Aliases & Classifications for Meniere Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Meniere Disease:

Name: Meniere Disease 57 12 53 25 37 44 40 73 25
Meniere's Disease 12 53 25 43 15
Ménière's Disease 53 25 6
Otogenic Vertigo 12 25
Primary Endolymphatic Hydrops 25
Meniere's Syndrome 25
Ménière's Vertigo 25
Auditory Vertigo 25
Menieres Disease 55
Mnire's Vertigo 12
Vertigo, Aural 73
Aural Vertigo 25

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant

Miscellaneous:
onset usually between 30 and 50 years of age
prevalence of 0.5 to 1 in 1,000
incomplete penetrance


HPO:

32
meniere disease:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance
Onset and clinical course incomplete penetrance


Classifications:

MalaCards categories:
Global: Rare diseases
Anatomical: Ear diseases


Summaries for Meniere Disease

MedlinePlus : 43 Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ears called tinnitus, hearing loss that comes and goes and the feeling of ear pressure or pain. It usually affects just one ear. It is a common cause of hearing loss. Attacks of dizziness may come on suddenly or after a short period of tinnitus or muffled hearing. Some people have single attacks of dizziness once in a while. Others may have many attacks close together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is so bad they lose their balance and fall. Scientists don't yet know the cause. They think that it has to do with the fluid levels or the mixing of fluids in the canals of your inner ear. Doctors diagnose it based on a physical exam and your symptoms. A hearing test can check to see how it has affected your hearing. There is no cure. Treatments include medicines to control dizziness, limiting salt in your diet, and taking water pills. A device that fits into the outer ear and delivers air pulses to the middle ear can help. Severe cases may require surgery. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

MalaCards based summary : Meniere Disease, also known as meniere's disease, is related to active cochleovestibular meniere's disease and active vestibular meniere's disease, and has symptoms including coughing, snoring and tinnitus. An important gene associated with Meniere Disease is FAM136A (Family With Sequence Similarity 136 Member A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds. The drugs Betahistine and Histamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes and brain, and related phenotypes are hearing impairment and vertigo

OMIM : 57 Meniere disease is a chronic illness characterized by intermittent episodes of vertigo lasting from minutes to hours, with fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural pressure (Sajjadi and Paparella, 2008). (156000)

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Ménière's disease is an abnormality of the inner ear. Signs and symptoms may include disabling vertigo or severe dizziness lasting from minutes to hours; tinnitus or a roaring sound in the ears; fluctuating hearing loss; and the sensation of pressure or pain in the affected ear. A small percentage of people have drop attacks. The disorder usually affects only one ear, but some people develop symptoms in both ears many years after their initial diagnosis. Although the exact cause of Ménière's disease is unknown, the symptoms are thought to be associated with a change in fluid volume within a portion of the inner ear known as the labyrinth. Treatment may include medications or surgery depending on the severity of the condition.

Disease Ontology : 12 A vestibular disease characterized by vertigo, low-pitched tinnitus and hearing loss.

Wikipedia : 76 Ménière\'s disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like... more...

Related Diseases for Meniere Disease

Diseases related to Meniere Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 active cochleovestibular meniere's disease 11.0
2 active vestibular meniere's disease 11.0
3 active cochlear meniere's disease 11.0
4 kanzaki disease 10.9
5 motion sickness 10.6 AQP1 FAM136A
6 central pontine myelinolysis 10.6 AQP1 AQP4
7 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 10.6 AQP1 AQP4
8 subependymoma 10.6 AQP1 AQP4
9 idiopathic edema 10.6 AQP1 AQP2
10 acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis 10.5 AQP1 AQP4
11 deafness, autosomal dominant 15 10.5 DTNA FAM136A
12 peripheral vertigo 10.4 AQP2 COCH FAM136A
13 vestibular disease 10.4 AQP2 COCH FAM136A
14 hydrarthrosis 10.4 AQP1 AQP3
15 deafness, autosomal dominant 28 10.4 DTNA FAM136A
16 inappropriate adh syndrome 10.4 AQP1 AQP2 AQP4
17 neuromyelitis optica 10.3 AQP1 AQP4
18 aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands 10.3 AQP5 MIP
19 impaired renal function disease 10.3 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3
20 intracranial hypertension 10.2 AQP1 AQP4
21 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.2 AQP4 MIP
22 dysferlinopathy 10.1 AQP1 AQP4 MIP
23 bullous keratopathy 10.1 AQP3 MIP
24 brain edema 10.1 AQP1 AQP4 MIP
25 polyhydramnios 10.0 AQP1 AQP3
26 deafness, autosomal dominant 9 10.0 COCH FAM136A SLC44A2
27 oligohydramnios 9.8 AQP1 AQP3
28 venous insufficiency 9.7
29 hypoparathyroidism 9.7
30 labyrinthitis 9.7
31 diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, autosomal 9.4 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 MIP

Comorbidity relations with Meniere Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Active Vestibular Meniere's Disease Anxiety
Esophagitis Hypertension, Essential
Hypothyroidism Ischemic Heart Disease
Labyrinthitis Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Meniere Disease:



Diseases related to Meniere Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Meniere Disease

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Head And Neck Ears:
vertigo, episodic
hearing impairment, sensorineural, fluctuating
tinnitus
aural fullness


Clinical features from OMIM:

156000

Human phenotypes related to Meniere Disease:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hearing impairment 32 HP:0000365
2 vertigo 32 HP:0002321
3 tinnitus 32 HP:0000360

UMLS symptoms related to Meniere Disease:


coughing, snoring, tinnitus, vertigo, sore throat, vertigo/dizziness, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Meniere Disease:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.1 AQP1 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 COCH SLC44A2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Meniere Disease

Drugs for Meniere Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 104)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Betahistine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 5638-76-6 2366
2
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
3
Cisplatin Approved Phase 4 15663-27-1 84093 441203 2767
4
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 50-02-2 5743
5
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
6
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 59-67-6 938
7
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 98-92-0 936
8
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 1406-66-2 14986
9
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
10
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4,Phase 2 51-74-1 65513
11 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
12 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
13 Antiemetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
14 Antimetabolites Phase 4,Phase 3
15 Antioxidants Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
16 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
17 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
19 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
20 Micronutrients Phase 4
21 Nicotinic Acids Phase 4
22 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
23 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
24 Tocopherols Phase 4
25 Tocotrienols Phase 4
26 Trace Elements Phase 4
27 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
28 Vitamins Phase 4
29 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2
30 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
31 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
32 BB 1101 Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
33 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate Phase 4
34 Dexamethasone acetate Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 1177-87-3
35 glucocorticoids Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
36 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
37 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
38 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
39 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
40
protease inhibitors Phase 4
41 Folate Nutraceutical Phase 4
42 Tocotrienol Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 6829-55-6
43 Vitamin B3 Nutraceutical Phase 4
44 Vitamin B9 Nutraceutical Phase 4
45
Acyclovir Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59277-89-3 2022
46
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
47
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
48
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 84057-84-1 3878
49
Loperamide Approved Phase 3 53179-11-6 3955
50
Famciclovir Approved, Investigational Phase 3 104227-87-4 3324

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of Betaserc on Vestibular Compensation in Patients Suffering From Disabling Meniere's Disease and Having Undergone Vestibular Neurotomy Completed NCT00160238 Phase 4 Betahistine 24 mg bid (Betaserc)
2 Efficacy of Local Overpressure Treatment for Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00831688 Phase 4
3 Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01574313 Phase 4 0.25mg, fludiazine;25mg cephadol@ (diphenidol);200mg kentons@ (tocopherol nicotinate).
4 Isobide Solution and Meniace Tablets Compared to Monotherapy With Meniace Tablets Completed NCT02718846 Phase 4 Meniace;Isobide
5 Prevention of Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss by Intratympanic Dexamethasone Treatment Completed NCT01372904 Phase 4 Dexamethasone Phosphate
6 Evaluation of Inner Ear and Brain Structures With Contrast-enhanced MRI in Patients With Meniere's Disease Recruiting NCT02530931 Phase 4 Gadolinium
7 Evaluation of Inner Ear and Brain Structures With Contrast-enhanced MRI in Healthy Subjects (HYDROPS) Recruiting NCT02529475 Phase 4 Gadoteric acid
8 Efficacy of Antiviral Medications in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease Unknown status NCT01729767 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acyclovir;Placebo
9 Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02612337 Phase 3 OTO-104;Placebo
10 Clinical Trial of Traditional Chinese Diaoshi Jifa Therapy of Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01454726 Phase 3
11 Transtympanic Gentamicin vs. Steroids in Refractory Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00802529 Phase 2, Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Gentamicin
12 Study of Lamotrigine to Treat Ménière's Disease Completed NCT02158585 Phase 3 Lamotrigine;Placebo
13 Effect of Antisecretory Factor, Given as a Food Supplement to Adult Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Recruiting NCT03339505 Phase 3
14 Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02717442 Phase 3 OTO-104;Placebo
15 Famvir for Treatment of Hearing in Unilateral Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT01526408 Phase 3 Famciclovir;Placebo
16 A 6-Month Extension Study of OTO-104 in Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02768662 Phase 3 OTO-104
17 A 6-Month Extension Study of OTO-104 in Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02706730 Phase 3 OTO-104
18 Latanoprost for the Treatment of Menière's Disease Unknown status NCT01973114 Phase 2 Latanoprost
19 OTO-104 for the Treatment of Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01412177 Phase 2 OTO-104;Placebo
20 Study to Evaluate SPI-1005 in Adults With Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02603081 Phase 1, Phase 2 SPI-1005
21 A 1-Year Safety Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Located in United Kingdom Completed NCT02265393 Phase 2 OTO-104;Placebo
22 Sildenafil For Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00145483 Phase 2 Sildenafil
23 Efficacy and Tolerability Study of Betahistine to Ameliorate Antipsychotic Associated Weight Gain in Adolescents and Young Adults Completed NCT00709202 Phase 2 Betahistine
24 The Effects of Gevokizumab in Corticosteroid-resistant Subjects With Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Completed NCT01950312 Phase 2 gevokizumab
25 A Clinical Trial of Anakinra for Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Completed NCT01267994 Phase 1, Phase 2 Anakinra
26 SPI-1005 for the Treatment of Patients With Meniere's Disease Enrolling by invitation NCT03325790 Phase 2 200mg SPI-1005 BID;400mg SPI-1005 BID
27 Open Label Study of OTO-104 in Subjects With Meniere's Disease Terminated NCT02740387 Phase 2 OTO-104
28 OTO-104 for Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01084525 Phase 1 OTO-104 (steroid) 3 mg;Placebo;OTO-104 (steroid) 12 mg
29 Vasopressin and V2 Receptor in Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00599560 Not Applicable
30 Effects of Endolymphatic Sac Drainage With Steroids for Meniere’s Disease Completed NCT00500474 Not Applicable
31 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Inner Ear Pathology Using Intra-Tympanic Contrast Agent Completed NCT02080312 Not Applicable Magnevist (gadopentetate dimeglumine)
32 Cochlear Implantation After Labyrinthectomy or a Translabyrinthine Surgical Approach Completed NCT02309099 Not Applicable
33 Effectiveness of Betaserc® (Betahistine Dihydrochloride) in Patients With Vestibular Vertigo in Routine Practice Completed NCT01759251
34 Healthful Diets and Risk of Hearing Loss Completed NCT03351023
35 Stress Management Therapy for Meniere's Disease Recruiting NCT01099046 Not Applicable
36 Comparison of 3 Methods to Diagnose Endolymphatic Hydrops in Meniere's Disease Recruiting NCT03215420 Not Applicable
37 A Study of a Mastoid Device in Subjects With Ménière's Disease Not yet recruiting NCT03520322 Not Applicable
38 Herbal Medication (Gongjin-dan) for Chronic Dizziness Not yet recruiting NCT03219515 Not Applicable Gongjin-Dan;Placebo
39 Unilateral Meniere Disease: Can Double Dose Gadolinium and Delayed Imaging Make the Diagnosis? Withdrawn NCT02371798 Not Applicable Gadopentetate dimeglumine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Meniere Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: meniere disease

Genetic Tests for Meniere Disease

Anatomical Context for Meniere Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Meniere Disease:

41
Testes, Brain

Publications for Meniere Disease

Articles related to Meniere Disease:

(show all 20)
# Title Authors Year
1
Proinflammatory cytokines and response to molds in mononuclear cells of patients with Meniere disease. ( 29654306 )
2018
2
Extended phenotype and clinical subgroups in unilateral Meniere disease: A cross-sectional study with cluster analysis. ( 28166395 )
2017
3
Meniett device in meniere disease: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. ( 27515294 )
2017
4
Navigating the challenges of Meniere disease. ( 28594693 )
2017
5
Is Electrocochleography Still Helpful in Early Diagnosis of Meniere Disease? ( 28704892 )
2017
6
Imaging of the saccule for the diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere disease, using a three-dimensional T2-weighted steady state free precession sequence: accurate, fast, and without contrast material intravenous injection. ( 29708183 )
2017
7
Endolymphatic hydrops imaging: Differential diagnosis in patients with Meniere disease symptoms. ( 28645678 )
2017
8
The Prevalence of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Meniere Disease: 24-Month Follow-up after Angioplasty. ( 28034701 )
2016
9
Fully Endoscopic Retrosigmoid Vestibular Nerve Section for Refractory Meniere Disease. ( 27441160 )
2016
10
The Intimate Relationship between Vestibular Migraine and Meniere Disease: A Review of Pathogenesis and Presentation. ( 27651559 )
2016
11
Comparison of Endolymphatic Duct Dimensions and Jugular Bulb Abnormalities Between Meniere Disease and a Normal Population. ( 27300452 )
2016
12
Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease. ( 27822199 )
2016
13
Intratympanic dexamethasone versus high dosage of betahistine in the treatment of intractable unilateral Meniere disease. ( 25510210 )
2015
14
Membrane Stress in the Human Labyrinth and Meniere Disease: A Model Analysis. ( 26491481 )
2015
15
Hypoparathyroidism. Meniere disease. ( 22384759 )
2012
16
[Pure tone audiology for Meniere disease: a clinical analysis of 75 cases]. ( 20584692 )
2010
17
Intralabyrinthine fluid dynamics: Meniere disease. ( 15377953 )
2004
18
Absence of COCH mutations in patients with Meniere disease. ( 14704763 )
2004
19
[Is recurrent loss of low frequency tone perception--without vertigo--a precursor of Meniere disease?]. ( 11486588 )
2001
20
[Treatment of Meniere disease with betahistine dimesilate (Aequamen)--double-blind study versus placebo (crossover)]. ( 3894841 )
1985

Variations for Meniere Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Meniere Disease:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 FAM136A NM_032822.2(FAM136A): c.226C> T (p.Gln76Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs690016537 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 70527974: 70527974
2 FAM136A NM_032822.2(FAM136A): c.226C> T (p.Gln76Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs690016537 GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 70300842: 70300842
3 DTNA NM_001198938.1(DTNA): c.1963G> T (p.Val655Phe) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs533568822 GRCh38 Chromosome 18, 34882130: 34882130
4 DTNA NM_001198938.1(DTNA): c.1963G> T (p.Val655Phe) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs533568822 GRCh37 Chromosome 18, 32462094: 32462094

Expression for Meniere Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Meniere Disease.

Pathways for Meniere Disease

Pathways related to Meniere Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.75 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
2
Show member pathways
12.69 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
3
Show member pathways
11.58 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
4 11.08 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4
5 10.92 AQP3 AQP5

GO Terms for Meniere Disease

Cellular components related to Meniere Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.7 AQP1 AQP2 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7 MIP
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 9.7 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
3 apical plasma membrane GO:0016324 9.56 AQP1 AQP2 AQP5 MIP
4 basal plasma membrane GO:0009925 9.4 AQP1 AQP5
5 basolateral plasma membrane GO:0016323 8.92 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4
6 membrane GO:0016020 10.1 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
7 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.07 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7

Biological processes related to Meniere Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.77 AQP1 AQP2 AQP4 AQP5 MIP
2 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 9.76 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
3 odontogenesis GO:0042476 9.63 AQP1 AQP3 AQP5
4 excretion GO:0007588 9.62 AQP2 AQP3 AQP5 AQP7
5 renal water homeostasis GO:0003091 9.56 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4
6 cellular response to copper ion GO:0071280 9.52 AQP1 AQP2
7 multicellular organismal water homeostasis GO:0050891 9.51 AQP1 AQP4
8 pancreatic juice secretion GO:0030157 9.49 AQP1 AQP5
9 carbon dioxide transport GO:0015670 9.48 AQP1 AQP5
10 cellular response to mercury ion GO:0071288 9.43 AQP1 AQP2
11 renal water transport GO:0003097 9.4 AQP1 AQP2
12 glycerol transport GO:0015793 9.26 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP7
13 water transport GO:0006833 9.17 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7

Molecular functions related to Meniere Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 channel activity GO:0015267 9.5 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7
2 urea transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015204 9.37 AQP3 AQP7
3 water transmembrane transporter activity GO:0005372 9.33 AQP1 AQP2 AQP4
4 glycerol channel activity GO:0015254 9.32 AQP3 AQP7
5 glycerol transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015168 9.26 AQP1 AQP2
6 water channel activity GO:0015250 9.17 AQP1 AQP2 AQP3 AQP4 AQP5 AQP7

Sources for Meniere Disease

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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