MCID: MCR020
MIFTS: 48

Microsporidiosis

Categories: Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Microsporidiosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Microsporidiosis:

Name: Microsporidiosis 12 74 52 58 54 43 15 17 71
Infection by Microsporida 12
Infection by Microsporea 12
Infection by Microspora 12
Microsporidiasis 52

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
microsporidiosis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


Summaries for Microsporidiosis

Disease Ontology : 12 An opportunistic mycosis that results in systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised people, has material basis in Microsporidia phylum members.

MalaCards based summary : Microsporidiosis, also known as infection by microsporida, is related to encephalitozoonosis and cryptosporidiosis. An important gene associated with Microsporidiosis is METAP2 (Methionyl Aminopeptidase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and Staphylococcus aureus infection. The drugs Albendazole and Anthelmintics have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, bone marrow and bone, and related phenotypes are immunodeficiency and abdominal pain

Wikipedia : 74 Microsporidiosis is an opportunistic intestinal infection that causes diarrhea and wasting in... more...

Related Diseases for Microsporidiosis

Diseases related to Microsporidiosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 114)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 encephalitozoonosis 32.7 RPN2 PMP2
2 cryptosporidiosis 30.4 TPI1 DEFB4A CD4
3 cyclosporiasis 30.1 TPI1 CD4
4 giardiasis 30.0 TPI1 CD4
5 urethritis 30.0 DEFB4A DEFA5 CD4
6 diarrhea 10.9
7 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 10.6
8 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 10.6
9 immune deficiency disease 10.6
10 uterine sarcoma 10.4 ABCC1 ABCB1
11 temporal lobe neoplasm 10.4 ABCC1 ABCB1
12 colchicine resistance 10.3 ABCC1 ABCB1
13 cholangiolocellular carcinoma 10.3 ABCC1 ABCB1
14 mite infestation 10.3 DEFA1 CD4
15 keratitis, hereditary 10.3
16 myositis 10.3
17 bell's palsy 10.2 DEFA1 CD4
18 autoimmune peripheral neuropathy 10.2 PMP2 CD4
19 conjunctivitis 10.2
20 severe combined immunodeficiency 10.2
21 keratoconjunctivitis 10.2
22 dermatophytosis 10.2 DEFB4A CD4
23 autoimmune neuropathy 10.2 PMP2 CD4
24 amebiasis 10.2 METAP2 CD4
25 cervicitis 10.2 DEFB4A CD4
26 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.2
27 seborrheic dermatitis 10.2 DEFB4A CD4
28 crohn's colitis 10.1 DEFB4A DEFA5
29 cholecystitis 10.1
30 intestinal disease 10.1
31 cholangitis 10.1
32 encephalitis 10.1
33 toxoplasmosis 10.1
34 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 10.1 DEFA1 CD4 ABCB1
35 vaginitis 10.1 DEFB4A CD4 ABCB1
36 bacterial vaginosis 10.1 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
37 multicentric castleman disease 10.1 CD4 ABCB1
38 folliculitis 10.1 DEFB4A CD4
39 oral candidiasis 10.1 DEFB4A DEFA1 CD4
40 salmonellosis 10.1 DEFB4A DEFA5 CD4
41 kaposi sarcoma 10.1
42 acute diarrhea 10.1
43 osteomyelitis 10.1
44 respiratory failure 10.1
45 neutropenia 10.1
46 cystoisosporiasis 10.1
47 coccidiosis 10.1
48 gastroenteritis 10.1
49 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 10.1
50 bronchitis 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Microsporidiosis:



Diseases related to Microsporidiosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Microsporidiosis

Human phenotypes related to Microsporidiosis:

58 31 (show top 50) (show all 54)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 immunodeficiency 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002721
2 abdominal pain 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002027
3 chronic diarrhea 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002028
4 intermittent diarrhea 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002254
5 decreased proportion of cd4-positive helper t cells 31 frequent (33%) HP:0005407
6 vomiting 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002013
7 fever 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001945
8 sinusitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000246
9 anorexia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002039
10 bronchitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012387
11 rhinitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012384
12 nausea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002018
13 dehydration 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001944
14 hepatitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012115
15 osteomyelitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002754
16 cachexia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0004326
17 myositis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100614
18 thyroiditis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100646
19 myocarditis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012819
20 endocarditis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100584
21 sepsis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100806
22 abnormality of the spleen 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001743
23 encephalitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002383
24 corneal ulceration 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012804
25 abnormality of bone marrow cell morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0005561
26 prostatitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000024
27 pneumonia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002090
28 glossitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000206
29 visual loss 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000572
30 pancreatitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001733
31 peritonitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002586
32 abnormality of the parathyroid gland 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000828
33 skin nodule 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0200036
34 abnormal trachea morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002778
35 keratoconjunctivitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001096
36 abnormal vocal cord morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0008777
37 nephritis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000123
38 abnormality of the endometrium 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0030126
39 brain abscess 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0030049
40 lymphadenitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002840
41 pharyngitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0025439
42 bronchiolitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0011950
43 cholangitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0030151
44 adrenocortical abnormality 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000849
45 urethritis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0500006
46 seizure 31 very rare (1%) HP:0001250
47 abnormal fallopian tube morphology 31 very rare (1%) HP:0011027
48 seizures 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
49 weight loss 58 Frequent (79-30%)
50 keratitis 58 Very rare (<4-1%)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Microsporidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 15)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-105 9.55 DEFB4A
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-14 9.55 CD4
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-147 9.55 CD4
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-148 9.55 DEFA1
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-153 9.55 DEFB4A
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-160 9.55 CD4
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-165 9.55 DEFB4A
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-176 9.55 DEFA1
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-178 9.55 DEFA1
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-19 9.55 CD4
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-200 9.55 DEFB4A
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-212 9.55 DEFA1
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-32 9.55 CD4 DEFA1
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-54 9.55 DEFA1 DEFB4A
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-60 9.55 DEFA1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Microsporidiosis

Drugs for Microsporidiosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 8)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 54965-21-8 2082
2 Anthelmintics Phase 3
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
4 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
5 Tubulin Modulators Phase 3
6 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
7 Antimitotic Agents Phase 3
8
Nitazoxanide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 55981-09-4 41684

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Albendazole in HIV-Positive Patients With Intestinal Microsporidiosis Completed NCT00002191 Phase 3 Albendazole
2 A Phase II/III Placebo-Controlled Study of Nitazoxanide (NTZ) For Persons With AIDS and Cryptosporidiosis Completed NCT00001081 Phase 2 Nitazoxanide

Search NIH Clinical Center for Microsporidiosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: microsporidiosis

Genetic Tests for Microsporidiosis

Anatomical Context for Microsporidiosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Microsporidiosis:

40
T Cells, Bone Marrow, Bone, Brain, Small Intestine, Kidney, Prostate

Publications for Microsporidiosis

Articles related to Microsporidiosis:

(show top 50) (show all 706)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
System for expression of microsporidian methionine amino peptidase type 2 (MetAP2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 61 54
16917013 2006
2
Investigations into microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2: a therapeutic target for microsporidiosis. 61 54
16004378 2005
3
Cutaneous microsporidiosis in an immunosuppressed patient. 61
32125011 2020
4
A Narrative Review of Microsporidial Infections of the Cornea. 61
32157613 2020
5
Unusual dominant genotype NIA1 of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in children in Southern Xinjiang, China. 61
32569279 2020
6
Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporidia): Identification of novel genotypes and evidence of transmission between sympatric wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Southern Spain. 61
32500974 2020
7
First identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in pet rabbits in China. 61
32571322 2020
8
Effects of temperature on larval development, alkaloid production and microsporidiosis in the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). 61
32179087 2020
9
The first case of microsporidiosis in Paramecium. 61
32338239 2020
10
Molecular epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon sp., among immunocompromised and immunocompetent subjects in Iran. 61
31972268 2020
11
Molecular identification of microsporidian species in patients with epithelial keratitis. 61
32011230 2020
12
Cell invasion by intracellular parasites - the many roads to infection. 61
32079731 2020
13
Occurrence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in China. 61
31974403 2020
14
Invasion of Host Cells by Microsporidia. 61
32132983 2020
15
Renal Microsporidiosis in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients: A Case Series. 61
29630083 2020
16
Systematic identification of circular RNAs and corresponding regulatory networks unveil their potential roles in the midguts of eastern honeybee workers. 61
31754765 2020
17
First detection and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet fancy rats (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in China. 61
32249756 2020
18
Screening of opportunistic Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in immunocompromised patients in Slovakia. 61
31951694 2019
19
Encephalitozoon intestinalis: A new target for auranofin in a mice model. 61
31868212 2019
20
New genotypes and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet birds in Southwestern China. 61
31667078 2019
21
Demographic and clinical profile of microspodial keratitis in North India: an underreported entity. 61
31749531 2019
22
Microsporidial myositis in adult-onset immunodeficiency: case-based review. 61
31501996 2019
23
Polar tube structure and three polar tube proteins identified from Nosema pernyi. 61
31669539 2019
24
Potential impacts of host specificity on zoonotic or interspecies transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. 61
31494271 2019
25
Genotyping Approach for Potential Common Source of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Hematology Unit. 61
31441425 2019
26
Multimethodological Approach to Gastrointestinal Microsporidiosis in HIV-Infected Patients. 61
31286356 2019
27
Assessment of the first commercial multiplex PCR kit (ParaGENIE Crypto-Micro Real-Time PCR) for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis from fecal samples. 61
31079868 2019
28
Cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis as causes of diarrhea in kidney and/or pancreas transplant recipients. 61
31472993 2019
29
Genome-Wide Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs and Their Regulatory Networks Involved in Apis mellifera ligustica Response to Nosema ceranae Infection. 61
31405016 2019
30
Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in cats and dogs in Victoria, Australia. 61
31395004 2019
31
A Fatal Case of Disseminated Microsporidiosis Due to Anncaliia algerae in a Renal and Pancreas Allograft Recipient. 61
31304191 2019
32
Host Specificity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Public Health Implications. 61
31076351 2019
33
Detection of the intranuclear microsporidian Enterospora nucleophila in gilthead sea bream by in situ hybridization. 61
30968978 2019
34
Opportunistic intestinal parasites in immunocompromised patients from a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, Mexico. 61
31205040 2019
35
First survey of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and dominant genotype Peru6 among ethnic minority groups in southwestern China's Yunnan Province and assessment of risk factors. 61
31121007 2019
36
The Potential Role of Synanthropic Rodents and Flies in the Transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi on a Dairy Cattle farm in China. 61
30191674 2019
37
Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wildlife in Korea: a public health concern. 61
30961667 2019
38
Proteomic and metabolomic responses in hepatopancreas of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected by microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei. 61
30721776 2019
39
Experimental horizontal transmission of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in post-larvae of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. 61
30644111 2019
40
Molecular characterization of new genotypes Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Slovakia. 61
30586572 2019
41
Development and comparison of real-time and conventional PCR tools targeting β-tubulin gene for detection of Nosema infection in silkworms. 61
30956443 2019
42
Molecular Phylodiagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in Children with Cancer: Microsporidia in Malignancies as an Emerging Opportunistic Infection. 61
30644064 2019
43
A Vavraia-like microsporidium as the cause of deadly infection in threatened and endangered Eurycea salamanders in the United States. 61
30871588 2019
44
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Cancer, Organ Transplant and Primary Immunodeficiency Patients in Tehran, Iran 61
30803212 2019
45
Effects of microsporidiosis and food availability on the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville. 61
30580010 2019
46
Importance of clinical signs leading to the diagnosis in a case of microbiological smear negative ocular microsporidiosis. 61
30709889 2019
47
A new scope for orlistat: Effect of approved anti-obesity drug against experimental microsporidiosis. 61
29529254 2019
48
Dual infection of urinary tract with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in HIV/AIDS patients 61
31127886 2019
49
Respiratory microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an HIV-negative hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient. 61
30063985 2018
50
Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in southern China. 61
30218706 2018

Variations for Microsporidiosis

Expression for Microsporidiosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Microsporidiosis.

Pathways for Microsporidiosis

GO Terms for Microsporidiosis

Cellular components related to Microsporidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 8.8 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1

Biological processes related to Microsporidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 defense response GO:0006952 9.72 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
2 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.71 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
3 defense response to fungus GO:0050832 9.58 DEFA5 DEFA1
4 phospholipid translocation GO:0045332 9.58 ABCC1 ABCB1
5 antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide GO:0061844 9.58 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
6 regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway GO:0022400 9.57 METAP2 METAP1
7 innate immune response in mucosa GO:0002227 9.56 DEFA5 DEFA1
8 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to stress GO:0043618 9.52 HSFX2 HSFX1
9 transepithelial transport GO:0070633 9.51 ABCC1 ABCB1
10 antimicrobial humoral response GO:0019730 9.5 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
11 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to heat stress GO:0061408 9.49 HSFX2 HSFX1
12 killing by host of symbiont cells GO:0051873 9.48 DEFA5 DEFA1
13 membrane disruption in other organism GO:0051673 9.46 DEFA5 DEFA1
14 export across plasma membrane GO:0140115 9.43 ABCC1 ABCB1
15 peptidyl-methionine modification GO:0018206 9.37 METAP2 METAP1
16 killing of cells of other organism GO:0031640 9.33 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1
17 N-terminal protein amino acid modification GO:0031365 9.26 METAP2 METAP1
18 protein initiator methionine removal GO:0070084 8.96 METAP2 METAP1
19 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829 8.92 DEFB4A DEFA5 DEFA1 CD4

Molecular functions related to Microsporidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 aminopeptidase activity GO:0004177 9.37 METAP2 METAP1
2 metalloaminopeptidase activity GO:0070006 9.32 METAP2 METAP1
3 xenobiotic transmembrane transporter activity GO:0042910 9.26 ABCC1 ABCB1
4 efflux transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015562 9.16 ABCC1 ABCB1
5 metalloexopeptidase activity GO:0008235 8.96 METAP2 METAP1
6 xenobiotic transmembrane transporting ATPase activity GO:0008559 8.62 ABCC1 ABCB1

Sources for Microsporidiosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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