MCID: MLT008
MIFTS: 42

Multinodular Goiter

Categories: Endocrine diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Multinodular Goiter

MalaCards integrated aliases for Multinodular Goiter:

Name: Multinodular Goiter 12 54 15 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050489
UMLS 71 C0342208

Summaries for Multinodular Goiter

Disease Ontology : 12 A goiter characterized by a multinodular enlargement of the thyroid gland.

MalaCards based summary : Multinodular Goiter is related to goiter, multinodular 1, with or without sertoli-leydig cell tumors and graves' disease. An important gene associated with Multinodular Goiter is MNG2 (Multinodular Goiter 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Pathways in cancer and Relaxin signaling pathway. The drugs Parathyroid hormone and Dexamethasone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include thyroid, bone and breast, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and growth/size/body region

Wikipedia : 74 A goitre, or goiter, is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. A goitre can be... more...

Related Diseases for Multinodular Goiter

Diseases in the Multinodular Goiter family:

Goiter, Multinodular 2 Goiter, Multinodular 3

Diseases related to Multinodular Goiter via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 260)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 goiter, multinodular 1, with or without sertoli-leydig cell tumors 34.4 TPO TG DICER1
2 graves' disease 33.2 TSHR TPO TG PAX8 GNAS
3 hyperthyroidism 32.7 TSHR TPO TG PTH GNAS CALCA
4 thyroid carcinoma 31.5 TSHR TPO TG NKX2-1 HRAS CALCA
5 adenoma 31.3 TSHR TG PTH GNAS
6 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 31.2 TSHR TPO TG
7 hypoparathyroidism 31.1 TPO PTH GNAS CALCA
8 graves disease 1 31.0 TSHR TPO TG PTH CALCA
9 thyroiditis 30.8 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 NKX2-1 HRAS
10 iodine hypothyroidism 30.8 TSHR TPO TG
11 thyroid carcinoma, familial medullary 30.8 TG NKX2-1 CALCA
12 nodular goiter 30.8 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG KRT19 HRAS
13 hyperthyroxinemia 30.8 TSHR TPO TG
14 plummer's disease 30.8 TSHR TPO TG PTH
15 acute thyroiditis 30.7 TPO TG CALCA
16 thyroid lymphoma 30.7 TPO TG CALCA
17 hypothyroidism 30.7 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8
18 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 2 30.7 TSHR TG PAX8 HRAS CALCA
19 parathyroid adenoma 30.6 VEGFA PTH GNAS CALCA
20 thyroid tumor 30.6 TPO TG HRAS
21 papillary carcinoma 30.6 TSHR TPO TG PAX8 NKX2-1 KRT19
22 nontoxic goiter 30.6 TSHR TPO TG PTH CALCA
23 small cell carcinoma 30.5 NKX2-1 KRT19 CALCA
24 congenital hypothyroidism 30.5 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8 NKX2-1
25 hashimoto thyroiditis 30.4 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 KRT19 CALCA
26 substernal goiter 30.4 TG PTH CALCA
27 goiter 30.4 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8
28 thyroid gland medullary carcinoma 30.3 TG PAX8 MIR138-1 CALCA
29 thymoma 30.3 VEGFA TG NKX2-1 HRAS
30 postsurgical hypothyroidism 30.3 TPO TG PTH
31 small cell cancer of the lung 30.2 NKX2-1 KRT19 CALCA
32 endemic goiter 30.2 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PTH CALCA
33 differentiated thyroid carcinoma 30.2 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG PAX8 NKX2-1
34 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 2 30.1 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8 NKX2-1
35 follicular adenoma 29.7 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8 NKX2-1
36 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 29.6 VEGFA PAX8 NKX2-1 MIR138-1 KRT19 HRAS
37 thyroid gland disease 29.2 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PTH PAX8
38 thyroid gland anaplastic carcinoma 28.9 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PAX8
39 thyroid gland cancer 28.6 VEGFA TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PTH
40 goiter, multinodular, cystic renal disease, and digital anomalies 12.5
41 goiter, multinodular 2 11.9
42 goiter, multinodular 3 11.9
43 dicer1 tumor predisposition 11.8
44 short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction 11.6
45 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 4 11.4
46 cancer, alopecia, pigment dyscrasia, onychodystrophy, and keratoderma 11.4
47 myopathy - thyrotoxic 11.4
48 transient congenital hypothyroidism 10.6 TSHR TPO
49 hashimoto encephalopathy 10.6 TSHR TPO
50 mechanical strabismus 10.6 TPO TG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Multinodular Goiter:



Diseases related to Multinodular Goiter

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Multinodular Goiter

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Multinodular Goiter:

45 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.37 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8
3 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.3 DICER1 GNAS HRAS NKX2-1 PAX8 PLCB1
4 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.21 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 PAX8 PLCB1
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.18 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.17 DICER1 GNAS KRT19 PTH SLC26A4 SOD1
7 nervous system MP:0003631 10.07 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8
8 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.01 DICER1 GNAS PAX8 PTH TG TPO
9 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.97 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 SOD1
10 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.93 GNAS PAX8 SLC26A4 SOD1 TPO TSHR
11 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.7 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8
12 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.7 DICER1 KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8 PLCB1 SLC26A4
13 skeleton MP:0005390 9.5 DICER1 GNAS HRAS KRT19 NKX2-1 PAX8

Drugs & Therapeutics for Multinodular Goiter

Drugs for Multinodular Goiter (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
2
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
3
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
4
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
5
Calcifediol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 19356-17-3 5283731 6433735
6 Vitamins Phase 4
7 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
8
protease inhibitors Phase 4
9 Hydroxycholecalciferols Phase 4
10 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
11 glucocorticoids Phase 4
12 Antiemetics Phase 4
13 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
14 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
16 Anesthetics Phase 4
17 BB 1101 Phase 4
18 Calciferol Phase 4
19
Teriparatide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 52232-67-4 16133850
20 Hormones Phase 2
21 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
22
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 2 7440-70-2 271
23
Iodine Approved, Investigational 7553-56-2 807
24 cadexomer iodine

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 22)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impact of Preoperative Oral Dexamethasone Supplementation on the Biochemical Parameters and Results of Surgical Treatment in Patients With Nontoxic Multinodular Goiter Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy. Not yet recruiting NCT04412694 Phase 4 Dexamethasone oral tablet 8mg (Dexamethasone Krka tablets(8mg), Warsaw, Poland).;Placebo oral sweetener (Clio tablets, sweetener with a dispenser, Instantina GES, Vienna, Austria).
2 Study to Evaluate the Dose, Safety and Effectiveness of Modified-Release Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (MRrhTSH) When Used in Conjunction With Radioiodine for the Treatment of Multinodular Goiter. Completed NCT00454220 Phase 2 MRrhTSH;MRrhTSH
3 Pretreatment With Recombinant Human Thyrotropin (rhTSH) for the Effect on Thyroid Size and Function, and for the Effect of Radioiodine Treatment in Patients With Nodular Goiter. Prospective, Randomized Double-blinded Trials. Completed NCT00145366 Phase 2 Recombinant human thyrotropin (Thyrogen)
4 Pilot Study of Teriparatide for Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism Terminated NCT01171690 Phase 2 Teriparatide
5 Phase I Study Comparing Pharmacokinetics and Safety Profile of Thyrogen Versus a Modified Release of Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Completed NCT00137891 Phase 1 Modified Release rhTSH
6 Harmonic FOCUS Versus Conventional Technique in Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disease. A Randomized, Prospective Study Unknown status NCT01658085
7 Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Parathyroid Tumors and Their Clinical Correlation With the Disease Unknown status NCT01647503
8 Alterations in Muscle's Functional Characteristics After Parathyroid Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Unknown status NCT03091140
9 Swallowing Function Before and After Surgery for Thyroid Goiter Completed NCT00205348
10 Harmonic Focus Shears Versus Clamp-and-technique for Total Thyroidectomy Completed NCT01003652
11 Five-year Follow up of a Randomized Clinical Trial of Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy With or Without Levothyroxine Treatment Postoperatively Completed NCT00941551 levothyroxine;no levothyroxine
12 Accuracy of Ultrasound Elastastography in Thyroid Nodular Disease. Completed NCT01102127
13 Subtotal Versus Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disease - a Prospective Case-control Surgical Outcome Study. Completed NCT01273714
14 Five-year Follow up of a Randomized Clinical Trial of Total Thyroidectomy Versus Dunhill Operation Versus Bilateral Subtotal Thyroidectomy for Multinodular Non-toxic Goiter. Completed NCT00946894
15 The Effects of Different Degrees of Head-of-bed Elevation on the Respiratory Pattern and Drainage Following Thyroidectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03816371
16 Five-year Follow up of a Randomized Clinical Trial of Bilateral Subtotal Thyroidectomy Versus Total Thyroidectomy for Graves' Disease. Completed NCT01408368
17 Harmonic FOCUS Versus Conventional Technique in Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disease -A Prospective, Comparative, Multicenter, Observational Study Completed NCT00666315
18 Diagnosis Interest of Galectin 3 Dosage in Nodular and Multinodular Goiter Pretreatment Completed NCT01588288
19 A Randomized, Open-label, Parallel-group Study to Determine the Efficacy of Sequential High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Ablation Versus Fixed-dose Radioiodine-131 Therapy in Moderate-sized Non-toxic Multinodular Goiter Not yet recruiting NCT04009863
20 Pilot, Monocentric, Non-comparative Study of the Effectiveness and Safety of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Device in Patients With Autonomous Hyperfunctioning Thyroid Nodules Terminated NCT02169687 Early Phase 1
21 Utility of a Second Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration for the Detection of Thyroid Cancer in the Management of Single Thyroid Nodules or Multinodular Goitre. Withdrawn NCT00954837
22 Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Use of Arista Absorbable Surgical Hemostatic Powder in Total Thyroidectomy With and Without Neck Dissections Withdrawn NCT02568085

Search NIH Clinical Center for Multinodular Goiter

Genetic Tests for Multinodular Goiter

Anatomical Context for Multinodular Goiter

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Multinodular Goiter:

40
Thyroid, Bone, Breast, Testes, Lymph Node, Heart, Pituitary

Publications for Multinodular Goiter

Articles related to Multinodular Goiter:

(show top 50) (show all 1676)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Expression of cytokeratin 19 in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary carcinoma by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. 54 61
18308654 2008
2
Peripheral blood levels of thyroglobulin mRNA and serum thyroglobulin concentrations after radioiodine ablation of multinodular goiter with or without pre-treatment with recombinant human thyrotropin. 54 61
17848834 2007
3
[Sporadic C-cell hyperplasia associated with multinodular goiter]. 61 54
16929791 2006
4
Application of mouse monoclonal antibodies for identification of antigen regions of human thyroid peroxidase in adolescents with Graves' disease and non-toxic multinodular goiter by flow cytometry. 61 54
16390813 2005
5
[Detection of cytokeratin 19 and thyroperoxidase expressions in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases]. 54 61
15958307 2005
6
Human recombinant TSH preceding a therapeutic dose of radioiodine for multinodular goiters has no significant effect in the surge of TSH-receptor and TPO antibodies. 54 61
15753672 2005
7
[Cytofluorymetric evaluation of antigen regions of human thyroid peroxidase in patients with Graves' disease and non-toxic multinodular goiter using mouse monoclonal antibodies]. 54 61
15850534 2005
8
Ultrastructural localization of thyroid peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide-generating sites, and monoamine oxidase in benign and malignant thyroid diseases. 61 54
15116324 2004
9
A somatic mutation in the thyrotropin receptor gene in a patient with an autonomous nodule within a multinodular goiter. 54 61
17018437 2002
10
Diagnostic utility of cytokeratin 19 expression in multinodular goiter with papillary areas and papillary carcinoma of thyroid. 61 54
12446919 2002
11
Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and pendrin are expressed differently in hot and cold nodules of thyroid toxic multinodular goiter. 54 61
11720877 2001
12
Non-hyperfunctioning nodules from multinodular goiters: a minor role in pathogenesis for somatic activating mutations in the TSH-receptor and Gsalpha subunit genes. 54 61
11407651 2001
13
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of papillary thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic utility of cytokeratin 19 immunostaining. 61 54
11038428 2000
14
Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations are present in nonadenomatous hyperfunctioning nodules of toxic or autonomous multinodular goiter. 61 54
10852462 2000
15
Screening of thyrotropin receptor mutations by fine-needle aspiration biopsy in autonomous functioning thyroid nodules in multinodular goiters. 61 54
10319940 1999
16
Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations in histologically heterogeneous hyperfunctioning nodules of multinodular goiter. 54 61
9709907 1998
17
Levothyroxine suppressive therapy is partially effective in treating patients with benign, solid thyroid nodules and multinodular goiters. 61 54
9349571 1997
18
Thyrotropin and thyroglobulin as an index of optimal iodine intake: correlation with iodine excretion of 39,913 euthyroid patients. 61 54
9292948 1997
19
Dissociation of thyrotropin-dependent enzyme activities, reduced iodide transport, and preserved iodide organification in nonfunctioning thyroid adenoma and multinodular goiter. 61 54
8027249 1994
20
Thyroid-stimulating hormone activates phospholipase C in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissue. 61 54
8256209 1993
21
Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors: an analysis of 13 cases. 61
32430758 2020
22
Long-term Effects of Radioiodine in Toxic Multinodular Goiter: Thyroid Volume, Function, and Autoimmunity. 61
32320467 2020
23
Overexpression of mir-129-1, miR-146b, mir-183, and mir-197 in follicular thyroid carcinoma and adenoma tissues. 61
32081771 2020
24
Frailty is More Predictive than Age for Complications After Thyroidectomy for Multinodular Goiter. 61
32052107 2020
25
Fixed 30 mCi 131I-iodine therapy without recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation as an attractive therapeutic alternative in nontoxic nodular goiter. 61
32427701 2020
26
[The thyroid gland in old age : Physiology and pathology]. 61
32572659 2020
27
Predictors of euthyreosis in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine 131I-: a retrospective study. 61
32487052 2020
28
Outpatient thyroidectomy in the pediatric population. 61
32276716 2020
29
The multinodular goiter of the virtuous Roman matron Lucretia by Artemisia Gentileschi. 61
31786793 2020
30
Effect of thyroidectomy on circulating angiogenic cytokines in papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign goiter: Potential for new biomarkers? 61
32482341 2020
31
Endoscopic thyroid lobectomy vs Conventional open thyroid lobectomy. 61
32494283 2020
32
Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland and Ipsilateral Thyroid Incidentaloma: Report of A Rare Case With Review of Literature. 61
32523902 2020
33
[Spinalcord compression secondary to metastases from a non-previous diagnosed thyroid cancer]. 61
32267105 2020
34
[Hereditary predispositions to follicular thyroid tumors]. 61
32192806 2020
35
[Modern thyroid surgery - the surgeon's endocrine-surgical understanding and his responsibility for the extent of surgery and complication rate]. 61
32342248 2020
36
An update on the central nervous system manifestations of DICER1 syndrome. 61
30953130 2020
37
Incidentally Discovered Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas Are More Frequently Found in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Than with Multinodular Goiter or Graves' Disease. 61
31950881 2020
38
Pituitary Blastoma in a 19-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report and Review of Literature. 61
32339726 2020
39
Intrathoracic multinodular goiter surpassing the aortic arch. 61
31402041 2020
40
Hyperthyroidism. 61
32252086 2020
41
Influence of gender and women's age on the prevalence of parathyroid failure after total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. 61
32420248 2020
42
Positive central lymph-nodes are underdiagnosed in patients with Bethesda V cytology in an endemic goiter region. 61
32420249 2020
43
Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology: Focusing on Adherence to Guidelines and Hospital Organization. 61
32273492 2020
44
Thyrotoxicosis in an Indigenous New Zealand Population - a Prospective Observational Study. 61
32161829 2020
45
DGCR8 microprocessor defect characterizes familial multinodular goiter with schwannomatosis. 61
31805011 2020
46
Gynecologic and reproductive health in patients with pathogenic germline variants in DICER1. 61
31952842 2020
47
Acromegaly and ultrasound: how, when and why? 61
31502218 2020
48
Amyloid Goiter in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis and End-Stage Renal Disease. 61
32269439 2020
49
Total thyroidectomy: Safe and curative treatment option for hyperthyroidism. 61
32199035 2020
50
Hyperthyroidism. 61
32206604 2020

Variations for Multinodular Goiter

Expression for Multinodular Goiter

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Multinodular Goiter.

Pathways for Multinodular Goiter

Pathways related to Multinodular Goiter according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 12.62 VEGFA PLCB1 PAX8 HRAS GNAS
2
Show member pathways
12.43 VEGFA PLCB1 KRT19 HRAS GNAS
3
Show member pathways
12.33 TSHR TPO TG SLC26A4 PLCB1 PAX8
4
Show member pathways
12.3 PLCB1 HRAS GNAS CALCA
5
Show member pathways
12.18 PTH PLCB1 GNAS CALCA
6 11.83 TSHR PTH GNAS CALCA
7 11.75 PTH PLCB1 GNAS
8 11.7 VEGFA PLCB1 HRAS
9 11.63 PLCB1 HRAS GNAS
10 11.41 PLCB1 HRAS GNAS
11 11.3 PTH PLCB1 GNAS
12 11.09 PTH PLCB1 GNAS
13 10.96 PLCB1 GNAS CALCA
14 10.85 TSHR PLCB1 PAX8 HRAS GNAS
15 10.11 TSHR TPO TG

GO Terms for Multinodular Goiter

Biological processes related to Multinodular Goiter according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.63 VEGFA TSHR GNAS
2 activation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007190 9.5 TSHR GNAS CALCA
3 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007189 9.46 TSHR PTH GNAS CALCA
4 hormone biosynthetic process GO:0042446 9.43 TPO TG
5 tube formation GO:0035148 9.4 VEGFA DICER1
6 response to parathyroid hormone GO:0071107 9.37 PTH GNAS
7 iodide transport GO:0015705 9.26 TG SLC26A4
8 thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway GO:0038194 8.96 TSHR PAX8
9 thyroid gland development GO:0030878 8.8 TG PAX8 NKX2-1

Molecular functions related to Multinodular Goiter according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity GO:0004996 8.62 TSHR PAX8

Sources for Multinodular Goiter

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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