MCID: MGC001
MIFTS: 51

Megacolon

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Megacolon

MalaCards integrated aliases for Megacolon:

Name: Megacolon 12 44 15 73
Dilatation of Colon 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11372
ICD10 33 K59.3 K59.39
MeSH 44 D008531
NCIt 50 C34810
SNOMED-CT 68 33995003
UMLS 73 C0025160

Summaries for Megacolon

Disease Ontology : 12 A colonic disease that is characterized by an abnormal dilation of the colon.

MalaCards based summary : Megacolon, also known as dilatation of colon, is related to goldberg-shprintzen syndrome and hirschsprung disease 1. An important gene associated with Megacolon is SOX10 (SRY-Box 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are GDNF-Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways. The drugs Vancomycin and Antibiotics, Antitubercular have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include colon, bone and smooth muscle, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and digestive/alimentary

Wikipedia : 76 Megacolon is an abnormal dilation of the colon (also called the large intestine). The dilation is often... more...

Related Diseases for Megacolon

Diseases related to Megacolon via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 151)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 goldberg-shprintzen syndrome 33.1 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF KIF1BP RET
2 hirschsprung disease 1 31.6 ACHE EDN3 EDNRB GDNF GFRA1 NRTN
3 hypoganglionosis 30.0 ACHE GDNF RET
4 constipation 30.0 CHAT EDN3 EDNRB GDNF RET VIP
5 waardenburg's syndrome 29.9 EDN3 EDNRB RET SOX10
6 neuronal intestinal dysplasia 29.7 GFRA1 TLX2
7 tardive dyskinesia 29.7 DRD2 HTR2A
8 intestinal pseudo-obstruction 29.7 EDNRB RET SOX10 TLX2
9 multiple endocrine neoplasia, type iib 29.6 EDNRB GDNF GFRA1 RET
10 intestinal obstruction 29.4 ACHE EDN3 EDNRB GDNF NRTN RET
11 toxic megacolon 12.6
12 hirschsprung disease 2 11.9
13 ulcerative colitis 11.4
14 clostridium difficile colitis 11.3
15 ifap syndrome with or without bresheck syndrome 11.0
16 hirschsprung disease 5 11.0
17 hirschsprung disease 6 11.0
18 hirschsprung disease 7 11.0
19 hirschsprung disease 8 11.0
20 hirschsprung disease 9 11.0
21 hirschsprung disease 3 11.0
22 hirschsprung disease 4 11.0
23 ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome 11.0
24 colitis 10.7
25 chagas disease 10.3
26 crohn's disease 10.3
27 megaesophagus 10.3
28 waardenburg syndrome, type 2e 10.2 EDNRB SOX10
29 waardenburg syndrome, type 3 10.2 EDN3 SOX10
30 waardenburg syndrome type 4 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
31 waardenburg syndrome, type 4b 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
32 cochlear disease 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
33 peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelination, waardenburg syndrome, and hirschsprung disease 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
34 waardenburg syndrome, type 2a 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
35 waardenburg syndrome, type 1 10.2 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
36 enterocolitis 10.1
37 wernicke-korsakoff syndrome 10.1 ACHE CHAT
38 substance-induced psychosis 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A
39 early-onset schizophrenia 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A
40 cytomegalovirus infection 10.1
41 medullary sponge kidney 10.1 GDNF RET
42 waardenburg syndrome, type 4a 10.1 EDN3 EDNRB RET SOX10
43 oligomeganephronia 10.1 GDNF RET
44 alcoholic psychosis 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A
45 periodic limb movement disorder 10.0 DRD2 HTR2A
46 myxedema 10.0
47 inflammatory bowel disease 10.0
48 crohn's colitis 10.0
49 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.0 ACHE CHAT DRD2
50 drug-induced mental disorder 10.0 DRD2 HTR2A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Megacolon:



Diseases related to Megacolon

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Megacolon

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Megacolon:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.32 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF
2 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.26 CHAT DRD2 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF GFRA1
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.21 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.14 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDNRB GDNF KIF1BP
5 embryo MP:0005380 10.11 EDN3 EDNRB GFRA1 KIF1BP PHOX2B RET
6 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.1 CHAT DRD2 EDNRB GDNF KIF1BP PHOX2B
7 nervous system MP:0003631 10.1 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF
8 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.09 DRD2 EDNRB GDNF HTR2A KIF1BP NRTN
9 muscle MP:0005369 10.02 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDNRB GDNF GFRA1
10 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.81 ACHE CHAT DRD2 GDNF KIF1BP NRTN
11 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.61 ACHE CHAT DRD2 EDNRB KIF1BP PHOX2B
12 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.23 ACHE CHAT EDNRB KIF1BP NRTN PHOX2B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Megacolon

Drugs for Megacolon (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 30)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Vancomycin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 1404-90-6 14969 441141
2 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
4 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
5 Vaccines Phase 4
6
Metronidazole Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 443-48-1 4173
7
Pantoprazole Approved Phase 3 102625-70-7 4679
8 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable
9 Cola Phase 3,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
10 Antitubercular Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
11 Laxatives Phase 2, Phase 3
12 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Cathartics Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Polyethylene glycol 3350 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Antacids Phase 3
17 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 3
18 Proton Pump Inhibitors Phase 3
19
Lactulose Approved Not Applicable 4618-18-2 11333
20
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 8042-47-5
21
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational 53608-75-6
22
Cefazolin Approved Not Applicable 25953-19-9 656510 33255
23 Emollients Not Applicable
24 Dermatologic Agents Not Applicable
25 Immunoglobulins Not Applicable
26 Antibodies Not Applicable
27 pancreatin
28 Cephalosporins Not Applicable
29 penicillins Not Applicable
30 Anesthetics Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 36)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Oral Vancomyin for Primary Clostridium Difficile Infection Prophylaxis in Patients Receiving High-Risk Antibiotics Completed NCT02951702 Phase 4 Vancomycin Oral
2 Optimal Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Recruiting NCT02667418 Phase 4 Fidaxomicin;Vancomycin with Taper/Pulse;Vancomycin
3 Probiotics for Prophylaxis of Postoperative Hirschsprungs Associated Enterocolitis Recruiting NCT02343562 Phase 4
4 Immunodeficiency in Cartilage-hair Hypoplasia: Sub-project on Safety of Vaccination Against Chickenpox Enrolling by invitation NCT02383797 Phase 4
5 Intestinal Lavage for the Treatment of Severe C. Difficile Infections Recruiting NCT02466698 Phase 2, Phase 3 Vancomycin;PEG;Metronidazole
6 Re-EValuating the Inhibition of Stress Erosions (REVISE) Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03374800 Phase 3 Placebo (0.9% saline);Pantoprazole
7 Effects of Butyrate Enemas on Postoperative Intestinal Mobility Disorders in Hirschsprung's Disease Not yet recruiting NCT03660176 Phase 3 butyrate enemas + routine management
8 Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) for Diagnosis of Hirschsprung's Disease Unknown status NCT00671684 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Probiotic Prophylaxis of Hirschprung's Disease Associated Enterocolitis (HAEC) Completed NCT00630838 Phase 2 VSL#3;Placebo
10 A Trial on Treatments of Hirschsprung Allied Disease Unknown status NCT02212054 Early Phase 1
11 Fast-track Surgery in the Treatment of Hirschsprung's Disease Unknown status NCT02350088 Not Applicable probiotics;placebo
12 Electrophysiological Activity of the Anorectum in Children Suspected of Hirschsprung Disease Unknown status NCT02342457 Not Applicable
13 A New Scoring System Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Intestinal Dysganglionosis --a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT02216994 Not Applicable high dose lactulose;paraffin oil
14 Comparison of Circular(Soave) and Heart-shaped Anastomosis in Hirschsprung's Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02234219 Not Applicable Probiotics
15 Host Immune Response to Clostridium Difficile Infection (ICD) Completed NCT02440438 Not Applicable
16 Abdominal SepsiS Study: Epidemiology of Etiology and Outcome Completed NCT02442596
17 Efficacy of Post-operative Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Thoracic Surgery Requiring Tube Thoracostomy Completed NCT00818766 Not Applicable cefazolin or vancomycin;Placebo
18 Observational Study of C. Diff in Post-Transplant Patients Completed NCT02747017
19 A Trial on Conservative Treatment for Infants' Hirschsprung Disease Completed NCT01985646 Early Phase 1 oral probiotic
20 3D High Resolution Anorectal Manometry in Children After Surgery for Anorectal Disorders Completed NCT02296008 Not Applicable
21 MICROPRUNG : Intestinal Microbiota Analysis in Patients With or Without Hirschsprung's Associated EnteroColitis Completed NCT02857205 Not Applicable
22 Endoscopic Mucosal Resection for the Diagnosis of a-Ganglionosis, a Controlled Prospective Trial (EDGE Trial) Completed NCT01515501 Not Applicable
23 A Trial on Probiotics in Preventing Hirschsprung's Disease Associated Entercolitis Completed NCT01934959 Early Phase 1 Bifico
24 Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Severe Clostridium Difficile Associated Colitis Recruiting NCT01959048 Not Applicable fecal microbiota transplantation
25 Neuro-Immune Interactions in the Gut Recruiting NCT03617640
26 Genetic Mosaicism in Hirschsprung's Disease Recruiting NCT01927809
27 A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study on the Clinical Prognosis of Ulcerative Colitis Recruiting NCT03698812
28 Neuropsychological Development and Functional Outcome Sin Children With Hirschsprung Disease at School Age Recruiting NCT03406741 Not Applicable
29 Enhanced Recovery After Surgery In Hirschsprung Disease Recruiting NCT02776176 Not Applicable
30 Management and Outcomes of Congenital Anomalies in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries Recruiting NCT03666767
31 Neurocognition in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) Recruiting NCT03568669
32 Hirschsprung Disease Genetic Study Recruiting NCT00478712
33 Identification Genetic, Immunologic and Microbial Markers of Hirschsprung Associated Enterocolitis in Children With Hirschsprung Disease Recruiting NCT02193685
34 Prospective Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Submucosal Endoscopy Enrolling by invitation NCT03626350
35 Oligosaccharide for Cdiff(+) Heme-onc Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03778606 Not Applicable
36 Laparoscopic Assisted Pull-through Versus Other Surgical Procedures for Treatment of Hirschsprung Disease Not yet recruiting NCT03269812 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Megacolon

Cochrane evidence based reviews: megacolon

Genetic Tests for Megacolon

Anatomical Context for Megacolon

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Megacolon:

41
Colon, Bone, Smooth Muscle, Spinal Cord, Bone Marrow, Kidney, Thyroid

Publications for Megacolon

Articles related to Megacolon:

(show top 50) (show all 871)
# Title Authors Year
1
RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEGACOLON IN TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTED RATS. ( 29513802 )
2018
2
Effects of a probiotic (SLAB51a8c) on clinical and histologic variables and microbiota of cats with chronic constipation/megacolon: a pilot study. ( 29065705 )
2018
3
Shigellosis and toxic megacolon secondary to Shigella flexneri serotype 3a: The challenges of laboratory diagnosis. ( 29501836 )
2018
4
Mast cell-nerve interaction in the colon of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals with chagasic megacolon. ( 29470711 )
2018
5
Symptoms and diagnostic criteria of acquired Megacolon - a systematic literature review. ( 29385992 )
2018
6
Incidence, features, in-hospital outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality associated with toxic megacolon hospitalizations in the United States. ( 29948833 )
2018
7
Symptomatic pulmonary restriction secondary to diaphragmatic eventration and megacolon in adult. ( 30054326 )
2018
8
In-hospital mortality for toxic megacolon. ( 30073474 )
2018
9
Bowel perforation in chronic idiopathic megarectum and megacolon. ( 30131416 )
2018
10
Digital pathology imaging and computer-aided diagnostics as a novel tool for standardization of evaluation of aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) histopathology. ( 30175382 )
2018
11
First reported case of afatinib-associated toxic megacolon. ( 30186606 )
2018
12
Imaging features of toxic megacolon. ( 30275028 )
2018
13
Diagnosis and Treatment of Invasive Aspergillus fumigatus Wound Infection Following Subtotal Colectomy for Perforated Toxic Megacolon in an Immunosuppressed Patient. ( 30312971 )
2018
14
Correction: Enteric Neuronal Damage, Intramuscular Denervation and Smooth Muscle Phenotype Changes as Mechanisms of Chagasic Megacolon: Evidence from a Long-Term Murine Model of Tripanosoma cruzi Infection. ( 28414798 )
2017
15
Toxic megacolon as a rare complication following atropine therapy due to organophosphate poisoning: A case report. ( 28403672 )
2017
16
Constipation Is Related to Small Bowel Disturbance Rather Than Colonic Enlargement in Acquired Chagasic Megacolon. ( 28912906 )
2017
17
Relation between mast cells concentration and serotonin expression in chagasic megacolon development. ( 28112415 )
2017
18
Toxic Megacolon - A Three Case Presentation. ( 29967870 )
2017
19
Megacolon as an atypical presentation of cervical myelopathy. ( 28435929 )
2017
20
Idiopathic Megacolon: Report of 2 Deaths With Review of the Literature. ( 28657908 )
2017
21
Campylobacter colitis: Rare cause of toxic megacolon. ( 27614338 )
2016
22
Toxic Megacolon: A Review for Emergency Department Clinicians. ( 27185628 )
2016
23
Induction of potentially lethal hypermagnesemia, ischemic colitis, and toxic megacolon by a preoperative mechanical bowel preparation: report of a case. ( 26943694 )
2016
24
Toxic megacolon and interstitial pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus infection in a pediatric patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy. ( 28090493 )
2016
25
Concomitant Laparoscopic Ileocolectomy and Ladds Procedure for Crohns Ileocolitis with Mesenteric Abscess and Congenital Megacolon. ( 27930275 )
2016
26
Small Bowel Stricture Mimicking Megacolon in a Patient with Crohn's Disease. ( 28868488 )
2016
27
Viral Spread to Enteric Neurons Links Genital HSV-1 Infection to Toxic Megacolon and Lethality. ( 27281569 )
2016
28
Characteristics of chronic megacolon among patients diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. ( 27403312 )
2016
29
Severe hyponatremia and repeated intestinal resections for intestinal dysmotility mimicking congenital aganglionic megacolon due to delay in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism. ( 28164077 )
2016
30
Blowhole Colostomy for Clostridium difficile-Associated Toxic Megacolon. ( 28097034 )
2016
31
Fatal Toxic Megacolon in a Child of Hirschsprung Disease. ( 28208866 )
2016
32
Neurogenic Megacolon in Spinal Cord Injury. ( 27959751 )
2016
33
Concomitant Laparoscopic Ileocolectomy and Ladd's Procedure for Crohn's Ileocolitis with Mesenteric Abscess and Congenital Megacolon. ( 27670550 )
2016
34
Enteric Neuronal Damage, Intramuscular Denervation and Smooth Muscle Phenotype Changes as Mechanisms of Chagasic Megacolon: Evidence from a Long-Term Murine Model of Tripanosoma cruzi Infection. ( 27045678 )
2016
35
Concomitant Laparoscopic Ileocolectomy and Ladd's Procedure for Crohn's Ileocolitis with Mesenteric Abscess and Congenital Megacolon. ( 30454187 )
2016
36
Clinical Features and Colonic Motor Disturbances in Chronic Megacolon in Adults. ( 25868630 )
2015
37
Toxic megacolon and human Cytomegalovirus in a series of severe ulcerative colitis patients. ( 25866348 )
2015
38
Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome with associated sensory motor axonal neuropathy. ( 25846562 )
2015
39
A megacolon with a skin lesion. ( 25858639 )
2015
40
Increasing Incidence of and Increased Mortality Associated With Clostridium difficile-Associated Megacolon. ( 26445319 )
2015
41
Treating congenital megacolon by transplanting GDNF and GFRI+-1 double genetically modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. ( 26345878 )
2015
42
Male-biased aganglionic megacolon in the TashT mouse line due to perturbation of silencer elements in a large gene desert of chromosome 10. ( 25786024 )
2015
43
The Surgical Treatment of Toxic Megacolon in Hirschsprung Disease. ( 26181500 )
2015
44
Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile Colitis-Induced Toxic Megacolon. ( 25942309 )
2015
45
A case of perforated chronic idiopathic megacolon. ( 26411850 )
2015
46
A case of toxic megacolon caused by clostridium difficile infection and treated with fecal microbiota transplantation. ( 25721003 )
2015
47
Trypanosomiasis-induced megacolon illustrates how myenteric neurons modulate the risk for colon cancer in rats and humans. ( 25884710 )
2015
48
Toxic colonoscopy--how investigating active inflammatory bowel disease can lead to the serious complication of toxic megacolon. ( 26202312 )
2015
49
Perianal neuroendocrine tumor with suspected lymph node metastasis causing colonic compression and subsequent megacolon. ( 25750442 )
2015
50
Toxic megacolon during pregnancy in ulcerative colitis: A case report. ( 25942749 )
2015

Variations for Megacolon

Expression for Megacolon

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Megacolon.

Pathways for Megacolon

GO Terms for Megacolon

Cellular components related to Megacolon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 axon GO:0030424 8.92 DRD2 HTR2A NRTN RET

Biological processes related to Megacolon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.97 EDNRB GDNF RET SOX10 VIP
2 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.97 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF HTR2A VIP
3 neuron differentiation GO:0030182 9.83 EDN3 PHOX2B RET
4 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 9.8 GDNF GFRA1 NRTN RET
5 axon guidance GO:0007411 9.78 GDNF GFRA1 NRTN RET
6 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.76 ACHE EDNRB GDNF GFRA1 KIF1BP NRTN
7 positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation GO:0002052 9.65 DRD2 SOX10
8 mRNA stabilization GO:0048255 9.64 GDNF VIP
9 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.64 DRD2 HTR2A
10 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.63 DRD2 HTR2A
11 response to pain GO:0048265 9.63 EDNRB RET
12 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.62 EDN3 EDNRB
13 sympathetic nervous system development GO:0048485 9.61 GDNF PHOX2B
14 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.61 ACHE CHAT
15 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.6 DRD2 EDNRB
16 positive regulation of urine volume GO:0035810 9.59 DRD2 EDNRB
17 developmental pigmentation GO:0048066 9.58 EDNRB ZEB2
18 artery smooth muscle contraction GO:0014824 9.56 EDN3 HTR2A
19 negative regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043267 9.55 HTR2A VIP
20 peristalsis GO:0030432 9.54 DRD2 GDNF
21 peripheral nervous system development GO:0007422 9.54 EDNRB GDNF SOX10
22 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.52 DRD2 HTR2A
23 glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0035860 9.51 GFRA1 RET
24 neural crest cell migration GO:0001755 9.5 EDN3 EDNRB GDNF NRTN RET SOX10
25 positive regulation of penile erection GO:0060406 9.46 EDNRB VIP
26 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.43 DRD2 GDNF
27 melanocyte differentiation GO:0030318 9.43 EDN3 EDNRB SOX10
28 vein smooth muscle contraction GO:0014826 9.4 EDN3 EDNRB
29 posterior midgut development GO:0007497 9.32 EDNRB RET
30 enteric nervous system development GO:0048484 9.1 EDNRB GDNF PHOX2B RET SOX10 TLX2
31 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.09 DRD2 GDNF PHOX2B SOX10 TLX2 ZEB2

Molecular functions related to Megacolon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.35 DRD2 EDN3 GDNF GFRA1 NRTN
2 Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity GO:0005088 8.92 GDNF GFRA1 NRTN RET

Sources for Megacolon

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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