MCID: MGC001
MIFTS: 46

Megacolon

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Megacolon

MalaCards integrated aliases for Megacolon:

Name: Megacolon 12 43 15 71
Dilatation of Colon 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11372
MeSH 43 D008531
NCIt 49 C34810
SNOMED-CT 67 33995003
ICD10 32 K59.3 K59.39
UMLS 71 C0025160

Summaries for Megacolon

Disease Ontology : 12 A colonic disease that is characterized by an abnormal dilation of the colon.

MalaCards based summary : Megacolon, also known as dilatation of colon, is related to goldberg-shprintzen syndrome and waardenburg's syndrome. An important gene associated with Megacolon is SOX10 (SRY-Box Transcription Factor 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are GDNF-Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions and Neural Crest Differentiation. The drugs Nitrous oxide and Vancomycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include colon, thyroid and smooth muscle, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and mortality/aging

Wikipedia : 74 Megacolon is an abnormal dilation of the colon (also called the large intestine). The dilation is often... more...

Related Diseases for Megacolon

Diseases related to Megacolon via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 301)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 goldberg-shprintzen syndrome 33.9 RET PHOX2B KIFBP GDNF EDNRB EDN3
2 waardenburg's syndrome 32.9 SOX10 RET EDNRB EDN3
3 hirschsprung disease 5 32.6 RET HSCR5
4 hirschsprung disease 1 32.4 ZEB2 VIP TLX2 SOX10 RET PHOX2B
5 constipation 31.1 VIP RET NRTN GDNF EDNRB EDN3
6 hypoganglionosis 31.1 RET GDNF ACHE
7 intestinal obstruction 30.9 RET NRTN GDNF EDNRB EDN3 ACHE
8 achalasia 30.9 VIP RET GDNF EDN3 ACHE
9 neuronal intestinal dysplasia 30.9 TLX2 GFRA1
10 waardenburg syndrome, type 4a 30.8 SOX10 RET EDNRB EDN3
11 colonic pseudo-obstruction 30.7 VIP ACHE
12 intestinal pseudo-obstruction 30.7 TLX2 SOX10 RET EDNRB EDN3 ACHE
13 multiple endocrine neoplasia, type iib 30.5 RET NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
14 pheochromocytoma 30.5 VIP RET GDNF EDN3 CALB2
15 piebald trait 30.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
16 thyroid carcinoma, familial medullary 30.2 RET NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
17 neuroblastoma 29.6 VIP RET PHOX2B GDNF CHAT ACHE
18 toxic megacolon 12.7
19 hirschsprung disease 2 12.0
20 ulcerative colitis 11.8
21 multiple endocrine neoplasia 11.5
22 hirschsprung disease 3 11.4
23 ifap syndrome with or without bresheck syndrome 11.1
24 hirschsprung disease 6 11.1
25 hirschsprung disease 7 11.1
26 hirschsprung disease 8 11.1
27 hirschsprung disease 9 11.1
28 hirschsprung disease 4 11.1
29 ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome 11.1
30 colitis 10.9
31 chagas disease 10.7
32 clostridium difficile colitis 10.6
33 lateral displacement of eye 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB
34 waardenburg syndrome, type 2b 10.6 SOX10 EDN3
35 waardenburg syndrome type 4 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
36 cochlear disease 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
37 waardenburg syndrome, type 4c 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
38 waardenburg syndrome, type 2d 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
39 medullary sponge kidney 10.6 RET GDNF
40 waardenburg syndrome, type 2c 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
41 waardenburg syndrome, type 4b 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
42 volvulus of midgut 10.6
43 peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelination, waardenburg syndrome, and hirschsprung disease 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
44 waardenburg syndrome, type 2e 10.6 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
45 waardenburg syndrome, type 2a 10.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
46 waardenburg syndrome, type 3 10.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
47 tietz albinism-deafness syndrome 10.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
48 waardenburg syndrome, type 1 10.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
49 multiple mucosal neuroma 10.5 RET GDNF
50 diarrhea 10.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Megacolon:



Diseases related to Megacolon

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Megacolon

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Megacolon:

45 (show all 11)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.34 ACHE CALB2 CHAT EDN3 EDNRB FOXP3
2 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.28 ACHE CHAT EDN3 EDNRB FOXP3 GDNF
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.22 CHAT EDN3 EDNRB FOXP3 GDNF GFRA1
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.21 ACHE CHAT EDNRB FOXP3 GDNF KIFBP
5 nervous system MP:0003631 10.2 ACHE CALB2 CHAT EDN3 EDNRB GDNF
6 embryo MP:0005380 10.11 EDN3 EDNRB GFRA1 KIFBP PHOX2B RET
7 muscle MP:0005369 9.97 ACHE CHAT EDNRB GDNF GFRA1 KIFBP
8 normal MP:0002873 9.86 CALB2 CHAT FOXP3 GFRA1 PHOX2B RET
9 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.81 ACHE CHAT FOXP3 GDNF KIFBP NRTN
10 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.61 ACHE CHAT EDNRB FOXP3 KIFBP PHOX2B
11 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.32 ACHE CHAT EDNRB FOXP3 KIFBP NRTN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Megacolon

Drugs for Megacolon (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 68)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
2
Vancomycin Approved Phase 4 1404-90-6 441141 14969
3
Fidaxomicin Approved Phase 4 873857-62-6
4
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-81-7 5785 54670067
5
Cimetropium Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 150521-16-7
6 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
7 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
8 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
9 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
10 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
11 Bromides Phase 4
12 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
14 Anesthetics Phase 4
15 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
16 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4
17 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
18 Trace Elements Phase 4
19 Micronutrients Phase 4
20 Antioxidants Phase 4
21 Nutrients Phase 4
22 Protective Agents Phase 4
23 Vitamins Phase 4
24 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
25 Antibodies Phase 4
26 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
27 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 4
28 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
29
Magnesium citrate Approved Phase 3 3344-18-1
30
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 68-04-2
31
Bisacodyl Approved Phase 3 603-50-9
32
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 3 523-87-5 441281
33
Metronidazole Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 443-48-1 4173
34
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 77-92-9 311
35
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
36 Chelating Agents Phase 3
37 Citrate Phase 3
38 Anticoagulants Phase 3
39 Picosulfate sodium Phase 3
40 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
41 Tea Phase 3
42 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Cathartics Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Laxatives Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Antitubercular Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Polyethylene glycol 3350 Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
49
Furosemide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 54-31-9 3440
50
Nitazoxanide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 55981-09-4 41684

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 31)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Usefulness Of Flospan As A Premedication For Colonoscopy : A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01842932 Phase 4 Phloroglucin;Cimetropium bromide;Placebo
2 Use of Nitrous Oxide for Analgesia During Colonoscopy - A Randomised Trial Completed NCT00318825 Phase 4 Nitrous oxide
3 PEG-Electrolyte Solution (FORTRANS®) With Mentholyptus Drops (Halls®) Versus Reduced Volume Ascorbic Acid Supplemented PEG-Electrolyte (MoviPrep®) in Colonoscopy Preparation: A Randomised Controlled Study Completed NCT01788709 Phase 4
4 A Prospective, Double-blind, Randomized, and Controlled Clinical Trial to Compare the Effectiveness of Intravenous Bezlotoxumab (10 mg/kg) Versus Placebo in Decreasing Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Fulminant Clostridioides Difficile Requiring Surgical Intervention. Recruiting NCT03756454 Phase 4
5 CSP #596 - Optimal Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Recruiting NCT02667418 Phase 4 Fidaxomicin;Vancomycin with Taper/Pulse;Vancomycin
6 Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota for Clostridium Difficile Infection Unknown status NCT01958463 Phase 3
7 A Randomized Prospective Trial Comparing Different Regimens of Polyethylene Glycol-based Lavage and Sodium Picosulphate With Magnesium Citrate in the Preparation of Patients for Colonoscopy Completed NCT01778192 Phase 3 Polyethylene glycol;Polyethylene glycol;Sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate;Sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate
8 Aquanet Bowel Cleansing Device Versus Oral Sodium Picosulfate for Pre-endoscopy Bowel Preparation: Propensity Score Analysis for Interventional Effectiveness Evaluation Completed NCT03074448 Phase 3 Sodium Picosulfate
9 Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Split-dose of PEG Compared With NaP Solution for Colonoscopy Preparation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01229800 Phase 3 Polyethylene glycol;Sodium phosphate(NaP) solution
10 CSP #2004 - Microbiota or Placebo After Antimicrobial Therapy for Recurrent C. Difficile at Home (MATCH) Recruiting NCT03005379 Phase 2, Phase 3 Fecal Microbiota Therapy (FMT);Placebo
11 A Feasibility Randomized Trial of Intestinal Lavage for the Treatment of Severe C. Difficile Infections Recruiting NCT02466698 Phase 2, Phase 3 Vancomycin;PEG;Metronidazole
12 Polyp Detection With The Peerscope System™: A Randomized Tandem Colonoscopy Study Completed NCT01549535 Phase 2
13 MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH ACUTE ABDOMEN SUBMITTED TO URGENT ABDOMINAL SURGERY: a Pilot Randomized Multicentre Study Completed NCT01911702 Phase 2
14 Role of Intestinal Protozoa and Helminths in the Course of Ulcerative Colitis Active, not recruiting NCT03441893 Phase 1, Phase 2 Nitazoxanide 500Mg Oral Tablet;Mesalazine 250Mg Tablet and nitazoxanide 500Mg Oral Tablet;Mesalazine 250Mg
15 A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial of Conservative Versus Surgery Treatment of Children With Hirschsprung Allied Disease Unknown status NCT02212054 Early Phase 1
16 Endomicroscopy for Assessment of Structural and Functional Changes in IBD Patients Treated With Anti-TNFalpha - Insights in the Process in Mucosal Healing Unknown status NCT01417728
17 Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Based on the Detection and Monitoring of Patients With Clostridium Difficile Infection (PACTA-ICD) Unknown status NCT02951481
18 Abdominal SepsiS Study: Epidemiology of Etiology and Outcome Completed NCT02442596
19 Factors Associated With Relapses in Patients Suffering From Clostridium Difficile Infection: Immune Response Completed NCT02440438
20 Determination of Genetic Polymorphisms in Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT02346123
21 A Randomized Prospective Trial Comparing Single Dose Polyethylene Glycol-based Lavage Versus Split Dose Polyethylene Glycol-based Lavage in the Preparation of Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy Completed NCT01610856 Polyethylene Glycol;polyethylene glycol
22 A Proposed Physical Activity and Diet Control to Manage Constipation in Middle Age Obese Women Completed NCT03106857
23 Genetics of Hirschsprung's Disease - Can Genetic Mosaicism Due to Early Somatic Mutations, Explain Disease Development? Recruiting NCT01927809
24 Efficacy and Safety of Golimumab in Maintaining Deep Remission and Quality of Life in Ulcerative Colitis Patients in Deep Prolonged Remission With Infliximab. An Open Label, Non Interventional One Year Study. Recruiting NCT02868398
25 Incidence and Economic Burden of Community and Hospital- Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infections (CDI) in the German Health Care System (IBIS) Recruiting NCT03141775
26 The Enteric Nervous System as Modulator of Mucosal Immune Cells Recruiting NCT03617640
27 Oligosaccharide Supplementation Among Hematology-Oncology Clostridium Difficile Colonized Patients Recruiting NCT03778606
28 Incidence, Clinical Characteristics, Strain Characterization, Treatment and Outcome of Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) in Hematologic Patients Recruiting NCT03964844
29 Identification of Genetic, Immunologic and Microbial Markers of Hirschsprung Associated Enterocolitis in Children With Hirschsprung Disease Recruiting NCT02193685
30 Effect of Adding Simethicone to a Split Regimen of Polyethylene Glycol for Bowel Preparation in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Colonoscopy Setting: an Endoscopist-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03816774 PEG split-dose and simethicone
31 Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Severe Clostridium Difficile Associated Colitis Terminated NCT01959048 fecal microbiota transplantation

Search NIH Clinical Center for Megacolon

Cochrane evidence based reviews: megacolon

Genetic Tests for Megacolon

Anatomical Context for Megacolon

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Megacolon:

40
Colon, Thyroid, Smooth Muscle, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Testes

Publications for Megacolon

Articles related to Megacolon:

(show top 50) (show all 2652)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Clostridioides difficile infection in the Asia-Pacific region. 61
31873046 2020
2
Clostridioides difficile Infection: Update on Management. 61
32003951 2020
3
Third Space Endoscopy: Lessons Learnt From a Decade of Submucosal Endoscopy. 61
31851106 2020
4
Acquired segmental sigmoid hypoganglionosis: A case report. 61
31977872 2020
5
Predictors of Clostridioides difficile infection-related complications and treatment patterns among nucleic acid amplification test positive/toxin enzyme immunoassay negative patients. 61
31896665 2020
6
Concurrent Hirschsprung's disease and anorectal malformation: a systematic review. 61
31552492 2020
7
Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (WS type IV): a rare case from Pakistan. 61
31998473 2020
8
Megacolon in inflammatory bowel disease: response to infliximab. 61
31960698 2020
9
[Three cases of severe and fulminating ulcerative colitis with megacolon treated with continuous intravenous infusion of cyclosporine]. 61
32037361 2020
10
A case with cytomegalovirus colitis and toxic megacolon initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease. 61
31973935 2020
11
Dr. Orvar Swenson and the Pull-Through. 61
31912779 2019
12
A comprehensive review and update on ulcerative colitis. 61
30837080 2019
13
A case of severe megacolon due to acquired isolated hypoganglionosis after low anterior resection for lower rectal cancer. 61
31828729 2019
14
Growing consumption of antibiotics and epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infections in Poland: A need to develop new solutions. 61
31813263 2019
15
Lymphocytic ganglionitis leading to megacolon in lymphocyte-rich glioblastoma. 61
31655421 2019
16
Colonic Manifestations and Complications Are Relatively Under-Reported in Systemic Sclerosis: A Systematic Review. 61
31805016 2019
17
Metronidazole therapy as initial treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with chronic kidney disease in Korea. 61
31607272 2019
18
Rare case of wandering spleen causing intra-thoracic megacolon. 61
31646719 2019
19
Chronic Megacolon Presenting in Adolescents or Adults: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Genetic Associations. 61
30953226 2019
20
Is intestinal stasis sufficient by itself in promoting enterocolitis in a non-genetic rat model of Hirschsprung's disease? 61
31670915 2019
21
Adult congenital megacolon with acute fecal obstruction and diabetic nephropathy: A case report. 61
31572519 2019
22
Systematic review: Clinical utility of gastrointestinal ultrasound in the diagnosis, assessment and management of patients with ulcerative colitis. 61
31562739 2019
23
Megacolon Secondary to Ogilvie's Syndrome. 61
31581373 2019
24
An unusual case of caecal perforation following ileostomy reversal. 61
31473634 2019
25
Community-acquired fulminant colitis caused by binary toxin-producing Clostridium difficile in Japan. 61
30767176 2019
26
Gastrointestinal disorders in Down syndrome. 61
31183986 2019
27
Lower urinary tract dysfunction in chronic Chagas disease: clinical and urodynamic presentation. 61
30302592 2019
28
Colonic impaction in dogs: a retrospective study of 58 cases (1996 to 2014). 61
31025712 2019
29
An unusual cause of idiopathic megacolon in a juvenile: A case report. 61
31348256 2019
30
A global to local genomics analysis of Clostridioides difficile ST1/RT027 identifies cryptic transmission events in a northern Arizona healthcare network. 61
31107202 2019
31
Clinical effects of warmed humidified carbon dioxide insufflation in infants undergoing major laparoscopic surgery. 61
31277116 2019
32
[Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. A case report]. 61
31606024 2019
33
New-onset ulcerative colitis in pregnancy associated to toxic megacolon and sudden fetal decompensation: Case report and literature review. 61
31064034 2019
34
The Skiles Mummy: Care of a debilitated hunter-gatherer evidenced by coprolite studies and stable isotopic analysis of hair. 61
30197207 2019
35
Clostridium difficile, the Difficult "Kloster" Fuelled by Antibiotics. 61
30084095 2019
36
When leucocytosis is not leukaemia. 61
31129636 2019
37
Clostridioides difficile-related toxic megacolon after Cryptococcus neoformans cellulitis: A complex of two rare infections in an immunocompromised host. 61
30797689 2019
38
Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis of Clostridioides difficile Clusters in Ribotype 027 Isolates and Lack of Association with Clinical Outcomes. 61
30760531 2019
39
Using Machine Learning and the Electronic Health Record to Predict Complicated Clostridium difficile Infection. 61
31139672 2019
40
Enterotoxic Clostridia: Clostridioides difficile Infections. 61
31124432 2019
41
Aganglionic megacolon in the adult. Urgent and surprising cause of intestinal occlusion. 61
30912667 2019
42
5-HT3A serotonin receptor in the gastrointestinal tract: the link between immune system and enteric nervous system in the digestive form of Chagas disease. 61
30747295 2019
43
Consensus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. 61
30987771 2019
44
Familial chronic megacolon presenting in childhood or adulthood: Seeking the presumed gene association. 61
30663199 2019
45
1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and structure prediction of translation initiation factor 1 from Clostridium difficile. 61
30370502 2019
46
Effects of pregnancy experience on ovarian senescence and longevity in Hatano rats bred for high- and low-avoidance learning. 61
30553773 2019
47
Current updates in management of Clostridium difficile infection in cancer patients. 61
29888965 2019
48
[First experiences with detection of the tcdB gene of Clostridioides difficile using Simplexa C. difficile Direct Kit]. 61
31266088 2019
49
Non-standard approach to infants and children with megacolon: laparotomy and endorectal pull-through (ERPT) for diagnosis and treatment in difficult countries with low resources in a non-profit setting: return to the past Soave's ERPT. 61
30916520 2019
50
Digital pathology imaging and computer-aided diagnostics as a novel tool for standardization of evaluation of aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) histopathology. 61
30175382 2019

Variations for Megacolon

Expression for Megacolon

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Megacolon.

Pathways for Megacolon

Pathways related to Megacolon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.78 RET NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
2 11.62 TLX2 SOX10 PHOX2B
3 11.44 SOX10 GDNF CHAT
4
Show member pathways
10.8 CHAT ACHE
5 10.71 RET GFRA1 GDNF
6 10.48 CHAT ACHE
7 10.37 NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
8 10.17 CHAT ACHE
9 9.81 RET GFRA1 GDNF

GO Terms for Megacolon

Biological processes related to Megacolon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 9.83 RET NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
2 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.81 ZEB2 RET PHOX2B NRTN KIFBP GFRA1
3 axon guidance GO:0007411 9.65 SEMA3F RET NRTN GFRA1 GDNF
4 response to pain GO:0048265 9.58 RET EDNRB
5 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.58 EDNRB EDN3
6 peripheral nervous system development GO:0007422 9.58 SOX10 GDNF EDNRB
7 sympathetic nervous system development GO:0048485 9.57 PHOX2B GDNF
8 nerve development GO:0021675 9.56 SEMA3F NRTN
9 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.55 CHAT ACHE
10 developmental pigmentation GO:0048066 9.54 ZEB2 EDNRB
11 sympathetic ganglion development GO:0061549 9.51 SEMA3F PHOX2B
12 melanocyte differentiation GO:0030318 9.5 SOX10 EDNRB EDN3
13 glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0035860 9.49 RET GFRA1
14 neural crest cell migration involved in autonomic nervous system development GO:1901166 9.48 SEMA3F PHOX2B
15 positive regulation of penile erection GO:0060406 9.46 VIP EDNRB
16 vein smooth muscle contraction GO:0014826 9.43 EDNRB EDN3
17 enteric nervous system development GO:0048484 9.43 TLX2 SOX10 RET PHOX2B GDNF EDNRB
18 posterior midgut development GO:0007497 9.37 RET EDNRB
19 neural crest cell migration GO:0001755 9.23 ZEB2 SOX10 SEMA3F RET NRTN GDNF

Sources for Megacolon

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
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43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
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48 NCI
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61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
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72 UMLS via Orphanet
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