodium falciparum malaria 34.1 TNF NOS2 ICAM1 HBB G6PD FCGR2A
2 plasmodium vivax malaria 33.7 TNF ICAM1 G6PD ACKR1
3 glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 32.9 SLC4A1 HBB G6PD ACKR1
4 deficiency anemia 32.6 TNF SLC4A1 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
5 hemolytic anemia 32.2 TNF SLC4A1 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
6 thalassemia 32.1 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
7 sickle cell anemia 32.1 TNF LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 ICAM1 HBB
8 sickle cell disease 32.1 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
9 hereditary elliptocytosis 32.0 SLC4A1 HBB GYPC GYPB GYPA G6PD
10 leishmaniasis 31.9 TNF NOS2 FCGR2A
11 hemoglobinopathy 31.9 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB GYPA G6PD
12 pulmonary edema 31.9 TNF NOS2 ICAM1
13 alpha-thalassemia 31.9 TNF LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
14 trypanosomiasis 31.7 TNF ICAM1 HBB
15 beta-thalassemia 31.7 SLC4A1 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
16 respiratory failure 31.5 TNF SLC4A1 ICAM1 G6PD
17 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 31.5 TNF ICAM1 HBB GYPA G6PD ACKR1
18 hemoglobin e disease 31.5 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
19 splenic infarction 31.4 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
20 methemoglobinemia 31.4 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB G6PD
21 poliomyelitis 31.4 TNF ICAM1 FCGR2A
22 dengue hemorrhagic fever 31.4 TNF ICAM1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
23 visceral leishmaniasis 31.3 TNF NOS2 ICAM1
24 hereditary spherocytosis 31.3 SLC4A1 HBB GYPC GYPB GYPA G6PD
25 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 31.2 TNF NOS2 ICAM1
26 myocarditis 31.2 TNF NOS2 ICAM1
27 lupus erythematosus 31.2 TNF FCGR2B FCGR2A CR1
28 anoxia 31.2 NOS2 ICAM1
29 hemoglobin c disease 31.2 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB GYPB
30 cutaneous leishmaniasis 31.1 TNF NOS2 G6PD
31 meningitis 30.9 TNF ICAM1 FCGR2A
32 hemoglobin se disease 30.9 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
33 priapism 30.8 SLC4A1 NOS2 HBB
34 peritonitis 30.8 TNF ICAM1 CR1
35 herpes zoster 30.8 TNF GYPC FCGR2A
36 hemoglobin e-beta-thalassemia syndrome 30.7 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
37 beta-thalassemia major 30.5 LOC110006319 LOC107133510 LOC106099062 HBB
38 chronic granulomatous disease 30.5 TNF ICAM1 G6PD FCGR2A
39 hypersensitivity reaction type iii disease 30.5 TNF FCGR2B FCGR2A
40 cystitis 30.4 TNF NOS2 ICAM1
41 carrion's disease 30.3 GYPB GYPA
42 myasthenia gravis 30.3 TNF FCGR2A CR1
43 plasmodium malariae malaria 11.5
44 plasmodium ovale malaria 11.5
45 mixed malaria 11.4
46 blackwater fever 11.4
47 malaria, mild 11.3
48 ovalocytosis, southeast asian 11.2
49 disease by infectious agent 11.2
50 babesiosis 11.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Malaria:



Diseases related to Malaria

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Malaria

Human phenotypes related to Malaria:

58 31 (show all 17)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 nausea and vomiting 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002017
2 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
3 anemia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001903
4 headache 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002315
5 elevated c-reactive protein level 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011227
6 acute kidney injury 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001919
7 morphological central nervous system abnormality 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0002011
8 reduced consciousness/confusion 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004372
9 cognitive impairment 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100543
10 thrombocytopenia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001873
11 myalgia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003326
12 gait imbalance 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002141
13 hyperbilirubinemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002904
14 respiratory distress 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002098
15 retinopathy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000488
16 morphological abnormality of the central nervous system 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
17 abnormality of blood and blood-forming tissues 58 Frequent (79-30%)

Clinical features from OMIM®:

611162 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Malaria:


fever; angina pectoris; chest pain; pruritus; edema; remittent fever

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Malaria:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.36 CD36 CISH FCGR2A FCGR2B G6PD GYPC

Drugs & Therapeutics for Malaria

Drugs for Malaria (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 265)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Piperaquine Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 4085-31-8 5079497
2
Sulfanilamide Approved Phase 4 63-74-1 5333
3
Quinine Approved Phase 4 130-95-0 8549 3034034
4
Mefloquine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53230-10-7 4046
5
Artemether Approved Phase 4 71963-77-4 9796294 119380 68911
6
Lumefantrine Approved Phase 4 82186-77-4 6437380
7
Iron Approved Phase 4 7439-89-6 23925 29936
8
Methylcobalamin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13422-55-4
9
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
10
Copper Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-50-8 27099
11
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Phase 4 13422-51-0 11953898 15589840
12
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
13
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
14
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
15
Ferrous fumarate Approved Phase 4 141-01-5
16
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
17
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
18
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
19
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
20
Selenium Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 7782-49-2
21
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
22
Lopinavir Approved Phase 4 192725-17-0 92727
23
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
24
Permethrin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 52645-53-1 40326
25
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
26
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
27
Efavirenz Approved, Investigational Phase 4 154598-52-4 64139
28
Dolutegravir Approved Phase 4 1051375-16-6 54726191
29
tafenoquine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106635-80-7 115358
30
Proguanil Approved Phase 4 500-92-5 4923
31
Atovaquone Approved Phase 4 95233-18-4 74989
32
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
33
Nevirapine Approved Phase 4 129618-40-2 4463
34
BCG vaccine Approved, Investigational Phase 4
35
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
36
Cyanocobalamin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 68-19-9 44176380
37
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 65-23-6 1054
38
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 5280795 6221
39
Cobalamin Experimental Phase 4 13408-78-1 6857388
40
Cadexomer iodine Experimental Phase 4 94820-09-4
41 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
42
Methaqualone Illicit, Withdrawn Phase 4 72-44-6 6292
43
Pyronaridine Investigational Phase 4 74847-35-1 5485198
44 Red Cinchona Phase 4
45 Artemisinine Phase 4
46 Artemisinins Phase 4
47 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 4
48 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
49 Trace Elements Phase 4
50 Nutrients Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1176)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect of Paracetamol in the Treatment of Non-severe Malaria in Children in Guinea-Bissau Unknown status NCT00137566 Phase 4 acetaminophen (paracetamol)
2 The Impact of Intermittent Preventive Malaria Treatment With Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) on Hemoglobin, Malaria, Schistosomiasis, and School Attention Among Primary Schoolchildren in the Kassena-Nankana Districts, Ghana Unknown status NCT01459146 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination plus albendazole;Artemether-lumefantrine plus Praziquantel plus Albendazole;Albendazole plus Praziquantel
3 An Evaluation of Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine Resistance and Effectiveness of IPTp in Nigeria Unknown status NCT01636895 Phase 4 Efficacy of suphladoxine/pyrimethamine as IPTp;Efficacy of suphladoxine/pyrimethamine as IPTp
4 Impact of Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles Arabiensis on the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector Control in Sudan Unknown status NCT01713517 Phase 4
5 Programmatic Implementation of ACTs in Malawi: Safety and Effectiveness of Combination Therapies With Repeated Treatments for Uncomplicated P. Falciparum Malaria Over a Three-year Period Unknown status NCT01038063 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination
6 Comparing the Effectiveness of 5 Artemisinin Combination Treatment Regimens in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria Unknown status NCT00902811 Phase 4 AM(FDC);AM(LT);AL;DP;AA(FDC)
7 Efficacy of Artesunate Monotherapy and Dihydroartemisinin - Piperaquine in Patients With Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Central Vietnam Unknown status NCT02604966 Phase 4 Artesunate (AS) group;DHA - PPQ group
8 An Open Label Randomized Comparison of Two Antimalarial Drugs Regimens in Patient With Plasmodium Vivax Malaria in Thailand Unknown status NCT01662700 Phase 4 Artesunate;Chloroquine
9 Evaluation of the Public Health Impact and Cost Effectiveness of Seasonal Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Children in Senegal Unknown status NCT00712374 Phase 4 sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine
10 Intermittent Treatment With Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria Control in Children: A Randomised, Double Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00168948 Phase 4 Sulfadoxin (12.5) Pyrimethamine (250 mg)
11 Dihydroartemisinin- Piperaquine Versus Artemether- Lumefantrine in the Treatment Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Sudan Unknown status NCT01075945 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin- piperaquine;artemether- lumefantrine
12 Intravenous Artesunate Versus Quinine in Severe Malaria at Kassla, Sudan Unknown status NCT01805232 Phase 4 artesunate;Quinine
13 THE OPTIMAL TIMING OF PRIMAQUINE TO PREVENT MALARIA TRANSMISSION AFTER ARTEMISININ-COMBINATION THERAPY Unknown status NCT01906788 Phase 4 Artemether Lumefantrine;Artemether Lumefantrine 6 dose regimen & single dose of Primaquine on day 0;Artemether Lumefantrine 6 dose regimen and single dose Primaquine on day 2
14 Confirmation of Artemisinin Tolerance in Malaria Parasites Trial in Kilifi Unknown status NCT01190371 Phase 4 Artesunate
15 A Randomized, Double Blind Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of Amodiaquine-Artesunate and Amodiaquine Alone in the Treatment of Children With Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria Unknown status NCT00238017 Phase 4 amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine
16 Efficacy and Safety of Artemether + Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin + Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Guinea-Bissau. Unknown status NCT01704508 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine;Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine
17 Cluster Randomised Trial to Compare Effectiveness of the Combined Use of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Long-lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) to LLINs Alone for Malaria Prevention in Muleba District, Kagera Region, Tanzania Unknown status NCT01697852 Phase 4
18 Effectiveness of Oral Quinine and Artemether-Lumefantrine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Children Unknown status NCT00540202 Phase 4 artemether-lumefantrine;Oral quinine
19 Assessment of in Vivo and in Vitro Efficacy of Combined Artesunate/Mefloquine Therapy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Infection in the Peruvian Amazon Unknown status NCT02084602 Phase 4 Artesunate;Mefloquine
20 Artemether/ Lumefantrine: A Study of the Effect of Local Food on Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine and Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine Among Ugandan Children Unknown status NCT01944189 Phase 4
21 Safety, Tolerability and Pilot Efficacy of Short Course, High Dose Primaquine Treatment for Liver Stages of Plasmodium Vivax Infection Unknown status NCT02364583 Phase 4 Primaquine
22 Evaluating the Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium Vivax Infections in Central Vietnam Unknown status NCT02610686 Phase 4 Chloroquine
23 A Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Efficacy Study of Azithromycin Plus Piperaquine as Presumptive Treatment in Pregnant Papua New Guinean Women Unknown status NCT02575755 Phase 4 Azithromycin plus piperaquine phosphate;Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
24 A Pilot Study of the Use of Homeopathic-Based Treatment Approaches to Reduce the Prevalence of Malaria in Depressed Communities Completed NCT00351013 Phase 4
25 A Cluster Randomized, Single-centre, Controlled, Parallel,12-month Prospective Study and Additional 12-month Follow-up in Africa of Malaria Incidence in a Community Setting Following Systematic Treatment of P. Falciparum Asymptomatic Carriers With Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem® / Coartem® Dispersible) Completed NCT01256658 Phase 4 COA566
26 Chloroquine and Amodiaquine for Treatment of Symptomatic Children With Plasmodium Malaria in Guinea-Bissau Completed NCT00137514 Phase 4 chloroquine;amodiaquine
27 Chloroquine and Coartem for Treatment of Symptomatic Children With Plasmodium Falciparum in Guinea Bissau. Completed NCT00426439 Phase 4 Chloroquine;Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem)
28 Comparison of Two Strategies for the Delivery of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Children (IPTc) in an Area of Seasonal Malaria Transmission Completed NCT00376155 Phase 4 sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine
29 Assessing and Monitoring the Efficacy of Sulfadoxine/ Pyrimethamine (SP) and the Combination of SP Plus Artesunate for Uncomplicated Malaria Infections Among Children Completed NCT00140361 Phase 4 Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine;sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate;lumefantrine plus artemether
30 An Evaluation of the Impact of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis for HIV-Infected Adults on the Development of Antifolate Resistance Among Plasmodium Falciparum, Streptococcus Pneumoniae, and Escherichia Coli Completed NCT00137657 Phase 4 Cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole)
31 The Efficacy of Re-treatment With Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Children With Recrudescent Malaria in Guinea-Bissau Completed NCT00137553 Phase 4 Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar)
32 Efficacy of Amodiaquine-artesunate in the Treatment of Symptomatic, Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Among 6-59 Month Old Children at an IPTi Site in Rural Western Kenya Completed NCT00425763 Phase 4 AQAS
33 Efficacy of Intermittent Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine + Artesunate Treatment in the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in an Area With Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Completed NCT00164255 Phase 4 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine;sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine plus artesunate
34 Pharmacokinetic Study of Multi-dose Chloroquine Completed NCT01814423 Phase 4 Chloroquine-base 50 mg;Chloroquine-base 70 mg
35 Efficacy of Artesunate-amodiaquine, Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and Artemether-lumefantrine Combination Therapies for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Maradi, Niger 2012-13 Completed NCT01755559 Phase 4 Artesunate-amodiaquine;Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine;Artemether-lumefantrine
36 A Randomised, Open-label Non-inferiority Trial of Artemether-lumefantrine Versus Quinine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria During Pregnancy, Mbarara, Uganda (2006-2007) Completed NCT00495508 Phase 4 Quinine;artemether / lumefantrine
37 Estimating the Risk of Plasmodium Vivax Relapses in Afghanistan Completed NCT01178021 Phase 4 Chloroquine;Chloroquine/Primaquine
38 Clinical Efficacy of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in North Sumatera, Indonesia and the Association of Molecular Markers With Treatment Outcomes Completed NCT02325180 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine;Artemether-lumefantrine
39 Effectiveness of Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine With or Without Primaquine on Gametocytes Plasmodium Falciparum in Mesoendemic Area of Indonesia Completed NCT01392014 Phase 4 dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine;dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine + primaquine
40 Evaluation of Impact Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine Plus Primaquine on Malaria Transmission in Lempasing Village, Lampung Province, Southern Sumatra Completed NCT01389557 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with primaquine
41 Evaluating the Impact of Enhanced Health Facility-based Care for Malaria and Febrile Illnesses in Children in Tororo, Uganda Completed NCT01024426 Phase 4
42 Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between the Antimalarial Combination Artemether/Lumefantrine and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Including Nevirapine in HIV-infected Adults Completed NCT00790881 Phase 4 Artemether/Lumefantrine;Artemether/ lumefantrine
43 Targeting Malaria High-risk Populations With Tailored Intervention Packages: A Study to Assess Feasibility and Effectiveness in Northern Namibia Completed NCT04094727 Phase 4 Presumptive treatment with Artemether-lumefantrine (AL)
44 Parenteral Artesunate Compared to Quinine as a Cause of Late Post-treatment Anaemia in African Children With Hyperparasitaemic P. Falciparum Malaria Completed NCT02092766 Phase 4 artesunate;quinine
45 An Examination of ACT Strategy in South-central Asia on Falciparum Malaria in a Context Where Vivax is the Major Species Completed NCT00935688 Phase 4
46 Effects of Restricting the Use of AS-AQ Combination Therapy to Malaria Cases Confirmed by a Dipstick Test: A Cluster Randomised Control Trial Completed NCT00832754 Phase 4
47 Assessing Chloroquine Resistance of Plasmodium Vivax in Malaria Endemic Area Completed NCT02118090 Phase 4 Chloroquine sulfate;DHA-PP
48 Community-led Responses for Elimination (CoRE): A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Reactive Case Detection Versus Reactive Drug Administration in Malaria Elimination Areas in Southern Province Zambia Completed NCT02654912 Phase 4 Reactive Focal Drug Administration
49 Ethiopia Antimalarial in Vivo Efficacy Study 2012: Evaluating the Efficacy of Artemether-lumefantrine Alone Compared to Artemether-lumefantrine Plus Primaquine and Chloroquine Alone Compared to Chloroquine Plus Primaquine for Plasmodium Vivax Infection Completed NCT01680406 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination;Primaquine;Chloroquine
50 Artemether-Lumefantrine Clinical Effectiveness Study Completed NCT01599000 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination

Search NIH Clinical Center for Malaria

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Antimalarial [EPC]
artemether
Atovaquone
Chloroquine
Chloroquine hydrochloride
chloroquine phosphate
Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitor Antimalarial [EPC]
halofantrine
Halofantrine hydrochloride
Hydroxychloroquine
Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate
lumefantrine
Mefloquine
Mefloquine Hydrochloride
Pentoxifylline
Primaquine
Primaquine Phosphate
Proguanil
Pyrimethamine
Quinine
QUININE SO4 PWDR
Quinine Sulfate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: malaria

Genetic Tests for Malaria

Genetic tests related to Malaria:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Susceptibility to Malaria 29 ACKR1 CD36 CISH CR1 FCGR2A FCGR2B G6PD GYPA GYPB GYPC HBB ICAM1 NOS2 SLC4A1 TIRAP TNF
2 Malaria, Resistance to 29
3 Malaria, Cerebral, Susceptibility to 29

Anatomical Context for Malaria

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Malaria:

40
T Cells, Spleen, Endothelial, Kidney, Whole Blood, B Cells, Skin

Publications for Malaria

Articles related to Malaria:

(show top 50) (show all 30722)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
How malaria has affected the human genome and what human genetics can teach us about malaria. 61 54 57 6
16001361 2005
2
A human complement receptor 1 polymorphism that reduces Plasmodium falciparum rosetting confers protection against severe malaria. 61 54 57 6
14694201 2004
3
A defunctioning polymorphism in FCGR2B is associated with protection against malaria but susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. 6 61 57
20385827 2010
4
A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. 6 57 61
17322885 2007
5
Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated defects in the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb reduce susceptibility to malaria. 61 57 6
17435165 2007
6
Abnormal display of PfEMP-1 on erythrocytes carrying haemoglobin C may protect against malaria. 57 6 61
15973412 2005
7
Hemoglobin C is associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia and low risk of mild malaria attack. 61 6 57
14613965 2004
8
A new NOS2 promoter polymorphism associated with increased nitric oxide production and protection from severe malaria in Tanzanian and Kenyan children. 54 6 57
12433515 2002
9
The association of the glycophorin C exon 3 deletion with ovalocytosis and malaria susceptibility in the Wosera, Papua New Guinea. 61 6 57
11719395 2001
10
A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. 6 57 54
10369255 1999
11
Absence of an association between intercellular adhesion molecule 1, complement receptor 1 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms and severe malaria in a West African population. 54 6 57
9861406 1998
12
A high frequency African coding polymorphism in the N-terminal domain of ICAM-1 predisposing to cerebral malaria in Kenya. 54 6 57
9259284 1997
13
Sickle hemoglobin confers tolerance to Plasmodium infection. 57 6
21529713 2011
14
Complement receptor 1 is the host erythrocyte receptor for Plasmodium falciparum PfRh4 invasion ligand. 57 6
20855594 2010
15
FCGR2A functional genetic variant associated with susceptibility to severe malarial anaemia in Ghanaian children. 57 6
19965803 2010
16
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion through glycophorin C and selection for Gerbich negativity in human populations. 6 57
12469115 2003
17
Malaria susceptibility and CD36 mutation. 57 6
10890433 2000
18
Polymorphism in promoter region of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protection against malaria. 57 6
9457101 1998
19
A 3.5 kb deletion in the glycophorin C gene accounts for the Gerbich-negative blood group in Melanesians. 6 57
8157284 1994
20
The Gerbich blood group system, especially in Melanesians. 57 6
5011657 1972
21
A functional promoter variant in IL12B predisposes to cerebral malaria. 54 57 61
18413324 2008
22
Significant association between TIM1 promoter polymorphisms and protection against cerebral malaria in Thailand. 57 54 61
18294362 2008
23
The beta -globin recombinational hotspot reduces the effects of strong selection around HbC, a recently arisen mutation providing resistance to malaria. 6 54 61
16175509 2005
24
Early phagocytosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum may explain malaria protection in G6PD deficiency. 57 54 61
9746794 1998
25
Structural basis for RIFIN-mediated activation of LILRB1 in malaria. 57 61
32650338 2020
26
Erythrocytic ferroportin reduces intracellular iron accumulation, hemolysis, and malaria risk. 61 57
29599243 2018
27
Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for successful host infection. 57 61
26612952 2015
28
A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection. 57 61
26416757 2015
29
Malaria. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion. 57 61
25954012 2015
30
Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multicenter study. 61 57
25261933 2014
31
Patterns of nucleotide and haplotype diversity at ICAM-1 across global human populations with varying levels of malaria exposure. 6 61
23609612 2013
32
Severe malaria is associated with parasite binding to endothelial protein C receptor. 57 61
23739325 2013
33
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants are associated with reduced susceptibility to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. 6 61
23479361 2013
34
Cytoadherence in paediatric malaria: ABO blood group, CD36, and ICAM1 expression and severe Plasmodium falciparum infection. 57 61
22909232 2012
35
Genome-wide association study indicates two novel resistance loci for severe malaria. 61 57
22895189 2012
36
Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population. 6 61
19841268 2009
37
A variant in the gene FUT9 is associated with susceptibility to placental malaria infection. 57 61
19460885 2009
38
Association of the GNAS locus with severe malaria. 61 57
18951142 2008
39
Haemoglobin S and haemoglobin C: 'quick but costly' versus 'slow but gratis' genetic adaptations to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. 6 61
18048408 2008
40
Blood group O protects against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria through the mechanism of reduced rosetting. 57 61
17959777 2007
41
Combining evidence of natural selection with association analysis increases power to detect malaria-resistance variants. 57 61
17668374 2007
42
Genome-wide linkage analysis of malaria infection intensity and mild disease. 54 57
17381244 2007
43
CD36 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria. 57 54
12506336 2003
44
Susceptibility to malaria as a complex trait: big pressure from a tiny creature. 61 57
12351583 2002
45
Hemoglobin E: a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P falciparum malaria. 6 61
12149194 2002
46
Hemoglobin C associated with protection from severe malaria in the Dogon of Mali, a West African population with a low prevalence of hemoglobin S. 6 61
11001883 2000
47
The immunogenetics of resistance to malaria. 6 61
10417733 1999
48
Natural selection of hemi- and heterozygotes for G6PD deficiency in Africa by resistance to severe malaria. 57 54
7617034 1995
49
Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. 54 57
7935762 1994
50
Common west African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria. 57 54
1865923 1991

Variations for Malaria

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Malaria:

6 (show all 41)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 FCGR2B NM_004001.4(FCGR2B):c.695T>C (p.Ile232Thr) SNV protective 5467 rs1050501 GRCh37: 1:161643798-161643798
GRCh38: 1:161674008-161674008
2 CR1 CR1, 3650A-G SNV protective 17066 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
3 NOS2 NOS2A, -969G-C SNV protective 14014 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
4 NOS2 , LOC111365141 NG_011470.1:g.3828C>T SNV protective 14013 GRCh37: 17:26128728-26128728
GRCh38: 17:27801702-27801702
5 TIRAP NM_148910.2(TIRAP):c.539C>T (p.Ser180Leu) SNV protective 4467 rs8177374 GRCh37: 11:126162843-126162843
GRCh38: 11:126292948-126292948
6 CISH , MAPKAPK3 NM_001243926.1(MAPKAPK3):c.-436A>T SNV Affects 7091 rs414171 GRCh37: 3:50649499-50649499
GRCh38: 3:50612068-50612068
7 GYPC NM_002101.4(GYPC):c.107_190del (p.Glu36_Ala63del) Deletion protective 17725 GRCh37: 2:127451437-127451520
GRCh38: 2:126693861-126693944
8 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.4(HBB):c.19G>A (p.Glu7Lys) SNV protective 15126 rs33930165 GRCh37: 11:5248233-5248233
GRCh38: 11:5227003-5227003
9 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.79G>A (p.Glu27Lys) SNV protective 15161 rs33950507 GRCh37: 11:5248173-5248173
GRCh38: 11:5226943-5226943
10 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.20A>T (p.Glu7Val) SNV protective 15333 rs334 GRCh37: 11:5248232-5248232
GRCh38: 11:5227002-5227002
11 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.653C>T (p.Ser218Phe) SNV Pathogenic 100057 rs5030868 GRCh37: X:153762634-153762634
GRCh38: X:154534419-154534419
12 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.466A>G (p.Asn156Asp) SNV Pathogenic 100055 rs1050829 GRCh37: X:153763492-153763492
GRCh38: X:154535277-154535277
13 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.20A>T (p.Glu7Val) SNV Pathogenic 15333 rs334 GRCh37: 11:5248232-5248232
GRCh38: 11:5227002-5227002
14 SLC4A1 NM_000342.4(SLC4A1):c.1765C>T (p.Arg589Cys) SNV Pathogenic 17764 rs121912745 GRCh37: 17:42333076-42333076
GRCh38: 17:44255708-44255708
15 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.1478G>A (p.Arg493His) SNV Pathogenic 100059 rs72554664 GRCh37: X:153760472-153760472
GRCh38: X:154532257-154532257
16 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.1093G>A (p.Ala365Thr) SNV Pathogenic 10363 rs5030869 GRCh37: X:153761205-153761205
GRCh38: X:154532990-154532990
17 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.961G>A (p.Val321Met) SNV Pathogenic 10386 rs137852327 GRCh37: X:153761337-153761337
GRCh38: X:154533122-154533122
18 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.934G>C (p.Asp312His) SNV Pathogenic 10372 rs137852318 GRCh37: X:153761811-153761811
GRCh38: X:154533596-154533596
19 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.577G>A (p.Gly193Ser) SNV Pathogenic 10367 rs137852314 GRCh37: X:153762710-153762710
GRCh38: X:154534495-154534495
20 LOC110006319 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.316-106C>G SNV Pathogenic 15457 rs34690599 GRCh37: 11:5247062-5247062
GRCh38: 11:5225832-5225832
21 LOC106099062 , LOC110006319 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.315+1G>A SNV Pathogenic 15438 rs33945777 GRCh37: 11:5247806-5247806
GRCh38: 11:5226576-5226576
22 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.118C>T (p.Gln40Ter) SNV Pathogenic 15402 rs11549407 GRCh37: 11:5248004-5248004
GRCh38: 11:5226774-5226774
23 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.93-21G>A SNV Pathogenic 15454 rs35004220 GRCh37: 11:5248050-5248050
GRCh38: 11:5226820-5226820
24 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+6T>C SNV Pathogenic 15450 rs35724775 GRCh37: 11:5248154-5248154
GRCh38: 11:5226924-5226924
25 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+5G>C SNV Pathogenic 15447 rs33915217 GRCh37: 11:5248155-5248155
GRCh38: 11:5226925-5226925
26 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+1G>A SNV Pathogenic 15436 rs33971440 GRCh37: 11:5248159-5248159
GRCh38: 11:5226929-5226929
27 LOC106099062 , HBB , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.52A>T (p.Lys18Ter) SNV Pathogenic 15401 rs33986703 GRCh37: 11:5248200-5248200
GRCh38: 11:5226970-5226970
28 HBB , LOC106099062 , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-79A>G SNV Pathogenic 15469 rs34598529 GRCh37: 11:5248330-5248330
GRCh38: 11:5227100-5227100
29 HBB , LOC106099062 , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-137C>A SNV Pathogenic 36285 rs33941377 GRCh37: 11:5248388-5248388
GRCh38: 11:5227158-5227158
30 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.1254+1G>A SNV Likely pathogenic 417926 rs148051111 GRCh37: 7:80302726-80302726
GRCh38: 7:80673410-80673410
31 HBB , LOC106099062 , LOC107133510 NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-138C>A SNV Likely pathogenic 393701 rs33944208 GRCh37: 11:5248389-5248389
GRCh38: 11:5227159-5227159
32 FCGR2A NM_001136219.3(FCGR2A):c.500A>G (p.His167Arg) SNV risk factor 14823 rs1801274 GRCh37: 1:161479745-161479745
GRCh38: 1:161509955-161509955
33 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.975T>G (p.Tyr325Ter) SNV risk factor 13536 rs3211938 GRCh37: 7:80300449-80300449
GRCh38: 7:80671133-80671133
34 TNF TNF, -376G-A SNV risk factor 12387 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
35 ICAM1 NM_000201.3(ICAM1):c.167A>T (p.Lys56Met) SNV risk factor 14661 rs5491 GRCh37: 19:10385540-10385540
GRCh38: 19:10274864-10274864
36 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.784dup (p.Gln262fs) Duplication Likely pathogenic 587500 rs766920034 GRCh37: 7:80299302-80299303
GRCh38: 7:80669986-80669987
37 TNF TNF, -308G-A SNV risk factor 12388 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
38 CD36 CD36, G1439C, 1-BP DEL, 1444A Deletion risk factor 13537 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
39 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.429+2T>C SNV Likely pathogenic 417962 rs3211893 GRCh37: 7:80290528-80290528
GRCh38: 7:80661212-80661212
40 ICAM1 NM_000201.3(ICAM1):c.1432C>T (p.Arg478Trp) SNV Uncertain significance 828004 rs5030400 GRCh37: 19:10395796-10395796
GRCh38: 19:10285120-10285120
41 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.701_701+3dup Duplication Likely benign 417963 rs1554343345 GRCh37: 7:80293811-80293812
GRCh38: 7:80664495-80664496

Copy number variations for Malaria from CNVD:

7 (show all 17)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 16026 1 12212699 12494685 Indels VPS13D Malaria
2 31007 1 247110827 247119907 Amplification ZNF692 Malaria
3 34945 1 5845456 5975118 Indels NPHP4 Malaria
4 41121 4 135333667 135338574 Indels DUX4 Malaria
5 61463 12 1 132349534 Indels Malaria
6 64882 12 132073128 132099226 Indels ZNF26 Malaria
7 82377 14 105461656 105464413 Indels FAM30A Malaria
8 143470 2 237000000 242951149 Indels Malaria
9 166350 3 10158318 10168746 Indels VHL Malaria
10 177623 3 59710075 61212173 Indels FHIT Malaria
11 191457 5 1 180857866 Indels Malaria
12 192407 5 112071116 112209835 Indels APC Malaria
13 203647 6 1 170899992 Indels Malaria
14 217046 7 1 158821424 Indels Malaria
15 227212 7 65675806 65694798 Indels Malaria
16 230732 8 1 146274826 Indels Malaria
17 243826 8 8897723 8928259 Indels ERI1 Malaria

Expression for Malaria

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Malaria patients vs. healthy controls: 35
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 Blood + 3.31 0.000
2 C1QB complement C1q B chain Blood + 3.10 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Malaria.

Pathways for Malaria

GO Terms for Malaria

Cellular components related to Malaria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10 TNF TIRAP SLC4A1 NOS2 ICAM1 GYPC
2 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.32 TNF SLC4A1 ICAM1 GYPC GYPB GYPA
3 cortical cytoskeleton GO:0030863 9.13 SLC4A1 NOS2 GYPC

Biological processes related to Malaria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface receptor signaling pathway GO:0007166 9.88 TIRAP FCGR2B FCGR2A CD36
2 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.88 TNF NOS2 ICAM1 CD36
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.8 TNF TIRAP NOS2 FCGR2B ACKR1
4 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.76 TNF TIRAP ICAM1 CD36
5 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.74 TNF TIRAP CD36
6 viral entry into host cell GO:0046718 9.72 ICAM1 GYPA CR1
7 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.71 TNF TIRAP CD36
8 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 9.7 TNF TIRAP FCGR2B
9 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.67 TNF NOS2 ICAM1 CD36
10 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.62 TNF TIRAP ICAM1 CD36
11 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 9.59 NOS2 CD36
12 positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell GO:1904996 9.56 TNF ICAM1
13 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production GO:2000343 9.51 TNF TIRAP
14 cellular response to lipoteichoic acid GO:0071223 9.49 TIRAP CD36
15 negative regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002638 9.48 FCGR2B CR1
16 cellular response to bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071221 9.43 TIRAP CD36
17 cellular response to amyloid-beta GO:1904646 9.43 ICAM1 FCGR2B CD36
18 leukocyte migration GO:0050900 9.35 TNF ICAM1 GYPC GYPB GYPA
19 positive regulation of blood microparticle formation GO:2000334 9.16 TNF CD36
20 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 8.92 TNF ICAM1 HBB CD36

Molecular functions related to Malaria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 9.56 ICAM1 FCGR2B FCGR2A ACKR1
2 IgG binding GO:0019864 9.16 FCGR2B FCGR2A
3 virus receptor activity GO:0001618 9.13 ICAM1 GYPA CR1
4 hemoglobin binding GO:0030492 8.62 SLC4A1 HBB

Sources for Malaria

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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