CM
MCID: MLR004
MIFTS: 81

Malaria (CM)

Categories: Blood diseases, Genetic diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Malaria

MalaCards integrated aliases for Malaria:

Name: Malaria 56 12 74 52 58 54 42 3 43 15 17 71
Malaria, Cerebral, Susceptibility to 56 29 6
Susceptibility to Malaria 29 6 17
Malaria, Resistance to 56 29 6
Malaria, Cerebral 56 43 71
Cerebral Malaria 12 15 17
Malaria, Severe, Susceptibility to 56 6
Malaria, Severe, Resistance to 56 6
Induced Malaria 12 71
Resistance to Malaria Due to G6pd Deficiency 56
Malaria, Vivax, Protection Against 56
Malaria, Cerebral, Reduced Risk of 56
Malaria Due to G6pd Deficiency 56
Malaria, Protection Against 56
Malaria, Susceptibility to 56
Malarial Encephalitis 12
Malaria Cerebral 54
Malaria, Severe 56
Cm 47

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
malaria
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe),1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12365 DOID:14069
OMIM 56 611162
ICD9CM 34 084
SNOMED-CT 67 53622003 61462000
ICD10 32 B50.0 B53.1 B54
MESH via Orphanet 44 D008288
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0024530
Orphanet 58 ORPHA673
UMLS 71 C0024530 C0024534 C0153122

Summaries for Malaria

OMIM : 56 Malaria, a major cause of child mortality worldwide, is caused by mosquito-borne hematoprotozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Of the 4 species that infect humans, P. falciparum causes the most severe forms of malaria and is the major cause of death and disease. Although less fatal, P. malariae, P. ovale, and, in particular, P. vivax infections are major causes of morbidity. The parasite cycle involves a first stage in liver cells and a subsequent stage at erythrocytes, when malaria symptoms occur. A wide spectrum of phenotypes are observed, from asymptomatic infection to mild disease, including fever and mild anemia, to severe disease, including cerebral malaria, profound anemia, and respiratory distress. Genetic factors influence the response to infection, as well as disease progression and severity. Malaria is the strongest known selective pressure in the recent history of the human genome, and it is the evolutionary driving force behind sickle-cell disease (603903), thalassemia (see 141800), glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (300908), and other erythrocyte defects that together constitute the most common mendelian diseases of humans (Kwiatkowski, 2005; Campino et al., 2006). (611162)

MalaCards based summary : Malaria, also known as malaria, cerebral, susceptibility to, is related to plasmodium falciparum malaria and plasmodium vivax malaria, and has symptoms including fever, edema and pruritus. An important gene associated with Malaria is G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Rifampicin and Sulfanilamide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, liver and t cells, and related phenotypes are fever and anemia

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease characterized as a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium in the red blood cells, transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever that coincide with mass destruction of blood cells and the release of toxic substances by the parasite at the end of each reproductive cycle.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. Infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. Treatment depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired.

MedlinePlus : 42 Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the United States. The disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. If you travel to these countries, you are at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. A blood test can diagnose it. It can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with drugs. The type of drug depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected. Malaria can be prevented. When traveling to areas where malaria is found See your doctor for medicines that protect you Wear insect repellent with DEET Cover up Sleep under mosquito netting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC : 3 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented.

Wikipedia : 74 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes... more...

Related Diseases for Malaria

Diseases related to Malaria via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1464)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasmodium falciparum malaria 36.8 TNF SLC4A1 NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1
2 plasmodium vivax malaria 36.2 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 G6PD ACKR1
3 blackwater fever 34.2 HP G6PD
4 glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 34.2 HP HBB G6PD ACKR1
5 thrombocytopenia 33.2 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 HP FCGR2B
6 hemolytic anemia 32.9 TNF SLC4A1 IL10 IFNG HP HBB
7 filariasis 32.8 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG CISH
8 leishmaniasis 32.8 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG G6PD FCGR2A
9 trypanosomiasis 32.7 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1 HP
10 pulmonary edema 32.7 TNF NOS2 IL10 ICAM1 HP
11 thalassemia 32.6 SLC4A1 HP HBB G6PD
12 deficiency anemia 32.6 TNF HP HBB G6PD
13 anemia, x-linked, with or without neutropenia and/or platelet abnormalities 32.6 HP HBB G6PD
14 schistosomiasis 32.5 TNF IL10 IFNG
15 sickle cell anemia 32.5 TNF ICAM1 HBB G6PD ACKR1
16 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 32.4 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 HP HBB
17 bacterial infectious disease 32.4 TNF IL10 IFNG FCGR2A
18 autoimmune disease 32.3 TNF IL10 IFNG FCGR2B FCGR2A
19 chagas disease 32.3 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG
20 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 32.3 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1
21 meningitis 32.3 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 FCGR2A
22 alpha-thalassemia 32.3 TNF HP HBB G6PD
23 myocarditis 32.2 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1
24 toxoplasmosis 32.2 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG
25 leptospirosis 32.2 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1
26 hereditary elliptocytosis 32.2 SLC4A1 HBB GYPC GYPB GYPA G6PD
27 poliomyelitis 32.2 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 FCGR2A
28 hepatitis a 32.2 TNF IL10 IFNG GYPA
29 visceral leishmaniasis 32.1 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG
30 exanthem 32.1 TNF IL10 IFNG
31 viral hepatitis 32.1 TNF IL10 IFNG G6PD
32 bacterial meningitis 32.1 TNF IL10 IFNG CR1
33 pneumonia 32.1 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1 CR1
34 allergic hypersensitivity disease 32.1 TNF IL10 IFNG ICAM1
35 hemoglobinopathy 32.1 HP HBB G6PD
36 sleeping sickness 32.1 NOS2 IL10 HP
37 diabetes mellitus 32.0 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1 HP
38 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 32.0 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1
39 dengue hemorrhagic fever 32.0 TNF IL10 IFNG FCGR2B FCGR2A
40 toxic shock syndrome 32.0 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG
41 hereditary spherocytosis 32.0 SLC4A1 HP HBB GYPC GYPB GYPA
42 mycobacterium tuberculosis 1 32.0 TNF IL10 IFNG CISH
43 purpura 32.0 TNF IL10 IFNG
44 rheumatoid arthritis 32.0 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1 HP
45 trachoma 31.9 TNF IL10 HP HBB
46 lupus erythematosus 31.9 TNF IL10 IFNG FCGR2B FCGR2A CR1
47 bacterial sepsis 31.9 TNF NOS2 IL10
48 pulmonary tuberculosis 31.9 TNF IL10 IFNG HP
49 hemoglobinuria 31.9 HP G6PD CR1
50 cutaneous leishmaniasis 31.9 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG G6PD

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Malaria:



Diseases related to Malaria

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Malaria

Human phenotypes related to Malaria:

58 31 (show all 17)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
2 anemia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001903
3 nausea and vomiting 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002017
4 headache 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002315
5 elevated c-reactive protein level 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011227
6 acute kidney injury 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001919
7 morphological central nervous system abnormality 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0002011
8 reduced consciousness/confusion 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004372
9 cognitive impairment 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100543
10 myalgia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003326
11 thrombocytopenia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001873
12 gait imbalance 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002141
13 hyperbilirubinemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002904
14 respiratory distress 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002098
15 retinopathy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000488
16 morphological abnormality of the central nervous system 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
17 abnormality of blood and blood-forming tissues 58 Frequent (79-30%)

Clinical features from OMIM:

611162

UMLS symptoms related to Malaria:


fever, edema, pruritus, chest pain, angina pectoris, remittent fever

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Malaria:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10 CD36 FCGR2B G6PD HP ICAM1 IFNG
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10 CD36 CISH FCGR2A FCGR2B G6PD GYPC
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.8 ACKR1 CD36 CISH FCGR2B G6PD GYPC
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.44 ACKR1 CD36 CISH FCGR2A FCGR2B HP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Malaria

Drugs for Malaria (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 358)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rifampicin Approved Phase 4 13292-46-1 5381226 5458213
2
Sulfanilamide Approved Phase 4 63-74-1 5333
3
Mefloquine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53230-10-7 4046
4
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
5
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
6
Diethylcarbamazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 90-89-1 3052
7
Proguanil Approved Phase 4 500-92-5 4923
8
Atovaquone Approved Phase 4 95233-18-4 74989
9
Efavirenz Approved, Investigational Phase 4 154598-52-4 64139
10
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
11
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
12
Permethrin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 52645-53-1 40326
13
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
14
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
15
Interferon beta-1a Approved, Investigational Phase 4 145258-61-3 6438354
16
Artemether Approved Phase 4 71963-77-4 68911 9796294 119380
17
Dolutegravir Approved Phase 4 1051375-16-6 54726191
18
Lumefantrine Approved Phase 4 82186-77-4 6437380
19
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
20
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
21
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
22
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 134678-17-4 60825
23
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 4 118-42-3 3652
24
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143491-57-0 60877
25
Darunavir Approved Phase 4 206361-99-1, 635728-49-3 213039
26
Nevirapine Approved Phase 4 129618-40-2 4463
27
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-88-6, 585-86-4 493591
28
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 5280795 6221
29
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 56-40-6 750
30
Piperaquine Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 4085-31-8 5079497
31
Dihydroartemisinin Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 71939-50-9 6918483
32
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 147127-20-6 464205
33
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 4
34 Antitubercular Agents Phase 4
35 Hematinics Phase 4
36 Maloprim Phase 4
37 Immunoglobulin A Phase 4
38 Atovaquone, proguanil drug combination Phase 4
39 Anticoagulants Phase 4
40 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
41 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
42 interferons Phase 4
43 Interferon-beta Phase 4
44 Integrase Inhibitors Phase 4
45 HIV Integrase Inhibitors Phase 4
46 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
47
protease inhibitors Phase 4
48 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
49 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1439)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Intravenous Artesunate Versus Quinine in Severe Malaria at Kassla, Sudan Unknown status NCT01805232 Phase 4 artesunate;Quinine
2 Dihydroartemisinin- Piperaquine Versus Artemether- Lumefantrine in the Treatment Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Sudan Unknown status NCT01075945 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin- piperaquine;artemether- lumefantrine
3 Intermittent Treatment With Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria Control in Children: A Randomised, Double Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00168948 Phase 4 Sulfadoxin (12.5) Pyrimethamine (250 mg)
4 Programmatic Implementation of ACTs in Malawi: Safety and Effectiveness of Combination Therapies With Repeated Treatments for Uncomplicated P. Falciparum Malaria Over a Three-year Period Unknown status NCT01038063 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination
5 A Randomized, Double Blind Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of Amodiaquine-Artesunate and Amodiaquine Alone in the Treatment of Children With Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria Unknown status NCT00238017 Phase 4 amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine
6 Impact of Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles Arabiensis on the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector Control in Sudan Unknown status NCT01713517 Phase 4
7 THE OPTIMAL TIMING OF PRIMAQUINE TO PREVENT MALARIA TRANSMISSION AFTER ARTEMISININ-COMBINATION THERAPY Unknown status NCT01906788 Phase 4 Artemether Lumefantrine;Artemether Lumefantrine 6 dose regimen & single dose of Primaquine on day 0;Artemether Lumefantrine 6 dose regimen and single dose Primaquine on day 2
8 Confirmation of Artemisinin Tolerance in Malaria Parasites Trial in Kilifi Unknown status NCT01190371 Phase 4 Artesunate
9 Evaluation of the Public Health Impact and Cost Effectiveness of Seasonal Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Children in Senegal Unknown status NCT00712374 Phase 4 sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine
10 The Impact of Intermittent Preventive Malaria Treatment With Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) on Hemoglobin, Malaria, Schistosomiasis, and School Attention Among Primary Schoolchildren in the Kassena-Nankana Districts, Ghana Unknown status NCT01459146 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination plus albendazole;Artemether-lumefantrine plus Praziquantel plus Albendazole;Albendazole plus Praziquantel
11 The Effect of Paracetamol in the Treatment of Non-severe Malaria in Children in Guinea-Bissau Unknown status NCT00137566 Phase 4 acetaminophen (paracetamol)
12 Effectiveness of Oral Quinine and Artemether-Lumefantrine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Children Unknown status NCT00540202 Phase 4 artemether-lumefantrine;Oral quinine
13 Cluster Randomised Trial to Compare Effectiveness of the Combined Use of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Long-lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) to LLINs Alone for Malaria Prevention in Muleba District, Kagera Region, Tanzania Unknown status NCT01697852 Phase 4
14 Comparing the Effectiveness of 5 Artemisinin Combination Treatment Regimens in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria Unknown status NCT00902811 Phase 4 AM(FDC);AM(LT);AL;DP;AA(FDC)
15 An Evaluation of Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine Resistance and Effectiveness of IPTp in Nigeria Unknown status NCT01636895 Phase 4 Efficacy of suphladoxine/pyrimethamine as IPTp;Efficacy of suphladoxine/pyrimethamine as IPTp
16 Artemether/ Lumefantrine: A Study of the Effect of Local Food on Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine and Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine Among Ugandan Children Unknown status NCT01944189 Phase 4
17 Assessment of in Vivo and in Vitro Efficacy of Combined Artesunate/Mefloquine Therapy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Infection in the Peruvian Amazon Unknown status NCT02084602 Phase 4 Artesunate;Mefloquine
18 Effectiveness Study of Bednets Treated With Synegistic Combination of Insectcides in an Area With Pyrethroid-resistant Vectors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Unknown status NCT03289663 Phase 4 synergistic combination of insecticides;Pyrethroids
19 An Open Label Randomized Comparison of Two Antimalarial Drugs Regimens in Patient With Plasmodium Vivax Malaria in Thailand Unknown status NCT01662700 Phase 4 Artesunate;Chloroquine
20 Efficacy and Safety of Artemether + Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin + Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Guinea-Bissau. Unknown status NCT01704508 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine;Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine
21 Safety, Tolerability and Pilot Efficacy of Short Course, High Dose Primaquine Treatment for Liver Stages of Plasmodium Vivax Infection Unknown status NCT02364583 Phase 4 Primaquine
22 A Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Efficacy Study of Azithromycin Plus Piperaquine as Presumptive Treatment in Pregnant Papua New Guinean Women Unknown status NCT02575755 Phase 4 Azithromycin plus piperaquine phosphate;Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
23 Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Coartem® and Either Nevirapine, Efavirenz or Rifampicin in HIV Positive Ugandan Patients Unknown status NCT00620438 Phase 4 Lumefantrine-artemether and nevirapine;lumefantrine-artemether and efavirenz;Lumefantrine-artemether and rifampicin
24 Evaluating the Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium Vivax Infections in Central Vietnam Unknown status NCT02610686 Phase 4 Chloroquine
25 Efficacy of Artesunate Monotherapy and Dihydroartemisinin - Piperaquine in Patients With Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Central Vietnam Unknown status NCT02604966 Phase 4 Artesunate (AS) group;DHA - PPQ group
26 Should Infants Receive High-dose Vitamin A Supplementation With BCG Vaccine at Birth in Developing Countries? Randomized Prospective Studies in Guinea-Bissau Unknown status NCT00168610 Phase 4 Vitamin A
27 Open-label, Multi-center, Non-comparative Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability Study of Co-artemether in the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Malaria in Non-immune Patients Completed NCT00233337 Phase 4 Co-artemether
28 Assessment of the Public Health Benefit of Artemisinine Based Combination Therapies for Uncomplicated Malaria Treatment in Mali Completed NCT00452907 Phase 4 Artesunate;Artesunate + Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine;arthemether + lumefantrine
29 Effect of a Combined Use of Mosquito Repellent and Insecticide Treated Net on Malaria in Southern Ethiopia: a Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01160809 Phase 4
30 Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness of Malaria Diagnosis Procedures and the Rational Use of ACT in Zanzibar Completed NCT00549003 Phase 4
31 The Efficacy of Re-treatment With Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Children With Recrudescent Malaria in Guinea-Bissau Completed NCT00137553 Phase 4 Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar)
32 An Individually Randomised Trial of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Versus a Long-acting Artemisinin Combination Therapy for the Prevention of Malaria and Anaemia in Children Living in an Area of Extended Seasonal Transmission in Ghana. Completed NCT01651416 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine combination;Dihydroartemisinin Piperaquine combination;Amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination
33 The Tolerability and Safety of Low Dose Primaquine for Transmission Blocking in Symptomatic Falciparum Infected Cambodians Completed NCT02434952 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DHA PP);Primaquine
34 A Cluster Randomized, Single-centre, Controlled, Parallel,12-month Prospective Study and Additional 12-month Follow-up in Africa of Malaria Incidence in a Community Setting Following Systematic Treatment of P. Falciparum Asymptomatic Carriers With Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem® / Coartem® Dispersible) Completed NCT01256658 Phase 4 COA566
35 Randomised, Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Arsucam® Administered as a Single Daily Intake Versus Two Daily Intakes in the Treatment of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Attack Completed NCT00445796 Phase 4 Artesunate;Amodiaquine
36 Study of Therapeutic Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Artemether-lumefantrine and Nevirapine-based Antiretrovirals in HIV-infected Patients With Uncomplicated Falciparum-malaria in Muheza, Northeastern Tanzania Completed NCT00885287 Phase 4 Artemether-lumefantrine (AL)
37 An Open-label, Randomized, Single-center, Parallel Group Study of the Effects of Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) and Artesunate-mefloquine on Auditory Function Following the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Patients 12 Years of Age or Older Completed NCT00444106 Phase 4 Artesunate-mefloquine;Atovaquone-proguanil;Artemether-lumefantrine
38 Amodiaquine+Artesunate for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Nanoro, Burkina Faso Completed NCT01213433 Phase 4 Artesunate-Amodiaquine
39 Intermittent Treatment With Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Malaria Control in Infant: a Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT00206739 Phase 4 Sulfadoxine (12.5 mg)/Pyrimethamine (250 mg)
40 Assessing and Monitoring the Efficacy of Sulfadoxine/ Pyrimethamine (SP) and the Combination of SP Plus Artesunate for Uncomplicated Malaria Infections Among Children Completed NCT00140361 Phase 4 Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine;sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate;lumefantrine plus artemether
41 Home and Community Management of Fevers/Malaria and Pneumonia in Children Under-five: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of an Integrated Approach in a Rural District of Burkina Faso Completed NCT02151578 Phase 4
42 A Study to Assess Current Standard Malaria Treatment Guidelines and Evaluate Recently Developed G6PD Diagnostic Tools in the Republic of the Sudan Completed NCT02592408 Phase 4 ASP;SDPQ;14DPQ;14DPQ on Day 42
43 Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children in Burkina Faso Completed NCT00845533 Phase 4 Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine
44 Drug Interactions Between ATOvaquone Used in MAlaria Prophylaxis and Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1 Infected Patients (ATOMA) Completed NCT00421473 Phase 4 Atovaquone / Proguanil
45 Efficacy of Intermittent Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine + Artesunate Treatment in the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in an Area With Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Completed NCT00164255 Phase 4 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine;sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine plus artesunate
46 Clinical Trial of Extended-dose Chloroquine Versus Standard Chloroquine Treatment for Resistant Falciparum Malaria Among Afghan Refugees in NWFP Pakistan Completed NCT01019408 Phase 4 Chloroquine
47 Rapid Diagnostic Testing and Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy for Uncomplicated Malaria by Community Health Workers Completed NCT00301015 Phase 4
48 Effectiveness of Artemether-Lumefantrine Treatment Provided by Community Health Worker Against Uncomplicated Malaria in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Tanzania Completed NCT00454961 Phase 4 artemether-lumefantrine
49 A Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess the Antimalarial Drug Susceptibility and Molecular Characterization of Plasmodium Vivax Isolates in Vietnam Completed NCT01887821 Phase 4 Chloroquine;Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine
50 An Open Randomised Trial of the Efficacy of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP), Amodiaquine + SP (AQ-SP), AQ + Artesunate (AQ-Art), Chlorproguanil-Dapsone + Art (CD-Art), and Lumefantrine-Artemether (LA) for Uncomplicated Malaria in Malawi Completed NCT00164710 Phase 4 sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine;amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine;amodiaquine plus artesunate;chlorproguanil-dapsone plus artesunate;lumefantrine-artemether

Search NIH Clinical Center for Malaria

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Antimalarial [EPC]
artemether
Atovaquone
Chloroquine
Chloroquine hydrochloride
chloroquine phosphate
Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitor Antimalarial [EPC]
halofantrine
Halofantrine hydrochloride
Hydroxychloroquine
Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate
lumefantrine
Mefloquine
Mefloquine Hydrochloride
Pentoxifylline
Primaquine
Primaquine Phosphate
Proguanil
Pyrimethamine
Quinine
QUININE SO4 PWDR
Quinine Sulfate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: malaria

Genetic Tests for Malaria

Genetic tests related to Malaria:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Susceptibility to Malaria 29 ACKR1 CD36 CISH CR1 FCGR2A FCGR2B G6PD GYPA GYPB GYPC HBB ICAM1 NOS2 SLC4A1 TIRAP TNF
2 Malaria, Resistance to 29
3 Malaria, Cerebral, Susceptibility to 29

Anatomical Context for Malaria

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Malaria:

40
Testes, Liver, T Cells, Brain, Spleen, Endothelial, Skin

Publications for Malaria

Articles related to Malaria:

(show top 50) (show all 30721)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
How malaria has affected the human genome and what human genetics can teach us about malaria. 6 56 54 61
16001361 2005
2
A human complement receptor 1 polymorphism that reduces Plasmodium falciparum rosetting confers protection against severe malaria. 61 54 56 6
14694201 2004
3
A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. 56 6 61
17322885 2007
4
Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated defects in the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb reduce susceptibility to malaria. 56 6 61
17435165 2007
5
Abnormal display of PfEMP-1 on erythrocytes carrying haemoglobin C may protect against malaria. 61 6 56
15973412 2005
6
Hemoglobin C is associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia and low risk of mild malaria attack. 61 56 6
14613965 2004
7
A new NOS2 promoter polymorphism associated with increased nitric oxide production and protection from severe malaria in Tanzanian and Kenyan children. 54 6 56
12433515 2002
8
The association of the glycophorin C exon 3 deletion with ovalocytosis and malaria susceptibility in the Wosera, Papua New Guinea. 61 6 56
11719395 2001
9
Malaria susceptibility and CD36 mutation. 61 6 56
10890433 2000
10
A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. 56 6 54
10369255 1999
11
Absence of an association between intercellular adhesion molecule 1, complement receptor 1 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms and severe malaria in a West African population. 54 6 56
9861406 1998
12
A high frequency African coding polymorphism in the N-terminal domain of ICAM-1 predisposing to cerebral malaria in Kenya. 54 6 56
9259284 1997
13
Sickle hemoglobin confers tolerance to Plasmodium infection. 6 56
21529713 2011
14
Complement receptor 1 is the host erythrocyte receptor for Plasmodium falciparum PfRh4 invasion ligand. 6 56
20855594 2010
15
FCGR2A functional genetic variant associated with susceptibility to severe malarial anaemia in Ghanaian children. 6 56
19965803 2010
16
A defunctioning polymorphism in FCGR2B is associated with protection against malaria but susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. 56 6
20385827 2010
17
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion through glycophorin C and selection for Gerbich negativity in human populations. 56 6
12469115 2003
18
Polymorphism in promoter region of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protection against malaria. 56 6
9457101 1998
19
A 3.5 kb deletion in the glycophorin C gene accounts for the Gerbich-negative blood group in Melanesians. 6 56
8157284 1994
20
The Gerbich blood group system, especially in Melanesians. 56 6
5011657 1972
21
A functional promoter variant in IL12B predisposes to cerebral malaria. 61 56 54
18413324 2008
22
Significant association between TIM1 promoter polymorphisms and protection against cerebral malaria in Thailand. 61 56 54
18294362 2008
23
Genome-wide linkage analysis of malaria infection intensity and mild disease. 61 54 56
17381244 2007
24
CD36 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria. 61 54 56
12506336 2003
25
Erythrocytic ferroportin reduces intracellular iron accumulation, hemolysis, and malaria risk. 61 56
29599243 2018
26
Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for successful host infection. 61 56
26612952 2015
27
A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection. 61 56
26416757 2015
28
Malaria. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion. 56 61
25954012 2015
29
Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multicenter study. 56 61
25261933 2014
30
Severe malaria is associated with parasite binding to endothelial protein C receptor. 56 61
23739325 2013
31
Cytoadherence in paediatric malaria: ABO blood group, CD36, and ICAM1 expression and severe Plasmodium falciparum infection. 56 61
22909232 2012
32
Genome-wide association study indicates two novel resistance loci for severe malaria. 61 56
22895189 2012
33
Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population. 6 61
19841268 2009
34
A variant in the gene FUT9 is associated with susceptibility to placental malaria infection. 61 56
19460885 2009
35
Association of the GNAS locus with severe malaria. 61 56
18951142 2008
36
Blood group O protects against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria through the mechanism of reduced rosetting. 56 61
17959777 2007
37
Combining evidence of natural selection with association analysis increases power to detect malaria-resistance variants. 56 61
17668374 2007
38
The beta -globin recombinational hotspot reduces the effects of strong selection around HbC, a recently arisen mutation providing resistance to malaria. 54 6
16175509 2005
39
Susceptibility to malaria as a complex trait: big pressure from a tiny creature. 56 61
12351583 2002
40
Hemoglobin E: a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P falciparum malaria. 6 61
12149194 2002
41
Haemoglobin C protects against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria. 6 61
11713529 2001
42
The immunogenetics of resistance to malaria. 61 6
10417733 1999
43
Prevention of cerebral malaria in children in Papua New Guinea by southeast Asian ovalocytosis band 3. 61 56
10403343 1999
44
Early phagocytosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum may explain malaria protection in G6PD deficiency. 56 54
9746794 1998
45
Malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum blood infection levels are linked to chromosome 5q31-q33. 61 56
9683598 1998
46
High incidence of malaria in alpha-thalassaemic children. 56 61
8849722 1996
47
Natural selection of hemi- and heterozygotes for G6PD deficiency in Africa by resistance to severe malaria. 56 54
7617034 1995
48
Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. 54 56
7935762 1994
49
Common west African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria. 54 56
1865923 1991
50
Malaria and red cell genetic defects. 61 56
2669996 1989

Variations for Malaria

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Malaria:

6 (show all 40) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 TIRAP NM_001039661.1(TIRAP):c.539C>T (p.Ser180Leu)SNV protective 4467 rs8177374 11:126162843-126162843 11:126292948-126292948
2 FCGR2B NM_004001.4(FCGR2B):c.695T>C (p.Ile232Thr)SNV protective,risk factor 5467 rs1050501 1:161643798-161643798 1:161674008-161674008
3 NOS2 NG_011470.1:g.3828C>TSNV protective 14013 17:26128728-26128728 17:27801702-27801702
4 NOS2 NOS2A, -969G-CSNV protective 14014
5 CR1 CR1, 3650A-GSNV protective 17066
6 GYPC NM_002101.4(GYPC):c.107_190del (p.Glu36_Ala63del)deletion Pathogenic,protective 17725 rs1553470034 2:127451437-127451520 2:126693861-126693944
7 SLC4A1 NM_000342.4(SLC4A1):c.1765C>T (p.Arg589Cys)SNV Pathogenic 17764 rs121912745 17:42333076-42333076 17:44255708-44255708
8 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.52A>T (p.Lys18Ter)SNV Pathogenic 15401 rs33986703 11:5248200-5248200 11:5226970-5226970
9 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.118C>T (p.Gln40Ter)SNV Pathogenic 15402 rs11549407 11:5248004-5248004 11:5226774-5226774
10 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+1G>ASNV Pathogenic 15436 rs33971440 11:5248159-5248159 11:5226929-5226929
11 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.315+1G>ASNV Pathogenic 15438 rs33945777 11:5247806-5247806 11:5226576-5226576
12 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+5G>CSNV Pathogenic 15447 rs33915217 11:5248155-5248155 11:5226925-5226925
13 HBB NM_000518.4(HBB):c.19G>A (p.Glu7Lys)SNV Pathogenic 15126 rs33930165 11:5248233-5248233 11:5227003-5227003
14 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.79G>A (p.Glu27Lys)SNV Pathogenic 15161 rs33950507 11:5248173-5248173 11:5226943-5226943
15 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.1093G>A (p.Ala365Thr)SNV Pathogenic 10363 rs5030869 X:153761205-153761205 X:154532990-154532990
16 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.577G>A (p.Gly193Ser)SNV Pathogenic 10367 rs137852314 X:153762710-153762710 X:154534495-154534495
17 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.1478G>A (p.Arg493His)SNV Pathogenic 100059 rs72554664 X:153760472-153760472 X:154532257-154532257
18 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.93-21G>ASNV Pathogenic 15454 rs35004220 11:5248050-5248050 11:5226820-5226820
19 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.316-106C>GSNV Pathogenic 15457 rs34690599 11:5247062-5247062 11:5225832-5225832
20 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-79A>GSNV Pathogenic 15469 rs34598529 11:5248330-5248330 11:5227100-5227100
21 CD36 CD36, G1439C, 1-BP DEL, 1444Adeletion Pathogenic,risk factor 13537
22 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.653C>T (p.Ser218Phe)SNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 100057 rs5030868 X:153762634-153762634 X:154534419-154534419
23 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-138C>ASNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 393701 rs33944208 11:5248389-5248389 11:5227159-5227159
24 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.961G>A (p.Val321Met)SNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 10386 rs137852327 X:153761337-153761337 X:154533122-154533122
25 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-137C>ASNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 36285 rs33941377 11:5248388-5248388 11:5227158-5227158
26 ICAM1 NM_000201.3(ICAM1):c.167A>T (p.Lys56Met)SNV risk factor 14661 rs5491 19:10385540-10385540 19:10274864-10274864
27 FCGR2A NM_001136219.3(FCGR2A):c.500A>G (p.His167Arg)SNV drug response 14823 rs1801274 1:161479745-161479745 1:161509955-161509955
28 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.429+2T>CSNV Likely pathogenic 417962 rs3211893 7:80290528-80290528 7:80661212-80661212
29 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.784dup (p.Gln262fs)duplication Likely pathogenic 587500 rs766920034 7:80299302-80299303 7:80669986-80669987
30 CISH NM_001243926.1(MAPKAPK3):c.-436A>TSNV risk factor 7091 rs414171 3:50649499-50649499 3:50612068-50612068
31 TNF TNF, -376G-ASNV risk factor 12387
32 TNF TNF, -308G-ASNV risk factor 12388
33 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.975T>G (p.Tyr325Ter)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 13536 rs3211938 7:80300449-80300449 7:80671133-80671133
34 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.934G>C (p.Asp312His)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 10372 rs137852318 X:153761811-153761811 X:154533596-154533596
35 G6PD NM_000402.4(G6PD):c.466A>G (p.Asn156Asp)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 100055 rs1050829 X:153763492-153763492 X:154535277-154535277
36 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.20A>T (p.Glu7Val)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 15333 rs334 11:5248232-5248232 11:5227002-5227002
37 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+6T>CSNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 15450 rs35724775 11:5248154-5248154 11:5226924-5226924
38 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.1254+1G>ASNV Uncertain significance 417926 rs148051111 7:80302726-80302726 7:80673410-80673410
39 ICAM1 NM_000201.3(ICAM1):c.1432C>T (p.Arg478Trp)SNV Uncertain significance 828004 19:10395796-10395796 19:10285120-10285120
40 CD36 NM_001001547.3(CD36):c.701_701+3dupduplication Likely benign 417963 rs1554343345 7:80293811-80293812 7:80664495-80664496

Copy number variations for Malaria from CNVD:

7 (show all 17)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 16026 1 12212699 12494685 Indels VPS13D Malaria
2 31007 1 247110827 247119907 Amplification ZNF692 Malaria
3 34945 1 5845456 5975118 Indels NPHP4 Malaria
4 41121 4 135333667 135338574 Indels DUX4 Malaria
5 61463 12 1 132349534 Indels Malaria
6 64882 12 132073128 132099226 Indels ZNF26 Malaria
7 82377 14 105461656 105464413 Indels KIAA0125 Malaria
8 143470 2 237000000 242951149 Indels LOC728323 Malaria
9 166350 3 10158318 10168746 Indels VHL Malaria
10 177623 3 59710075 61212173 Indels FHIT Malaria
11 191457 5 1 180857866 Indels Malaria
12 192407 5 112071116 112209835 Indels APC Malaria
13 203647 6 1 170899992 Indels Malaria
14 217046 7 1 158821424 Indels Malaria
15 227212 7 65675806 65694798 Indels LOC493754 Malaria
16 230732 8 1 146274826 Indels Malaria
17 243826 8 8897723 8928259 Indels ERI1 Malaria

Expression for Malaria

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Malaria patients vs. healthy controls: 35
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 Blood + 3.31 0.000
2 C1QB complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain Blood + 3.10 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Malaria.

Pathways for Malaria

Pathways related to Malaria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.87 TNF TIRAP NOS2 NCR3 IL10 IFNG
2
Show member pathways
13.28 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG ICAM1 CISH
3
Show member pathways
12.98 TNF TIRAP NOS2 IL10 IFNG CISH
4
Show member pathways
12.25 TNF IFNG ICAM1 HBB
5
Show member pathways
12.24 TNF TIRAP NOS2 IFNG
6
Show member pathways
12.12 TNF TIRAP NOS2 IFNG
7
Show member pathways
12.08 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG FCGR2A CR1
8 11.97 TNF IFNG FCGR2B FCGR2A
9 11.88 TNF NOS2 IFNG ICAM1 FCGR2A
10 11.85 TNF NOS2 IL10 IFNG
11 11.82 TNF GYPA CR1 CD36
12 11.82 TNF NOS2 IL10 ICAM1 CD36
13 11.81 TNF TIRAP NOS2 IL10 IFNG FCGR2B
14 11.79 TNF IFNG ICAM1
15 11.79 IL10 ICAM1 FCGR2B FCGR2A
16 11.76