MCID: MLN008
MIFTS: 68

Melanoma

Categories: Cancer diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Melanoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Melanoma:

Name: Melanoma 12 25 37 29 55 6 43 44 15 63 40 17 72
Cutaneous Melanoma 25 29 6 17 72
Malignant Melanoma 12 25
Malignant Melanomas 15
Naevocarcinoma 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1909
KEGG 37 H00038
MeSH 44 D008545
NCIt 50 C3224
SNOMED-CT 68 2092003
UMLS 72 C0025202 C0151779

Summaries for Melanoma

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. This cancer typically occurs in areas that are only occasionally sun-exposed; tumors are most commonly found on the back in men and on the legs in women. Melanoma usually occurs on the skin (cutaneous melanoma), but in about 5 percent of cases it develops in melanocytes in other tissues, including the eyes (uveal melanoma) or mucous membranes that line the body's cavities, such as the moist lining of the mouth (mucosal melanoma). Melanoma can develop at any age, but it most frequently occurs in people in their fifties to seventies and is becoming more common in teenagers and young adults. Melanoma may develop from an existing mole or other normal skin growth that becomes cancerous (malignant); however, many melanomas are new growths. Melanomas often have ragged edges and an irregular shape. They can range from a few millimeters to several centimeters across. They can also be a variety of colors: brown, black, red, pink, blue, or white. Most melanomas affect only the outermost layer of skin (the epidermis). If a melanoma becomes thicker and involves multiple layers of skin, it can spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). A large number of moles or other pigmented skin growths on the body, generally more than 25, is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Melanoma is also a common feature of genetic syndromes affecting the skin such as xeroderma pigmentosum. Additionally, individuals who have previously had melanoma are nearly nine times more likely than the general population to develop melanoma again. It is estimated that about 90 percent of individuals with melanoma survive at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

MalaCards based summary : Melanoma, also known as cutaneous melanoma, is related to squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck and lung cancer, and has symptoms including pruritus and exanthema. An important gene associated with Melanoma is MIR34A (MicroRNA 34a), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Melanoma and MicroRNAs in cancer. The drugs Vindesine and Pravastatin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, lymph node and t cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A cell type cancer that has material basis in abnormally proliferating cells derives from melanocytes which are found in skin, the bowel and the eye.

MedlinePlus : 43 Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma may also appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal, or "ugly looking." Thinking of "ABCDE" can help you remember what to watch for: Asymmetry - the shape of one half does not match the other Border - the edges are ragged, blurred or irregular Color - the color is uneven and may include shades of black, brown and tan Diameter - there is a change in size, usually an increase Evolving - the mole has changed over the past few weeks or months Surgery is the first treatment of all stages of melanoma. Other treatments include chemotherapy and radiation, biologic, and targeted therapies. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

KEGG : 37
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and in people with fair skin the risk is greatly increased. Melanoma pathogenesis is also driven by genetic factors. Oncogenic NRAS mutations activate both effector pathways Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt. The Raf-MEK-ERK pathway may also be activated via mutations in the BRAF gene. The PI3K-Akt pathway may be activated through loss or mutation of the inhibitory tumor suppressor gene PTEN. These mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Melanoma development has been shown to be strongly associated with inactivation of the p16INK4a/cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6/retinoblastoma protein (p16INK4a/CDK4,6/pRb) and p14ARF/human double minute 2/p53 (p14ARF/HMD2/p53) tumor suppressor pathways. MITF and TP53 are implicated in further melanoma progression.

Novus Biologicals : 56 Melanoma is a malignant tumor that results from uncontrolled growth of pigmented cells, called melanocytes. Several types of melanoma exist, including superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and lentigo melanoma. Melanoma diagnosis is traditionally supported by the presence of the S-100 protein marker and HMB-45, however research has determined the sensitivity and specificity of three novel antibodies as markers for melanoma: Mitf, Melan-A and tyrosinase.

PubMed Health : 63 About melanoma: We all have moles or other small lumps and bumps that are a different color to the rest of our skin. This is perfectly normal and usually nothing to worry about. It is only rarely skin cancer. Skin cancer comes in different forms. The main types are (malignant) melanoma, basal cell cancer (BCC) and squamous cell cancer (SCC). Basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer are sometimes grouped together and referred to as non-melanoma skin cancer. Melanoma, which often looks like a very dark mole, is the most widely known type of skin cancer. This is probably because some types are dangerous and can spread very quickly throughout the body.

Wikipedia : 75 Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the... more...

Related Diseases for Melanoma

Diseases related to Melanoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1868)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck 33.3 SPRY4-IT1 MIR221 MIR205 CXCL8
2 lung cancer 33.0 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR222 MIR221
3 pancreatic cancer 32.3 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR34A MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
4 breast cancer 32.3 STAT1 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR34A MIR222 MIR221
5 glioma 32.2 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR34A MIR222 MIR221 CDKN2B-AS1
6 colorectal cancer 32.0 STAT1 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR221
7 glioblastoma 32.0 MIR34A MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR182
8 prostate cancer 31.9 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR23B MIR222
9 bladder cancer 31.9 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR205
10 hepatocellular carcinoma 31.8 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR23B MIR222
11 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 1 31.8 PVT1 MIR34A MIR222 MIR221 BANCR
12 gastric cancer 31.7 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR34A MIR222 MIR221 CDKN2B-AS1
13 ovarian cancer 31.6 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIR222 MIR221 MIR182 CDKN2B-AS1
14 leukemia, acute myeloid 31.6 MIRLET7B MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR182 CDKN2B-AS1
15 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 31.6 MIRLET7B MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
16 cervical cancer 31.5 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 MIRLET7B MIR23B CDKN2B-AS1
17 malignant glioma 31.5 SPRY4-IT1 PVT1 CDKN2B-AS1
18 osteogenic sarcoma 31.5 PVT1 CDKN2B-AS1 BANCR
19 esophageal cancer 31.5 PVT1 MIR34A MIR205 CXCL8 CDKN2B-AS1
20 dermatomyositis 31.3 MIR222 MIR221
21 oral squamous cell carcinoma 31.0 MIR34A MIR23B MIR221
22 coronary heart disease 1 31.0 MIR222 MIR221 MIR182 CDKN2B-AS1
23 facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 30.7 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR222 MIR221
24 muscular dystrophy, duchenne type 30.6 MIR34A MIR222 MIR221
25 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 1 12.8
26 melanoma, uveal 12.7
27 ocular melanoma 12.7
28 acral lentiginous melanoma 12.7
29 skin melanoma 12.7
30 melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome 12.6
31 nodular malignant melanoma 12.6
32 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 8 12.6
33 digestive system melanoma 12.6
34 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 2 12.6
35 melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome 12.6
36 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 12.6
37 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 3 12.6
38 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 9 12.6
39 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 6 12.6
40 amelanotic melanoma 12.5
41 mucosal melanoma 12.5
42 primary melanoma of the central nervous system 12.5
43 malignant spindle cell melanoma 12.5
44 melanoma-associated retinopathy 12.5
45 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 4 12.5
46 superficial spreading melanoma 12.5
47 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 7 12.5
48 melanoma, cutaneous malignant 10 12.5
49 lentigo maligna melanoma 12.4
50 melanoma in congenital melanocytic nevus 12.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Melanoma:



Diseases related to Melanoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Melanoma

UMLS symptoms related to Melanoma:


pruritus, exanthema

Drugs & Therapeutics for Melanoma

PubMed Health treatment related to Melanoma: 63

After melanoma is diagnosed, the first step is usually to try to remove it surgically. If it is already advanced or metastatic tumors have developed elsewhere, surgery is combined with other treatments such as medication or radiation.

Drugs for Melanoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 642)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Vindesine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 59917-39-4, 53643-48-4 40839
2
Pravastatin Approved Phase 4 81093-37-0 54687
3
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 69-72-7 338
4
Ciclopirox Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29342-05-0 2749
5
Isotretinoin Approved Phase 4 4759-48-2 5282379 5538
6
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
7
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
8
Selegiline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 14611-51-9 5195 26757
9
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
10
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 4 106-60-5 137
11
Cabergoline Approved Phase 4 81409-90-7 54746
12
Menthol Approved Phase 4 2216-51-5 16666
13
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
14
Tofacitinib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 477600-75-2
15
Adalimumab Approved Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
16
Ramucirumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 947687-13-0
17
Sorafenib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 284461-73-0 216239 406563
18
Crizotinib Approved Phase 4 877399-52-5 11626560 10366136 10366137 10366138 10366139 10366140 10366141
19
Palbociclib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 571190-30-2 5330286 11431660 5005498
20
Bortezomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 179324-69-7 93860 387447
21
Lapatinib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 388082-78-8, 231277-92-2 208908 9941095
22
Olaparib Approved Phase 4 763113-22-0 23725625
23
Ceritinib Approved Phase 4 1032900-25-6
24
Gefitinib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 184475-35-2 123631
25
Sunitinib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 557795-19-4, 341031-54-7 5329102
26
Lactitol Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4, 585-88-6 493591
27
Epicatechin Investigational Phase 4 35323-91-2, 490-46-0 72276
28
Theobromine Investigational Phase 4 83-67-0 5429
29 Keratolytic Agents Phase 4
30 Salicylates Phase 4
31 Cyclosporins Phase 4
32 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
33 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
34 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4
35 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
36 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
37 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
39 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
40 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
41 Viscosupplements Phase 4
42 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Phase 4
43 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
44 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
45 Antipruritics Phase 4
46
Erlotinib Hydrochloride Phase 4 183319-69-9 176871
47 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 4
48
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
49
Tegafur Approved, Investigational Phase 3 17902-23-7 5386
50
Timolol Approved Phase 3 26839-75-8 33624 5478

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2810)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Standard Palliative Care Versus Standard Palliative Care Plus Polychemotherapy (CVD-Protocol) in the Second-Line Therapy of Distant Metastasized Malignant Melanoma Unknown status NCT00226473 Phase 4 Cisplatin, Vindesine, Dacarbazine (drugs)
2 Immune Modulation Study in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Treated With Anti-PD1 Monoclonal Antibodies Unknown status NCT02626065 Phase 4 Nivolumab
3 A Randomized Control Trial of Intravitreal Ranibizumab (Lucentis) for the Prevention of Radiation Maculopathy Following Plaque Radiotherapy for Choroidal Melanoma Unknown status NCT00540930 Phase 4 Ranibizumab
4 Transpupillary Thermotherapy (TTT) Alone Versus the Combined Therapy Consisting of TTT and Intravitreal Injection of Triamcinolone to Decrease Exudation in Choroidal Melanoma After Proton Beam Therapy Unknown status NCT02379000 Phase 4 Triamcinolone Acetonide
5 Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pravastatin on Survival and Recurrence of Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer Unknown status NCT01038154 Phase 4 Pravastatin
6 Clinical, Laboratorial and Quality of Life Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Low-dose Oral Isotretinoin for Seborrhea. Unknown status NCT01139749 Phase 4 oral isotretinoin;salicylic acid and ciclopirox olamine
7 Can Fibrin Sealant be Used to Reduce Post-operative Drainage Following Lymph Node Dissection: a Prospective Randomised Double Blind Trial. Completed NCT00324272 Phase 4 Fibrin Sealant (Tisseel) used in the Experimental Arm.
8 Can We Miss Pigmented Lesions in Psoriasis Patients? Completed NCT01053819 Phase 4 etanercept
9 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Antagonist Infliximab in Treatment Resistant Major Depression: Mechanisms and Mediators Completed NCT00463580 Phase 4 Infliximab;Placebo
10 A Randomized, Open-Label Study to Compare the Rate of New Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in Maintenance Renal Allograft Recipients Converted to a Sirolimus-based Regimen Versus Continuation of a Calcineurin Inhibitor-based Regimen Completed NCT00129961 Phase 4 sirolimus;cyclosporine or tacrolimus
11 A Randomized Control Trial for Lymphocele and Lymphorrhea Control Following Inguinal and Axillary Radical Lymph Node Dissection Completed NCT02476357 Phase 4
12 IL-2 Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Mechanism and Prevention Completed NCT00352885 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Placebo;IL-2
13 Photodynamic Therapy for Melanoma Precursor Lesion Lentigo Maligna Using 5-aminolevulinic Acid Nanoemulsion (BF-200 ALA) as a Light Sensitizing Cream Completed NCT02685592 Phase 4 5-aminolevulinic acid nanoemulsion
14 An Open-Label Study Using the MedPulser Electroporation System to Treat Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Foci of Cancer Completed NCT00198276 Phase 4
15 Prospective, Controlled and Monocentric Study to Evaluate the Effects of Topical 3% Diclofenac in 2.5% Hyaluronic Acid Gel on Tumor Metabolism in the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients Completed NCT01935531 Phase 4 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel
16 Treatment of AKs With Daylight-PDT: Comparing Two Photosensitizers (BF-200 ALA and MAL) Completed NCT01893203 Phase 4 BF-200 ALA cream;MAL cream
17 Tolerability and Efficacy of Switch From Oral Selegiline to Orally Disintegrating Selegiline (Zelapar) in Patients With Parkinson's Disease. Completed NCT00640159 Phase 4 Zelapar
18 A Prospective, Randomized Trial Comparing Surgery Versus Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Metastatic Brain Tumors Completed NCT00075166 Phase 4
19 A Comparison of Polyglactin 910 and Chromic Gut Suture in the Closure of Punch Biopsy Sites Completed NCT01722994 Phase 4
20 Neoadjuvant GM-CSF Treatment and Modulation of Immune Cell Profile of the SLN in Melanoma Recruiting NCT02451488 Phase 4 GM-CSF
21 Open Label, Multi-center Roll-over Study to Assess Long Term Safety in Patients Who Have Completed a Global Novartis or GSK Sponsored Dabrafenib and/or Trametinib Study Recruiting NCT03340506 Phase 4 dabrafenib;trametinib
22 A Prospective, Open-label, Phase 4 Study to Evaluate the Safety of Pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA®) in Subjects With Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma or PD-L1 Positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in India (Keynote-593) Recruiting NCT03715205 Phase 4 Pembrolizumab
23 An Open Label, Multi-center Pasireotide Roll-over Protocol for Patients Who Have Completed a Previous Novartis-sponsored Pasireotide Study and Are Judged by the Investigator to Benefit From Continued Pasireotide Treatment Recruiting NCT01794793 Phase 4 Pasireotide;Cabergoline;Pasireotide
24 A Randomised Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Topical Menthol for Pain Relief During Topical Photodynamic Therapy Recruiting NCT02984072 Phase 4 Menthol;Aqueous Cream
25 Surgical Excision Versus Photodynamic Therapy and Topical 5-fluorouracil in Treatment of Bowen's Disease: a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03909646 Phase 4 Methyl Aminolevulinate (Mal) for Topical Administration, 16.8%, 1 Gram;5Fluorouracil
26 An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Multicenter Study To Assess The Safety Of Vemurafenib In Patients With Braf V600 Mutation Positive Metastatic Melanoma In South Africa. Active, not recruiting NCT01898585 Phase 4 Zelboraf
27 Phase IV Ipilimumab in Melanoma: A National, Multicenter, Interventional Study in Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma Active, not recruiting NCT02068196 Phase 4 Ipilimumab
28 PHASE 3B/4 RANDOMIZED SAFETY ENDPOINT STUDY OF 2 DOSES OF TOFACITINIB IN COMPARISON TO A TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR (TNF) INHIBITOR IN SUBJECTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Active, not recruiting NCT02092467 Phase 4 tofacitinib;tofacitinib
29 COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study Active, not recruiting NCT02422745 Phase 4
30 Influenza Vaccine Responses in the Setting of Melanoma Treatment Enrolling by invitation NCT03315975 Phase 4
31 Molecular Profiling and Matched Targeted Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Not yet recruiting NCT02645149 Phase 4 Standard therapy or clinical trial;Matched targeted therapy;Trametinib and / or supportive care
32 Elderly Cancer PatIents Treated for Advanced or Metastatic Melanoma or NSCLC, Safety and qualiTy of Life Under immunOtheraPies: a Phase IV Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03673332 Phase 4 immune-checkpoint inhibitors therapies
33 Evolution of the Heart Function When Monitoring Immunotherapies Anti-cancerous Inhibiting Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1) Not yet recruiting NCT03313544 Phase 4 Nivolumab
34 Open-Label, Randomized, Multi-Center Study Comparing the Sequence of High Dose Aldesleukin (Interleukin-2) and Ipilimumab (Yervoy) in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Terminated NCT01856023 Phase 4 High Dose Interleukin-2;Ipilimumab
35 A Multi-Center Study of High Dose Aldesleukin (Interleukin-2) + Vemurafenib Therapy in Patients With BRAFV600 Mutation Positive Metastatic Melanoma Terminated NCT01683188 Phase 4 vemurafenib + HD IL-2
36 A Study of Biological, Pathological and Imagery Markers in the First-line Treatment of Metastatic Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma With Sunitinib BEFORE and AFTER Nephrectomy Terminated NCT00930345 Phase 4 Sunitinib (SUTENT)
37 Phase II GENIUS Trial of GENetically-Informed Therapies for Patients With previoUSly Treated Refractory Metastatic Cancer Withdrawn NCT02000739 Phase 4
38 A Phase III Randomized Double-Blind Pivotal Trial of Immunotherapy With a Polyvalent Melanoma Vaccine, CancerVax™ Vaccine Plus BCG Versus Placebo Plus BCG as a Post-Surgical Treatment for Stage IV Melanoma Unknown status NCT00052156 Phase 3
39 Phase III Randomized Double-Blind Pivotal Trial of Immunotherapy With BCG Plus a Polyvalent Melanoma Vaccine, CancerVax™ Vaccine Versus BCG Plus a Placebo as a Post-Surgical Treatment for Stage III Melanoma Unknown status NCT00052130 Phase 3
40 Randomized, Comparative Phase II/III Study Between Treatment With CSF470 Vaccine (Allogeneic, Irradiated) Plus BCG and MOLGRAMOSTIN (rhGM-CSF) as Adjuvants and Interferon-alfa 2b (IFN-ALPHA), in Stages IIB, IIC and III Post Surgery Cutaneous Melanoma Patients Unknown status NCT01729663 Phase 2, Phase 3 interferon alpha 2b
41 Adjuvant Ganglioside GM2-KLH/QS-21 Vaccination: Post-Operative Adjuvant Ganglioside GM2-KLH/QS-21 (BMS-248479) Vaccination Treatment After Resection of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma Thicker Than 1.5mm (AJCC/UICC Stage II, T3-T4N0M0), a 2-Arm Multicenter Randomized Phase III Trial vs. Observation Unknown status NCT00005052 Phase 3
42 A Pivotal Phase III, Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Multi-center Study of the Efficacy of L19IL2/L19TNF Neoadjuvant Intratumoral Treatment Followed by Surgery Versus Surgery Alone in Clinical Stage III B/C Melanoma Patients Unknown status NCT02938299 Phase 3 L19IL2 + L19TNF
43 PHASE III TRIAL OF MELACINE PLUS INTERFERON ALFA-2B VERSUS INTERFERON ALFA-2B IN PATIENTS WITH DISSEMINATED MALIGNANT MELANOMA Unknown status NCT00002767 Phase 3
44 Randomized, Multicenter Study for Adjuvant Treatment of Stage III Malignant Melanoma: Intermittent, High-Dose Intravenous Interferon Alpha-2b Versus Standard High-Dose Interferon Alpha-2b Therapy Unknown status NCT00226408 Phase 3 Interferon-alpha-2b
45 A Phase III, Multi-Center Controlled Trial With Stratified Randomization Comparing The Efficacy Of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Plus Histamine Dihydrochloride (HDC) Versus IL-2 Alone To Increase The Duration Of Survival In Patients With AJCC Stage IV Malignant Melanoma With Hepatic Metastasis Unknown status NCT00039234 Phase 3 histamine dihydrochloride
46 A Randomized, Open and Control Clinical Study of Endostar Injection Concomitant With SOX Protocols in Treating Advanced Gastric Cancer Unknown status NCT02008422 Phase 3 Oxaliplatin;Gimeracil and Oteracil Potassium Capsule;Endostar injection
47 Immunotherapy of Colon Cancer With Autologous Perchloric Soluble Tumors Extracts Unknown status NCT00002455 Phase 3
48 POST-OPERATIVE ADJUVANT INTERFERON-ALFA-2B (INTRON-A) TREATMENT AFTER RESECTION OF THICK PRIMARY MELANOMA AND/OR REGIONAL LYMPHNODE METASTASES 'INTERMEDIATE-HIGH DOSE' VS INTERMEDIATE-LOW DOSE' IFN-ALFA VS OBSERVATION: A 3-ARM MULTICENTER RANDOMIZED PHASE III TRIAL Unknown status NCT00002763 Phase 3
49 Treatment Of Radiation Retinopathy Trial Subtitle: Treatment of Radiation Retinopathy; Influence of Lucentis® and Kenalog® on Radiation Retinopathy After Irradiation of Choroidal Melanoma. Unknown status NCT00811200 Phase 2, Phase 3 ranibizumab;triamcinolone acetonide
50 Allogeneic Vaccine Modified to Express HLA A2/4-1BB Ligand for High Risk or Low Residual Disease Melanoma Patients Unknown status NCT01861938 Phase 2, Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Melanoma

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Aldesleukin
Carmustine
dabrafenib
Dacarbazine
docetaxel
hydroxyurea
Hydroxyurea
Interferon Alfa-2a
Interferon alfa-2b
Interferon Alfa-2b
INTERFERON ALFA-3N,HUMAN LEUKOCYTE DERIVED
interferon alfacon-1
Interferon gamma-1b
Interferons
Lomustine
peginterferon alfa-2a
peginterferon alfa-2b
Peginterferon alfa-2b
pembrolizumab
Procarbazine
Procarbazine Hydrochloride
Recombinant interferon beta-1a
Recombinant interferon beta-1b
Technetium Tc-99m sulfur colloid
temozolomide
trametinib
Vemurafenib

Cochrane evidence based reviews: melanoma

Genetic Tests for Melanoma

Genetic tests related to Melanoma:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Cutaneous Melanoma 29
2 Melanoma 29

Anatomical Context for Melanoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Melanoma:

41
Skin, Lymph Node, T Cells, Brain, Lung, Breast, Liver

Publications for Melanoma

Articles related to Melanoma:

(show top 50) (show all 38079)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma. 9 38 88
20304954 2010
2
MicroRNA-dependent regulation of cKit in cutaneous melanoma. 9 38 88
19126397 2009
3
Real-world experience with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced melanoma: A large retrospective observational study. 38 17
31348273 2019
4
Prediction of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy using 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with melanoma. 38 17
31335691 2019
5
MicroRNA expression profiles associated with mutational status and survival in malignant melanoma. 38 88
20357817 2010
6
Regulation of RUNX3 tumor suppressor gene expression in cutaneous melanoma. 38 88
19336521 2009
7
MicroRNA-34a inhibits uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration through downregulation of c-Met. 38 88
19029026 2009
8
Aberrant miR-182 expression promotes melanoma metastasis by repressing FOXO3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. 38 88
19188590 2009
9
MicroRNA-221 and -222 pathway controls melanoma progression. 38 88
18983236 2008
10
MicroRNA let-7b targets important cell cycle molecules in malignant melanoma cells and interferes with anchorage-independent growth. 9 88
18379589 2008
11
The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-microRNA-221/-222 pathway controls melanoma progression through multiple oncogenic mechanisms. 38 88
18417445 2008
12
Real-world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes among patients with advanced melanoma: A retrospective, community oncology-based cohort study (A STROBE-compliant article). 17
31305421 2019
13
A Variant in a MicroRNA complementary site in the 3' UTR of the KIT oncogene increases risk of acral melanoma. 88
21119596 2011
14
Distinct molecular mechanisms leading to deficient expression of ER-resident aminopeptidases in melanoma. 9 38
20419298 2010
15
Co-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and transforming growth factor-beta in melanoma development and progression. 9 38
20514447 2010
16
S100A13 is a new angiogenic marker in human melanoma. 9 38
20208480 2010
17
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 regulates melanoma vascular development. 9 38
20431030 2010
18
MicroRNA-15b represents an independent prognostic parameter and is correlated with tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant melanoma. 88
19830692 2010
19
Serum markers of cutaneous melanoma. 9 38
20515782 2010
20
MC1R variants increase melanoma risk in families with CDKN2A mutations: a meta-analysis. 9 38
20189796 2010
21
Chemokine-chemokine receptor axes in melanoma brain metastasis. 9 38
20005902 2010
22
Relationship between germline MC1R variants and BRAF-mutant melanoma in a North Carolina population-based study. 9 38
20043015 2010
23
Simultaneous inhibition of MEK and CDK4 leads to potent apoptosis in human melanoma cells. 9 38
19968499 2010
24
Signatures of microRNAs and selected microRNA target genes in human melanoma. 88
20442294 2010
25
Mutation-driven drug development in melanoma. 9 38
20401974 2010
26
Fascin, cortactin and survivin expression of melanocytic neoplasms and association with clinicopathological parameters and anatomic locations in Chinese people. 9 38
20400386 2010
27
Targeting CXCR1/CXCR2 receptor antagonism in malignant melanoma. 9 38
20230195 2010
28
Lysyl oxidase expression and inhibition in uveal melanoma. 9 38
20179655 2010
29
Roles of endothelin signaling in melanocyte development and melanoma. 9 38
20128875 2010
30
Purification and N-glycosylation analysis of melanoma antigen dopachrome tautomerase. 9 38
20386969 2010
31
Pharmacodynamic (phase 0) study using etaracizumab in advanced melanoma. 9 38
20445352 2010
32
PAX3 and SOX10 activate MET receptor expression in melanoma. 9 38
20067553 2010
33
Interferon alpha adjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 9 38
20179267 2010
34
CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CXCR4 (+) lymphocytes are inversely associated with progression in stages I-III melanoma patients. 9 38
19779716 2010
35
Functional alterations in protein kinase C beta II expression in melanoma. 9 38
20015121 2010
36
PPARbeta activation inhibits melanoma cell proliferation involving repression of the Wilms' tumour suppressor WT1. 9 38
20066433 2010
37
MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells. 9 38
20098411 2010
38
Constitutive HIF-1 activity in malignant melanoma. 9 38
20185296 2010
39
Cell cycle inhibitor p21/ WAF1/ CIP1 as a cofactor of MITF expression in melanoma cells. 9 38
20067556 2010
40
KGF Promotes Paracrine Activation of the SCF/c-KIT Axis from Human Keratinocytes to Melanoma Cells. 9 38
20360932 2010
41
Evaluation of the mTOR pathway in ocular (uvea and conjunctiva) melanoma. 9 38
20173664 2010
42
Mutations in KIT occur at low frequency in melanomas arising from anatomical sites associated with chronic and intermittent sun exposure. 9 38
20088873 2010
43
Melanoma biomarker expression in melanocytic tumor progression: a tissue microarray study. 9 38
20482674 2010
44
Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16INK4A, E-cadherin, and cyclin D1 expression in melanoma and Spitz tumors. 9 38
20154275 2010
45
Quantitative expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, and VEGF-R3 in melanoma tissue microarrays. 9 38
20004943 2010
46
Overcoming immunological tolerance to melanoma: Targeting CTLA-4. 9 38
20482528 2010
47
Enhanced T-cell activation by immature dendritic cells loaded with HSP70-expressing heat-killed melanoma cells. 9 38
19758341 2010
48
TYRO3-mediated regulation of MITF: a novel target in melanoma? 9 38
19843245 2010
49
Distinct MHC gene expression patterns during progression of melanoma. 9 38
19862823 2010
50
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression is altered by hypoxia in melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes. 9 38
20051782 2010

Variations for Melanoma

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Melanoma:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 FBN1 NM_000138.4(FBN1): c.5788+5G> A single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs193922219 15:48738898-48738898 15:48446701-48446701
2 CDKN2A NM_000077.4(CDKN2A): c.197A> C (p.His66Pro) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs756750256 9:21971161-21971161 9:21971162-21971162
3 BRCA2 NM_000059.3(BRCA2): c.2063A> G (p.Tyr688Cys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs28897713 13:32910555-32910555 13:32336418-32336418

Cosmic variations for Melanoma:

9 (show top 50) (show all 553)
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM5111 PTEN skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.737C>T p.P246L 10:87957955-87957955 24
2 COSM231651 PREX2 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,nodular c.2323C>T p.P775S 8:68093677-68093677 24
3 COSM231665 PREX2 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.4646C>T p.A1549V 8:68217657-68217657 24
4 COSM231627 PREX2 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.34G>T p.E12* 8:67952428-67952428 24
5 COSM231662 PREX2 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,nodular c.4127C>T p.A1376V 8:68146248-68146248 24
6 COSM231655 PREX2 skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.2531G>A p.G844D 8:68097179-68097179 24
7 COSM231663 PREX2 skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.4165G>A p.E1389K 8:68146286-68146286 24
8 COSM581 NRAS skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,nodular c.181C>G p.Q61E 1:114713909-114713909 24
9 COSM1756934 NF1 skin,back,malignant melanoma,nodular c.3028C>T p.Q1010* 17:31230297-31230297 24
10 COSM25914 MLH1 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,nodular c.1732-1G>A p.? 3:37047518-37047518 24
11 COSM520 KRAS skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.35G>T p.G12V 12:25245350-25245350 24
12 COSM476 BRAF skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.1799T>A p.V600E 7:140753336-140753336 24
13 COSM1139 BRAF skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.1840T>C p.S614P 7:140753295-140753295 24
14 COSM19030 APC skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.4431G>T p.Q1477H 5:112840025-112840025 24
15 COSM231656 skin,back,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.2531G>A p.G844D 8:68097179-68097179 24
16 COSM231652 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,nodular c.2323C>T p.P775S 8:68093677-68093677 24
17 COSM231628 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.34G>T p.E12* 8:67952428-67952428 24
18 COSM6976263 ZFHX3 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.1064C>T p.A355V 16:72959082-72959082 18
19 COSM1703787 WT1 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,NS c.1169G>A p.R390Q 11:32392031-32392031 18
20 COSM7408648 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2281T>C p.Y761H 9:132902715-132902715 18
21 COSM7408647 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2102A>G p.Q701R 9:132903757-132903757 18
22 COSM7408642 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.587C>A p.P196H 9:132921895-132921895 18
23 COSM6912060 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.323C>T p.S108F 9:132925627-132925627 18
24 COSM7408651 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.1598C>A p.P533H 9:132905980-132905980 18
25 COSM7408649 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2974A>G p.R992G 9:132897185-132897185 18
26 COSM7408644 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2541C>A p.F847L 9:132900799-132900799 18
27 COSM7408646 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.1375C>G p.L459V 9:132906794-132906794 18
28 COSM7408652 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2518T>A p.S840T 9:132900822-132900822 18
29 COSM7408650 TSC1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.322T>C p.S108P 9:132925628-132925628 18
30 COSM107494 TRRAP skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,NS c.2165C>T p.S722F 7:98912179-98912179 18
31 COSM6939354 TRAF2 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.923G>A p.R308Q 9:136920478-136920478 18
32 COSM44026 TP53 skin,NS,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.559G>A p.G187S 17:7675053-7675053 18
33 COSM10662 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.743G>A p.R248Q 17:7674220-7674220 18
34 COSM10718 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.524G>T p.R175L 17:7675088-7675088 18
35 COSM10867 TP53 skin,NS,malignant melanoma,nodular c.797G>A p.G266E 17:7673823-7673823 18
36 COSM6913 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.783-1G>T p.? 17:7673838-7673838 18
37 COSM10794 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.796G>A p.G266R 17:7673824-7673824 18
38 COSM46043 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.375+2T>G p.? 17:7675992-7675992 18
39 COSM10704 TP53 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.844C>T p.R282W 17:7673776-7673776 18
40 COSM43690 TP53 skin,NS,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.592G>A p.E198K 17:7674939-7674939 18
41 COSM10656 TP53 skin,NS,malignant melanoma,superficial spreading c.742C>T p.R248W 17:7674221-7674221 18
42 COSM10863 TP53 skin,back,malignant melanoma,NS c.833C>T p.P278L 17:7673787-7673787 18
43 COSM108917 TMEM132B skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,NS c.2465G>A p.G822E 12:125653938-125653938 18
44 COSM131816 TIE1 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,NS c.292G>A p.D98N 1:43305084-43305084 18
45 COSM6913900 TET2 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.3352A>G p.N1118D 4:105237294-105237294 18
46 COSM6966846 STAG2 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.2927A>T p.D976V 23:124083423-124083423 18
47 COSM6922321 SMARCA4 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.797C>T p.S266L 19:10986941-10986941 18
48 COSM5342615 SMAD3 skin,upper leg,malignant melanoma,NS c.1072C>T p.Q358* 15:67187427-67187427 18
49 COSM110696 SF3B1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.1873C>T p.R625C 2:197402760-197402760 18
50 COSM255276 SF3B1 skin,mucosal,malignant melanoma,NS c.1874G>A p.R625H 2:197402759-197402759 18

Copy number variations for Melanoma from CNVD:

7 (show top 50) (show all 1973)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 13791 1 1 46500000 Insertion Melanoma
2 13897 1 1007060 1041599 Amplification C1orf159 Melanoma
3 14968 1 111600000 148000000 Deletion Melanoma
4 15008 1 111800000 116100000 Gain NRAS Melanoma
5 15387 1 115048600 115061038 Gain NRAS Melanoma
6 18715 1 147200000 149200000 Ampfication SETDB1 Melanoma
7 20086 1 15300000 247249719 Insertion Melanoma
8 21281 7 92072170 92303813 Gain CDK6 Malignant melanoma
9 24543 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification ASPM Melanoma
10 24544 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification ATP6V1G3 Melanoma
11 24545 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification B3GALT2 Melanoma
12 24546 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification C1orf27 Melanoma
13 24547 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification C1orf53 Melanoma
14 24548 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification C1orf99 Melanoma
15 24549 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CDC73 Melanoma
16 24550 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFH Melanoma
17 24551 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFHR1 Melanoma
18 24552 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFHR2 Melanoma
19 24553 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFHR3 Melanoma
20 24554 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFHR4 Melanoma
21 24555 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CFHR5 Melanoma
22 24556 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification CRB1 Melanoma
23 24557 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification DENND1B Melanoma
24 24558 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification F13B Melanoma
25 24559 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification FAM5C Melanoma
26 24560 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification GLRX2 Melanoma
27 24561 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification HMCN1 Melanoma
28 24562 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification KCNT2 Melanoma
29 24563 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification LHX9 Melanoma
30 24564 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification NEK7 Melanoma
31 24565 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification OCLM Melanoma
32 24566 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification PDC Melanoma
33 24567 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification PLA2G4A Melanoma
34 24568 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification PRG4 Melanoma
35 24569 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification PTGS2 Melanoma
36 24570 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification PTPRC Melanoma
37 24571 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification RGS1 Melanoma
38 24572 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification RGS13 Melanoma
39 24573 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification RGS18 Melanoma
40 24574 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification RGS2 Melanoma
41 24575 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification RGS21 Melanoma
42 24576 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification TPR Melanoma
43 24577 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification TROVE2 Melanoma
44 24578 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification UCHL5 Melanoma
45 24579 1 182188599 196365692 Amplification ZBTB41 Melanoma
46 26238 1 198304656 198310281 Deletion Melanoma
47 29172 1 228366540 228914590 LOH Melanoma
48 29295 1 2300000 46500000 Insertion Melanoma
49 29296 1 2300000 46500000 Insertion Melanoma
50 30306 1 241700000 247249719 Insertion Melanoma

Expression for Melanoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Melanoma.

Pathways for Melanoma

Pathways related to Melanoma according to KEGG:

37
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Melanoma hsa05218

Pathways related to Melanoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.66 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR205
2 10.83 MIR23B MIR222 MIR221

GO Terms for Melanoma

Cellular components related to Melanoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 MIRLET7B MIR532 MIR222 MIR221 MIR205 MIR182

Biological processes related to Melanoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.88 MIR34A MIR23B MIR182 CDKN2B-AS1
2 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.83 MIRLET7B MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
3 negative regulation of angiogenesis GO:0016525 9.72 STAT1 MIR34A MIR222
4 miRNA mediated inhibition of translation GO:0035278 9.69 MIR222 MIR221 MIR182
5 positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis GO:1903589 9.57 MIRLET7B MIR23B
6 negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration GO:1904753 9.56 MIR34A MIR182
7 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900016 9.54 MIR222 MIR221
8 negative regulation of sprouting angiogenesis GO:1903671 9.54 MIR34A MIR23B MIR221
9 positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation GO:0045648 9.5 STAT1 MIR222 MIR221
10 positive regulation of axon regeneration GO:0048680 9.49 MIR222 MIR221
11 negative regulation by host of viral genome replication GO:0044828 9.48 MIR222 MIR221
12 negative regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell GO:1904995 9.46 MIR222 MIR221
13 negative regulation of cell adhesion molecule production GO:0060354 9.43 MIR222 MIR221
14 negative regulation of TRAIL-activated apoptotic signaling pathway GO:1903122 9.4 MIR222 MIR221
15 gene silencing by miRNA GO:0035195 9.28 MIRLET7B MIR532 MIR34A MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
16 positive regulation of Schwann cell proliferation involved in axon regeneration GO:1905046 9.26 MIR222 MIR221
17 positive regulation of Schwann cell migration GO:1900149 9.16 MIR222 MIR221
18 negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation GO:1902034 8.96 MIR222 MIR221

Molecular functions related to Melanoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mRNA binding involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing GO:1903231 9.17 MIRLET7B MIR34A MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR193B

Sources for Melanoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....