MCID: MRP001
MIFTS: 42

Morphine Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Morphine Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Morphine Dependence:

Name: Morphine Dependence 12 54 44 15 17 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2560
MeSH 44 D009021
SNOMED-CT 67 286934009
UMLS 71 C0026552

Summaries for Morphine Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 An opiate dependence that involves the continued use of morphine despite despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Morphine Dependence is related to chronic pain and opioid addiction. An important gene associated with Morphine Dependence is OPRK1 (Opioid Receptor Kappa 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Clonidine and Buprenorphine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, spinal cord and cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Morphine Dependence

Diseases related to Morphine Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 87)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chronic pain 30.5 PTGS2 OPRM1
2 opioid addiction 30.5 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCK
3 heroin dependence 30.0 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
4 pertussis 29.9 OPRM1 FOS ADCY10
5 constipation 29.7 PTGS2 PTGS1 PDYN OPRM1 CCK
6 drug dependence 29.5 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CRH
7 withdrawal disorder 29.3 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT FOS
8 opiate dependence 29.3 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 FOS
9 opioid abuse 29.2 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCK
10 sleep disorder 28.8 PDYN HCRTR1 HCRT FOS CRH
11 pain agnosia 28.3 PTGS2 PENK PDYN OXT OPRM1 OPRK1
12 aspirin resistance 10.3 PTGS2 PTGS1
13 osteoid osteoma 10.3 PTGS2 FOS
14 kidney papillary necrosis 10.3 PTGS2 PTGS1
15 gastrointestinal ulceration, recurrent, with dysfunctional platelets 10.3 PTGS2 PTGS1
16 active peptic ulcer disease 10.3 PTGS2 PTGS1
17 ptosis 10.3
18 diarrhea 10.2
19 tremor 10.2
20 antenatal bartter syndrome 10.2 PTGS2 PTGS1
21 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.2 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
22 48,xyyy 10.2
23 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 10.2 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
24 cerebral hypoxia 10.2 FOS CREB1
25 chronic cystitis 10.2 PTGS2 PTGS1
26 femoral cancer 10.2 PDYN FOS
27 urticaria 10.1 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
28 sexual sadism 10.1 OXT CRH
29 somatization disorder 10.1 OXT CRH
30 barbiturate abuse 10.1 OPRM1 HCRT
31 bile reflux 10.1 PTGS2 CCK
32 kluver-bucy syndrome 10.1 OXT HCRT
33 nasal cavity adenocarcinoma 10.1 PDYN CCK
34 neonatal abstinence syndrome 10.1 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
35 cocaine dependence 10.1 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
36 ileus 10.1 OPRM1 CRH CCK
37 social phobia 10.0 OXT CRH CCK
38 cholera 10.0
39 glioblastoma 10.0
40 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ig 10.0 OXT FOS CREB1
41 retrograde amnesia 10.0 PDYN FOS CREB1
42 psychotic disorder 10.0 PDYN OXT OPRM1 CCK
43 toxic encephalopathy 10.0 SLC1A2 PTGS2 CREB1
44 rohhad 10.0 HCRTR1 HCRT
45 status epilepticus 10.0 SLC1A2 GRIN1 FOS
46 substance abuse 9.9 PDYN OPRM1 CRH
47 ocular dominance 9.9 GRIN1 CREB1
48 mental depression 9.9 OXT CRH CREB1
49 alcohol use disorder 9.9 OPRM1 CRH CREB1
50 hypothalamic disease 9.9 HCRT CRH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Morphine Dependence:



Diseases related to Morphine Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Morphine Dependence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Morphine Dependence:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.34 CCK CREB1 CRH FOS GRIN1 HCRT
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.3 ADCY10 ALOX5 CCK CREB1 CRH FOS
3 nervous system MP:0003631 10.13 CCK CREB1 CRH FOS GRIN1 HCRT
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.1 CCK CREB1 CRH FOS OPRK1 OPRM1
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.06 ALOX5 CRH FOS OPRM1 OXT PDYN
6 integument MP:0010771 10.02 CRH FOS OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1 OXT
7 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.81 ADCY10 CCK CRH GRIN1 OPRD1 OPRM1
8 normal MP:0002873 9.56 CREB1 CRH FOS GRIN1 OPRM1 PENK
9 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.32 ADCY10 CREB1 FOS GRIN1 OPRK1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Morphine Dependence

Drugs for Morphine Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 21)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Clonidine Approved Phase 3 4205-90-7 2803
2
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 52485-79-7 40400 644073
3
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 465-65-6 5284596
4
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 57-27-2 5288826
5
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345
6
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 6740-88-1 3821
7
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 68-04-2
8
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 77-92-9 311
9 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 3
10 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination Phase 3
11 Narcotics Phase 3
12 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 3
13 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 3
14 Analgesics Phase 3
15 Anesthetics Phase 3
16 Anesthetics, General Phase 3
17 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 3
18 Citrate Phase 3
19 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 3
20 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 3
21 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine For Out-patient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032968 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
2 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032955 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
3 Intravenous Ketamine for Pain Control During First Trimester Surgical Abortion Suspended NCT03751423 Phase 3 PO Morphine;IV Fentanyl;IV Ketamine;PO Placebo;IV Placebo
4 Randomized Comparison Study of Single Dose Morphine and Fentanyl Added to Intrathecal Mixture on Orthopedics Patients With Undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea Unknown status NCT02014714 Phase 1 Morphine;Fentanyl
5 Combining Neuro-Imaging and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Clinical Intervention in Opioid Use Disorder Not yet recruiting NCT04495673

Search NIH Clinical Center for Morphine Dependence

Cochrane evidence based reviews: morphine dependence

Genetic Tests for Morphine Dependence

Anatomical Context for Morphine Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Morphine Dependence:

40
Brain, Spinal Cord, Cortex, Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Pituitary, Prefrontal Cortex

Publications for Morphine Dependence

Articles related to Morphine Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 722)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
[Opioid receptors altered binding nature in guinea-pig brain following the development of morphine dependence]. 61 54
8544279 1995
2
Enriched environment and social isolation differentially modulate addiction-related behaviors in male offspring of morphine-addicted dams: The possible role of μ-opioid receptors and ΔFosB in the brain reward pathway. 61
33592274 2021
3
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma reduces symptoms of morphine-induced dependence and spontaneous withdrawal in rats. 61
33497577 2021
4
A Conantokin Peptide Con-T[M8Q] Inhibits Morphine Dependence with High Potency and Low Side Effects. 61
33478061 2021
5
Neural bases for attenuation of morphine withdrawal by Heantos-4: role of l-tetrahydropalmatine. 61
33277581 2020
6
The Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Development of Tolerance and Dependence to Morphine in Mice. 61
33207349 2020
7
BDNF receptor antagonism during the induction of morphine dependence exacerbates the severity of physical dependence and ameliorates psychological dependence in rats. 61
32860885 2020
8
Inhibition of orexin receptor 1 contributes to the development of morphine dependence via attenuation of cAMP response element-binding protein and phospholipase Cβ3. 61
32404265 2020
9
Effect of Essential Oil of Zhumeria majdae on Morphine Tolerance and Dependence in Mice. 61
32720116 2020
10
The Effect of Dihydromyricetin, a Natural Flavonoid, on Morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference and Physical Dependence in Mice. 61
32679604 2020
11
Slow-sustained delivery of naloxone reduces typical naloxone-induced precipitated opioid withdrawal effects in male morphine-dependent mice. 61
32772457 2020
12
Persistent effects of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 on naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms and nociceptive behaviors in morphine dependent rats. 61
32746675 2020
13
Impairment of cost-benefit decision making in morphine-dependent rats is partly mediated via the alteration of BDNF and p-CREB levels in the nucleus accumbens. 61
32428531 2020
14
Orexin type-1 receptor inhibition in the rat lateral paragigantocellularis nucleus attenuates development of morphine dependence. 61
32114118 2020
15
Fluoride Affects Dopamine Metabolism and Causes Changes in the Expression of Dopamine Receptors (D1R and D2R) in Chosen Brain Structures of Morphine-Dependent Rats. 61
32235357 2020
16
Venlafaxine inhibits naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms: Role of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. 61
31630319 2020
17
Divergent behavioral responses in protracted opioid withdrawal in male and female C57BL/6J mice. 61
31544297 2020
18
Morphine Addiction and Oxidative Stress: The Potential Effects of Thioredoxin-1. 61
32153403 2020
19
Antibiotic-Driven Gut Microbiome Disorder Alters the Effects of Sinomenine on Morphine-Dependent Zebrafish. 61
32670209 2020
20
Age- and sex-related changes in the severity of physical and psychological dependence in morphine-dependent rats. 61
31639387 2019
21
Involvement of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the rat nucleus accumbens in the maintenance of morphine rewarding properties in the rats. 61
31424230 2019
22
The role of locus coeruleus nucleus TRPV1 receptors in the development and expression of morphine dependence. 61
31998461 2019
23
Synergistic effect of orexin-glutamate co-administration on spontaneous discharge rate of locus coeruleus neurons in morphine-dependent rats. 61
31051222 2019
24
Dezocine Alleviates Morphine-Induced Dependence in Rats. 61
31094808 2019
25
The role of IRAS/Nischarin involved in the development of morphine tolerance and physical dependence. 61
30902386 2019
26
Polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor blocks inflammatory osteoarthritis pain-morphine tolerance effects via activating cannabinoid type 2 receptor. 61
30584942 2019
27
Morphine Dependence is Attenuated by Treatment of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy Cinnamic Acid in Mice and Rats. 61
30632088 2019
28
Fluoxetine increases analgesic effects of morphine, prevents development of morphine tolerance and dependence through the modulation of L-type calcium channels expression in mice. 61
30550947 2019
29
The nuclear receptor Shp regulates morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulation of Ugt2b expression in mice. 61
30689982 2019
30
Dysregulation of Dopaminergic Regulatory Factors TH, Nurr1, and Pitx3 in the Ventral Tegmental Area Associated with Neuronal Injury Induced by Chronic Morphine Dependence. 61
30634592 2019
31
The Attenuating Effect of Curcumin on Morphine Dependence in Rats: The Involvement of Spinal Microglial Cells and Inflammatory Cytokines. 61
32802100 2019
32
Chromium picolinate reduces morphine-dependence in rats, while increasing brain serotonin levels. 61
30269760 2018
33
The gut microbiota mediates reward and sensory responses associated with regimen-selective morphine dependence. 61
30258112 2018
34
Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference Mice. 61
30386959 2018
35
Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal and clock genes expression in striatum: A comparative study in three different protocols for the development of morphine dependence. 61
30030165 2018
36
Modulation of miR-139-5p on chronic morphine-induced, naloxone-precipitated cAMP overshoot in vitro. 61
29916183 2018
37
Sinomenine Protects Against Morphine Dependence through the NMDAR1/CAMKII/CREB Pathway: A Possible Role of Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes. 61
30227624 2018
38
Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment. 61
29859324 2018
39
The effect of metformin on morphine analgesic tolerance and dependence in rats. 61
30065764 2018
40
Magnesium in addiction - a general view. 61
30714574 2018
41
Effects of Clavulanic Acid on the Acquisition and Reinstatement Following Morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice. 61
30519387 2018
42
Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Bivalent Selective Antagonist for the Mu-Delta Opioid Receptor Heterodimer that Reduces Morphine Withdrawal in Mice. 61
29939746 2018
43
Hippocampal glial cells modulate morphine-induced behavioral responses. 61
29626506 2018
44
Effect of Yulangsan Polysaccharide on the Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Sprague-Dawley Rats. 61
29455417 2018
45
Hyperbaric Oxygen Attenuates Withdrawal Symptoms by Regulating Monoaminergic Neurotransmitters and NO Signaling Pathway at Nucleus Accumbens in Morphine-Dependent Rats. 61
29313212 2018
46
Thalidomide attenuates development of morphine dependence in mice by inhibiting PI3K/Akt and nitric oxide signaling pathways. 61
29223784 2018
47
Morphine induces changes in the gut microbiome and metabolome in a morphine dependence model. 61
29483538 2018
48
Agmatine inhibits chronic morphine exposure-induced impairment of hippocampal neural progenitor proliferation in adult rats. 61
29031903 2018
49
Over-expression of CCK1 Receptor Reverse Morphine Dependence. 61
30147637 2018
50
Socialization Alleviates Burden of Oxidative-Stress in Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex in Morphine Addiction Period in Male Rats. 61
28933310 2018

Variations for Morphine Dependence

Expression for Morphine Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Morphine Dependence.

Pathways for Morphine Dependence

Pathways related to Morphine Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 25)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.97 PENK PDYN OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
2
Show member pathways
12.98 PENK PDYN OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3
Show member pathways
12.91 PTGS2 PTGS1 PDYN OPRM1 GRIN1 CREB1
4
Show member pathways
12.61 SLC1A2 GRIN1 FOS CREB1 ADCY10
5
Show member pathways
12.47 PTGS2 PDYN GRIN1 FOS CREB1
6
Show member pathways
12.39 PDYN OPRM1 CREB1 CCT6A
7
Show member pathways
12.37 OXT FOS CRH CREB1
8
Show member pathways
12.24 PTGS2 PTGS1 FOS CREB1
9 11.99 OXT GRIN1 FOS CREB1 ADCY10
10 11.85 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
11
Show member pathways
11.84 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
12 11.82 PTGS2 FOS CREB1
13 11.81 PTGS2 PDYN GRIN1 FOS
14
Show member pathways
11.78 PDYN GRIN1 FOS CREB1
15 11.71 FOS CRH CREB1
16 11.7 SLC1A2 PTGS2 PTGS1 OPRM1 HCRT GRIN1
17
Show member pathways
11.69 PDYN GRIN1 CREB1
18 11.61 PTGS2 OPRM1 OPRD1 FOS ALOX5
19 11.48 OPRK1 GRIN1 CREB1
20
Show member pathways
10.98 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
21 10.9 PTGS2 PTGS1
22 10.88 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
23 10.87 FOS CREB1
24 10.75 PTGS2 PTGS1
25
Show member pathways
10.27 PTGS2 ALOX5

GO Terms for Morphine Dependence

Cellular components related to Morphine Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 synapse GO:0045202 9.95 PDYN OPRK1 HCRTR1 HCRT GRIN1 CRH
2 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.88 PTGS2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GRIN1 FOS
3 axon GO:0030424 9.85 SLC1A2 PENK OPRM1 CREB1 CCK ADCY10
4 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 9.8 PENK PDYN OPRK1 CRH CCK ADCY10
5 terminal bouton GO:0043195 9.63 OXT GRIN1 CCK
6 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.56 PENK PDYN OPRK1 OPRD1
7 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.55 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 CRH CCK
8 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.43 OPRM1 OPRD1
9 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.26 SLC1A2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
10 dendrite GO:0030425 9.17 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 GRIN1 CCK

Biological processes related to Morphine Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 39)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.27 PENK OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRTR1
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.07 PENK PDYN OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.03 PTGS2 PTGS1 FOS CRH ALOX5
4 response to drug GO:0042493 9.99 SLC1A2 PTGS2 FOS CRH CREB1
5 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.98 PTGS2 OPRM1 OPRD1 FOS ALOX5
6 aging GO:0007568 9.93 PTGS2 PENK FOS CREB1
7 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.92 PTGS2 PENK OPRM1 FOS
8 memory GO:0007613 9.85 PTGS2 OXT CREB1 CCK
9 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.85 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 GRIN1 CRH
10 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.84 PTGS2 PENK OXT
11 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.84 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRT
12 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.83 OXT FOS CRH
13 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.83 PTGS2 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
14 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.82 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
15 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.81 OPRM1 HCRT GRIN1
16 visual learning GO:0008542 9.79 GRIN1 CREB1 CCK
17 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.78 OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 CRH
18 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.76 SLC1A2 PENK PDYN OPRK1 HCRTR1 HCRT
19 regulation of NMDA receptor activity GO:2000310 9.75 OPRM1 GRIN1 CRH
20 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.74 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
21 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.71 PTGS2 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
22 sleep GO:0030431 9.69 OXT HCRT FOS
23 response to corticosterone GO:0051412 9.68 FOS CRH
24 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.68 OPRM1 OPRK1
25 prostaglandin biosynthetic process GO:0001516 9.67 PTGS2 PTGS1
26 positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling GO:0043950 9.67 OPRM1 CRH
27 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.67 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
28 cellular response to extracellular stimulus GO:0031668 9.66 SLC1A2 FOS
29 lipoxygenase pathway GO:0019372 9.66 PTGS2 ALOX5
30 maternal behavior GO:0042711 9.65 OXT OPRK1
31 cyclooxygenase pathway GO:0019371 9.65 PTGS2 PTGS1
32 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.65 OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCK
33 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.62 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
34 response to ether GO:0045472 9.61 OXT CRH
35 positive regulation of behavioral fear response GO:2000987 9.61 PENK CRH CCK
36 negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion GO:0033685 9.6 OPRK1 CRH
37 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.56 OPRM1 OPRK1
38 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.5 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRTR1
39 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.1 OXT OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRT CCK

Molecular functions related to Morphine Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.67 OXT CRH CCK
2 dioxygenase activity GO:0051213 9.63 PTGS2 PTGS1 ALOX5
3 peptide binding GO:0042277 9.61 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
4 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen GO:0016702 9.48 PTGS2 ALOX5
5 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.4 OPRK1 OPRD1
6 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.37 PENK PDYN
7 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.33 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
8 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.32 PENK PDYN
9 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity GO:0004666 9.26 PTGS2 PTGS1
10 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.13 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.02 PENK OXT HCRT CRH CCK

Sources for Morphine Dependence

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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