MCID: MCH006
MIFTS: 40

Mechanical Strabismus

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Mechanical Strabismus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Mechanical Strabismus:

Name: Mechanical Strabismus 12 15 70 32
Strabismus 44 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9306
ICD9CM 34 378.6
MeSH 44 D013285
SNOMED-CT 67 5371001
ICD10 32 H50.6
UMLS 70 C0038379 C0152223

Summaries for Mechanical Strabismus

MalaCards based summary : Mechanical Strabismus, also known as strabismus, is related to exophthalmos and graves' disease, and has symptoms including ophthalmoplegia, spasm of conjugate gaze and anomalies of divergence. An important gene associated with Mechanical Strabismus is TPO (Thyroid Peroxidase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Aldosterone synthesis and secretion and Allograft rejection. The drugs Fluorometholone and Rimexolone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, cortex and thyroid.

Related Diseases for Mechanical Strabismus

Diseases related to Mechanical Strabismus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 714)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 exophthalmos 30.2 TPO TG
2 graves' disease 29.8 TPO TG
3 thyroiditis 29.5 TPO TG
4 hypothyroidism 29.3 TPO TG
5 hashimoto thyroiditis 29.2 TPO TG
6 autoimmune disease 29.2 TPO TG
7 hyperthyroidism 29.1 TPO TG
8 congenital hypothyroidism 28.9 TPO TG
9 exotropia 11.4
10 mental retardation, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus 11.4
11 esotropia 11.4
12 paralytic squint 11.4
13 hemifacial hyperplasia with strabismus 11.4
14 ptosis, strabismus, and ectopic pupils 11.3
15 amblyopia 11.2
16 mehes syndrome 11.2
17 speech development, delayed, with facial asymmetry, strabismus, and transverse earlobe crease 11.1
18 white-sutton syndrome 11.1
19 crouzon syndrome 11.0
20 fourth cranial nerve palsy, familial congenital 11.0
21 monocular esotropia 11.0
22 suppression amblyopia 11.0
23 krauss herman holmes syndrome 11.0
24 syndromic disorder with strabismus 11.0
25 retinoblastoma 11.0
26 alternating exotropia 11.0
27 farsightedness 11.0
28 hypertropia 11.0
29 tukel syndrome 11.0
30 arthrogryposis, distal, type 5 10.9
31 cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome 1 10.9
32 corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal 10.9
33 cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1 10.9
34 brown syndrome 10.9
35 mental retardation, autosomal recessive 36 10.9
36 hypotropia 10.9
37 abducens nerve disease 10.9
38 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2 10.9
39 3mc syndrome 10.9
40 mcpherson robertson cammarano syndrome 10.9
41 microdontia hypodontia short stature 10.9
42 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 10.9
43 arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5 10.9
44 ocular albinism 10.9
45 duane retraction syndrome 10.9
46 naegeli-franceschetti-jadassohn syndrome 10.8
47 gand syndrome 10.8
48 hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation 10.8
49 neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and gray sclerae 10.8
50 gatad2b-associated neurodevelopmental disorder 10.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Mechanical Strabismus:



Diseases related to Mechanical Strabismus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Mechanical Strabismus

UMLS symptoms related to Mechanical Strabismus:


ophthalmoplegia; spasm of conjugate gaze; anomalies of divergence

Drugs & Therapeutics for Mechanical Strabismus

Drugs for Mechanical Strabismus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 119)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Fluorometholone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 426-13-1 9878
2
Rimexolone Approved Phase 4 49697-38-3 39507
3
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 151096-09-2, 354812-41-2 152946
4
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
5
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
6
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
7
Povidone Approved Phase 4 9003-39-8 131751496
8
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
9
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
10
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
11
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
12
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
13
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
14
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
15
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
16
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
17
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
18
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
19
Cadexomer iodine Experimental Phase 4 94820-09-4
20 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
21 Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 4
22 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
23 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
24 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
25 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
26 GABA Modulators Phase 4
27 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
28 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
29 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
30 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
31 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
32 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
33 Analgesics Phase 4
34 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 4
35 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
36 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
37 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
38 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
39 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
40 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4
41 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
42 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 4
43
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
44
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
45
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 1177-87-3
46
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-43-4 5816
47
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 329-65-7 838
48
Palonosetron Approved, Investigational Phase 3 135729-56-5, 119904-90-4 148211
49 Anesthetics Phase 3
50 Mydriatics Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 117)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical Study on the Effects of Propofol for Treatment on Emergence Agitation After Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery Unknown status NCT02738814 Phase 4 propofol
2 Ocular-hypertensive Response to Topical Steroids in Children After Bilateral Strabismus Surgery (Topical Rimexolone Versus Topical Dexamethasone and Topical Fluorometholone) Completed NCT02816905 Phase 4 0.1 % Dexamethasone;0.1% Fluorometholone;1% Rimexolone
3 Efficacy of Single-Shot Dexmedetomidine Versus Placebo in Preventing Pediatric Emergence Delirium in Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT01901588 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine
4 The Effect of Anaesthesia Depth on Oculo-cardiac Reflex in Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02379546 Phase 4 Desflurane
5 Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Comparison of 5 % Against 1.25 % Povidone-iodine Solution as Preoperative Antisepsis for Strabismus Surgery in Young Children Completed NCT00461656 Phase 4 Preoperative conjunctival irrigation with 5% or 1.25% PI
6 The Effect of Povidone-iodine Ophthalmic Surgical Prep Solution on Respiration in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery With General Anesthesia. Completed NCT03349515 Phase 4 Provodine-Iodine Solution;Group B will receive three drops in each eye of ophthalmic balanced salt solution.
7 Surgery Associated to Intraoperative Botulinum Toxin A for Large Angle Horizontal Strabismus: a Pilot Study Completed NCT01460355 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A;saline solution
8 Dexmedetomidine Versus Midazolam Premedication on Emergence Agitation After Strabismus Surgery in Children Completed NCT01895023 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Midazolam;Saline
9 Intranasal Dexmedetomidine Versus Intranasal Midazolam-ketamine Combination for Premedication of Pediatric Patients Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02072083 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Ketamine
10 The Effect of Penehyclidine on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT04054479 Phase 4 Penehyclidine;normal saline
11 Comparative Study Between Combined General Anesthesia With Peribulbar Block Versus Traditional General Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Recruiting NCT04549844 Phase 4 Bupivacaine
12 Comparison of Medial Rectus Resection and Plication in Exotropic Patients Unknown status NCT03768362 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 The Effect of Slanted Recession of Horizontal Muscle on Horizontal Strabismus With Abnormal Accommodative Convergence /Accommodation Ratio (AC/A) Unknown status NCT03555045 Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Vision In Preschoolers Study (VIP Study) Unknown status NCT00038753 Phase 3
15 A Trial of Bifocals in Myopic Children With Esophoria Unknown status NCT00000128 Phase 3
16 The Prism Adaptation Study (PAS) Completed NCT00000121 Phase 3
17 A Multicenter, Randomized, Evaluator-masked, Parallel-group, Non-treatment-controlled Study Followed by an Open-label Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of GSK1358820 (Botulinum Toxin Type A) in Patients With Strabismus Completed NCT01584843 Phase 3 GSK1358820
18 Amblyopia Treatment Study Completed NCT00001864 Phase 3 Atropine
19 Bupivacaine Injection of Eye Muscles to Treat Strabismus Recruiting NCT01616108 Phase 2, Phase 3 Bupivacaine
20 A Pragmatic, Randomized, Non-inferiority Trial Comparing the Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin-based Treatment With Conventional Strabismus Surgery in Acquired Esotropia. Recruiting NCT03459092 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin type A
21 Prospective, Double-blind Study Comparing Palonosetron and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting in Children Submitted to Strabismus Surgery Recruiting NCT04060771 Phase 3 Palonosetron;Dexamethasone
22 Grading Versus Classic Inferior Oblique Anterior Transposition in Patient With Asymmetric Dissociated Vertical Deviation Unknown status NCT03135938 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 phase2 Study of Prevention of Complications of Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT00478907 Phase 2 KETAMINE, PROPOFOL, THIOPENTAL
24 The Effect of Vision Therapy/Orthoptic on Motor & Sensory Status of the 3 to 7 Unknown status NCT00917982 Phase 1
25 Dichoptic Virtual Reality Therapy for Amblyopia in Adults Terminated NCT02246556 Phase 1
26 The Use of Interactive Binocular Treatment (I-BiT) for the Management of Anisometropic, Strabismic and Mixed Amblyopia in Children Aged 3.5 - 12 Years Unknown status NCT02810847
27 Reliability and Reproducibility of Automated Angular Measurement in Strabismus Unknown status NCT03596138
28 Dexamethasone (Sterodex) Versus Loteprendol (Lotemax) Eye Drops Following Strabismus Surgery Unknown status NCT02825186 Loteprendol etabonate 0.5%;Dexamethasone 0.1%
29 Comparison of Propofol 1mg/kg and Propofol 0.5mg/kg for Prevention of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery During Sevoflurane Anesthesia Unknown status NCT02152787 Injection of propofol 1.0mg/kg;propofol 0.5mg/kg;normal saline
30 A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Pain Medications in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Unknown status NCT02789969 Hydromorphone;Fentanyl
31 The Role of Gabapentin Oral Solution in Decreasing Desflurane Associated Emergence Agitation and Delirium in Children After Strabismus Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Double-blind Study Unknown status NCT03347916 Strawberry juice as (placebo);Gabapentin Oral Solution [Neurontin]
32 The Effect of Remifentanil Infusion During Emergence on the Incidence of Emergence Delirium After Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery Unknown status NCT02108795 Remifentanil;Placebo
33 The Analysis of Ocular Deviations Between Dominant and Non-dominant Eye Using Video-oculography (VOG) in Intermittent Exotropia Unknown status NCT03641040
34 Does Anxiety in Children on the Day of Surgery Impact Compliance in the Ophthalmology Clinic? Unknown status NCT02704442
35 Vision in Children Born to Opioid-dependent Methadone-maintained Mothers Unknown status NCT03603301
36 Determining the Efficacy of Full-time Occlusion Therapy in Severe Amblyopia at All Ages Unknown status NCT02113709
37 A Randomized Clinical Trial of Observation Versus Occlusion Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Completed NCT01032330
38 Comparative Study on the Effects of Capacities of Midazolam on Delirium After Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery : a Randomized Double- Blinded Trial Completed NCT01680471 Midazolam 0.03mg/kg;Midazolam 0.05mg/kg;Placebo
39 Effect of Neuromuscular Blockade on the Oculomotor by Not Squinting Child Completed NCT02360969
40 Strabismus Measurements Using Automated 3D Video Oculography Completed NCT02228070
41 Multimodal Physician Intervention to Detect Amblyopia (Recruiting Title "Equipping Primary Care Physicians to Improve Care for Children") Completed NCT01109459
42 The Efficacy of a Visual Screening Program to Reduce Later Amblyopia and Untreated Refractive Errors Completed NCT02458846
43 The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Decreasing Emergence Agitation and Delirium in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT01512355 Dexmedetomidine;placebo group
44 Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Paediatric Strabismus Surgery: a Study of Perioperative Modifiable Risk Factors Completed NCT03806400
45 Suture Contamination Rate in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02424357 5%povidone iodine ophthalmic solution;routine post-operative ophthalmic ointment
46 Exercise Interventions of Eye Muscles Post Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT04303832
47 Assessment of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Horizontal Strabismus Surgery: Efficacy and Lateral Incomitance Completed NCT04199286
48 Strabismus Surgery and Driving Ability Completed NCT02570555
49 The Correlation Between Anesthetic Depth and the Incidence of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02521259
50 Effect of Remifentanil on Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery During Sevoflurane Anesthesia Completed NCT02455401 High dose remifentanil;Low dose remifentanil;No remifentanil

Search NIH Clinical Center for Mechanical Strabismus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Botulinum Toxin Type A
Demecarium
demecarium bromide

Cochrane evidence based reviews: strabismus

Genetic Tests for Mechanical Strabismus

Anatomical Context for Mechanical Strabismus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Mechanical Strabismus:

40
Eye, Cortex, Thyroid, Retina, Brain, Pituitary, Skin

Publications for Mechanical Strabismus

Articles related to Mechanical Strabismus:

(show top 50) (show all 11755)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
One-year Profile of Eye Diseases in Infants (PEDI) in secondary (rural) eye care centers in South India. 61
33727457 2021
2
Ocular manifestations and surgical interventions in pediatric patients with Koolen-de-Vries syndrome. 61
33393407 2021
3
Increased Incidence of Ophthalmologic Findings in Children With Concurrent Isolated Nonsyndromic Metopic Suture Abnormalities and Deformational Cranial Vault Asymmetry. 61
32929979 2021
4
[Long term outcomes of botulinum toxin injections in infantile esotropia]. 61
33632627 2021
5
Ocular manifestations in kabuki syndrome: A report of 10 cases and literature review. 61
33334222 2021
6
Ophthalmology residency trainers' perspective on standardization of residency training in India. 61
33727442 2021
7
Restrictive strabismus and diplopia after conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Jones tube. 61
33546913 2021
8
Range of forced cyclorotation in superior oblique palsy and V-pattern strabismus. 61
33128673 2021
9
CRADD and USP44 mutations in intellectual disability, mild lissencephaly, brain atrophy, developmental delay, strabismus, behavioural problems and skeletal anomalies. 61
33647455 2021
10
Use of neuromuscular blocking drugs in strabismus surgery: systematic review and ophthalmology survey study. 61
32918869 2021
11
Challenges of Managing Strabismus in Thyroid Eye Disease. 61
33743532 2021
12
Combined Orbital Decompression and Strabismus Surgery in Thyroid Eye Disease. 61
33743533 2021
13
Novel HEXA variants in Korean children with Tay-Sachs disease with regression of neurodevelopment from infancy. 61
33811753 2021
14
Vision Needs of Children Who Failed School-based Vision Screening with and without Eyeglasses. 61
32752905 2021
15
Ranibizumab in retinopathy of prematurity - one-year follow-up of ophthalmic outcomes and two-year follow-up of neurodevelopmental outcomes from the CARE-ROP study. 61
33742551 2021
16
Pathogenic paternally inherited NLGN4X deletion in a female with autism spectrum disorder: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization. 61
33369065 2021
17
Clinical presentation and evolution of Xia-Gibbs syndrome due to p.Gly375ArgfsTer3 variant in a patient from DR Congo (Central Africa). 61
33372375 2021
18
Physician-Perceived Impact of Thyroid Eye Disease on Patient Quality of Life in the United States. 61
33196932 2021
19
Clinical delineation, sex differences, and genotype-phenotype correlation in pathogenic KDM6A variants causing X-linked Kabuki syndrome type 2. 61
33674768 2021
20
Associations between visual function and magnitude of refractive error for emmetropic to moderately hyperopic 4- and 5-year-old children in the Vision in Preschoolers - Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study. 61
33772848 2021
21
Presentation, surgery and 1-year outcomes of childhood cataract surgery in Tanzania. 61
32522793 2021
22
Validity of scoring systems for the assessment of technical and non-technical skills in ophthalmic surgery-a systematic review. 61
33649573 2021
23
Ophthalmic Surgeries and Systemic Medical Conditions Associated With the Development of Involutional Ptosis. 61
32427726 2021
24
A novel MYT1L mutation in a boy with syndromic obesity: Case report and literature review. 61
33622623 2021
25
Early Experience With the Clinical Use of Teprotumumab in a Heterogenous Thyroid Eye Disease Population. 61
33710036 2021
26
Yokoyama procedure for esotropia associated with high myopia: real-world data from a large-scale multicentre analysis. 61
33655633 2021
27
Long-term ophthalmic outcomes in 120 children with unilateral coronal synostosis: a 20-year retrospective analysis. 61
33716150 2021
28
Preoperative Predictors for Esodeviation and Exodeviation after Cataract Surgery in Children. 61
33783335 2021
29
Change in the eye position under general anesthesia in children with intermittent exotropia. 61
33662588 2021
30
[Prevalence of visual impairment in school-age children: Data analysis from PlanVue® pilot project]. 61
33494974 2021
31
Clinical evaluation of childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy with balint's symptoms. 61
33309491 2021
32
Usefulness of virtual reality-based training to diagnose strabismus. 61
33723316 2021
33
Strabismus surgical time-out: an illustrated whiteboard modification. 61
33737054 2021
34
Development of a low-cost strabismus surgery simulation model. 61
32427966 2021
35
The Results of Preoperative Use of Topical Brimonidine in Strabismus Surgery. 61
33684337 2021
36
Surgeon demographic and surgical volume trends in adult strabismus surgery in the United States. 61
33711430 2021
37
Shared decision making and patients satisfaction with strabismus care-a pilot study. 61
33771137 2021
38
A smartphone ocular alignment measurement app in school screening for strabismus. 61
33765984 2021
39
The Impact of Strabismus on Psychosocial Heath and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review. 61
33773997 2021
40
A Rare Case of Congenitally Acquired Ocular Toxocariasis in A Five-Week-Old Infant. 61
33661077 2021
41
Advisability of primary intraocular lens implantation for infants under 2: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33724630 2021
42
Clinical reasoning in canine vestibular syndrome: Which presenting factors are important? 61
33739504 2021
43
Strabismus in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. 61
33191655 2021
44
Oculomotor nerve palsy in an asymptomatic child with COVID-19. 61
33689910 2021
45
Current and emerging treatments for albinism. 61
33129801 2021
46
[Bridle operation for incomplete oculomotor nerve paralysis (superior rectus and lateral rectus nasal inferior transposition)]. 61
33649921 2021
47
Correlation between uniocular deviation and duction changes following different decompression surgeries in thyroid eye disease. 61
33711978 2021
48
Reliability of telemedicine for real-time paediatric ophthalmology consultations. 61
33722800 2021
49
Scope and costs of autorefraction and photoscreening for childhood amblyopia-a systematic narrative review in relation to the EUSCREEN project data. 61
33257800 2021
50
Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: evaluation and management. 61
32729049 2021

Variations for Mechanical Strabismus

Expression for Mechanical Strabismus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Mechanical Strabismus.

Pathways for Mechanical Strabismus

Pathways related to Mechanical Strabismus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.93 TPO TG
2
Show member pathways
11.7 TPO TG
3 9.4 TPO TG

GO Terms for Mechanical Strabismus

Biological processes related to Mechanical Strabismus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 thyroid hormone generation GO:0006590 8.96 TPO TG
2 hormone biosynthetic process GO:0042446 8.62 TPO TG

Sources for Mechanical Strabismus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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