MS
MCID: MLT020
MIFTS: 73

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Multiple Sclerosis:

Name: Multiple Sclerosis 57 12 75 53 25 54 74 37 55 6 43 44 15 38 17 72 33
Ms 57 53 25 74
Multiple Sclerosis, Disease Progression, Modifier of 57 13
Multiple Sclerosis Modifier of Disease Progression 29 6
Disseminated Sclerosis 57 25
Multiple Sclerosis, Susceptibility to, 1 57
Multiple Sclerosis, Susceptibility to 57
Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility to 40
Generalized Multiple Sclerosis 12
Multiple Sclerosis Variant 59
Multiple Sclerosis 1 57
Insular Sclerosis 12

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
multifactorial

Miscellaneous:
onset 20-55 years of age
women affected more than men (3:2)
association with the hla-drb1*1501-dqb1*0602 haplotype has been repeatedly demonstrated in high-risk (northern european) populations.


HPO:

32
multiple sclerosis:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare neurological diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2377
KEGG 37 H01490
ICD9CM 35 340
MeSH 44 D009103
NCIt 50 C3243
SNOMED-CT 68 24700007
ICD10 33 G35
Orphanet 59 ORPHA228145
MedGen 42 C1868685
UMLS 72 C0026769

Summaries for Multiple Sclerosis

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage (lesions) on the brain and spinal cord. These lesions are associated with destruction of the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses (the myelin sheath) and damage to nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs, in this case tissues of the nervous system. Multiple sclerosis usually begins in early adulthood, between ages 20 and 40. The symptoms vary widely, and affected individuals can experience one or more effects of nervous system damage. Multiple sclerosis often causes sensory disturbances in the limbs, including a prickling or tingling sensation (paresthesia), numbness, pain, and itching. Some people experience Lhermitte sign, which is an electrical shock-like sensation that runs down the back and into the limbs. This sensation usually occurs when the head is bent forward. Problems with muscle control are common in people with multiple sclerosis. Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty walking, or poor bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is also associated with vision problems, such as blurred or double vision or partial or complete vision loss. Infections that cause fever can make the symptoms worse. There are several forms of multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing MS. The most common is the relapsing-remitting form, which affects approximately 80 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. Individuals with this form of the condition have periods during which they experience symptoms, called clinical attacks, followed by periods without any symptoms (remission). The triggers of clinical attacks and remissions are unknown. After about 10 years, relapsing-remitting MS usually develops into another form of the disorder called secondary progressive MS. In this form, there are no remissions, and symptoms of the condition continually worsen. Primary progressive MS is the next most common form, affecting approximately 10 to 20 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. This form is characterized by constant symptoms that worsen over time, with no clinical attacks or remissions. Primary progressive MS typically begins later than the other forms, around age 40. Progressive relapsing MS is a rare form of multiple sclerosis that initially appears like primary progressive MS, with constant symptoms. However, people with progressive relapsing MS also experience clinical attacks of more severe symptoms.

MalaCards based summary : Multiple Sclerosis, also known as ms, is related to multiple sclerosis 3 and pediatric multiple sclerosis, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and back pain. An important gene associated with Multiple Sclerosis is PDCD1 (Programmed Cell Death 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and Toxoplasmosis. The drugs acetic acid and Dinoprostone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Neural Tube and Bone, and related phenotypes are diplopia and emotional lability

Disease Ontology : 12 A demyelinating disease that involves damage to the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord resulting in demyelination and scarring.

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system, specifically the brain and the spinal cord. The disorder is characterized by destruction of the myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers and promotes the transmission of nerve impulses, and damage to nerve cells. The symptoms vary widely from person to person, and may include sensory disturbances in the limbs, problems with muscle control, tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness, difficulty walking, poor bladder control, and vision problems. Most patients have periods during which they have symptoms (clinical attacks). The clinical attacks are typically followed by periods without any symptoms (remission). After several years, the symptoms worsen continuously. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder but the exact cause is unknown. Risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis include genetic factors like changes in the HLA-DRB1 gene and in the IL7R gene and environmental factors, such as exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D, and smoking. The goal of treatment of MS is to decrease attacks and the inflammation within the central nervous system.

MedlinePlus : 43 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down or blocks messages between your brain and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble with coordination and balance Sensations such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles" Thinking and memory problems No one knows what causes MS. It may be an autoimmune disease, which happens when your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins between the ages of 20 and 40. Usually, the disease is mild, but some people lose the ability to write, speak, or walk. There is no single test for MS. Doctors use a medical history, physical exam, neurological exam, MRI, and other tests to diagnose it. There is no cure for MS, but medicines may slow it down and help control symptoms. Physical and occupational therapy may also help. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NINDS : 54 An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) can range from relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating, as communication between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.  Many investigators believe MS to be an autoimmune disease -- one in which the body, through its immune system, launches a defensive attack against its own tissues. In the case of MS, it is the nerve-insulating myelin that comes under assault. Such assaults may be linked to an unknown environmental trigger, perhaps a virus. Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40; the initial symptom of MS is often blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in one eye.  Most MS patients experience muscle weakness in their extremities and difficulty with coordination and balance.  These symptoms may be severe enough to impair walking or even standing. In the worst cases, MS can produce partial or complete paralysis.  Most people with MS also exhibit paresthesias, transitory abnormal sensory feelings such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles" sensations.  Some may also experience pain.  Speech impediments, tremors, and dizziness are other frequent complaints. Occasionally, people with MS have hearing loss. Approximately half of all people with MS experience cognitive impairments such as difficulties with concentration, attention, memory, and poor judgment, but such symptoms are usually mild and are frequently overlooked.  Depression is another common feature of MS.

KEGG : 37
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. This disease typically strikes young adults, especially women. There are four types of MS according to their relapsing or progressive pattern that include relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and progressive relapsing (PRMS). In most patients, the disease has a relapsing-remitting course during the first years. Within 10 years, approximately 50% of patients progress to SPMS. The aetiology of MS is not well understood, but it is likely multifactorial, combining both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the literature on the risk factors for MS has grown substantially. They indicate that a combination of a genetic predisposition, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels is involved. Authorized first-line treatments are considered equally effective, and include interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. They are primarily directed against inflammation, and might fail to adequately control disease activity in some patients. In that case, it has been recommended to switch these patients early to a therapy of higher efficacy. Currently, 13 different drugs with ten different active components are licensed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) for the treatment of MS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 74 Multiple sclerosis: A multifactorial, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Sclerotic lesions are characterized by perivascular infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes and appear as indurated areas in pathologic specimens (sclerosis in plaques). The pathological mechanism is regarded as an autoimmune attack of the myelin sheath, mediated by both cellular and humoral immunity. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia and bladder dysfunction. Genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility to the disease.

Wikipedia : 75 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the... more...

More information from OMIM: 126200 PS126200

Related Diseases for Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases in the Multiple Sclerosis family:

Multiple Sclerosis 2 Multiple Sclerosis 3
Multiple Sclerosis 4 Multiple Sclerosis 5
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2090)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multiple sclerosis 3 35.6 MS3 HLA-DRB1
2 pediatric multiple sclerosis 35.0 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
3 optic neuritis 34.5 MBP HLA-DRB1 CCR5
4 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 34.0 MBP HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
5 hypersomnia 33.7 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
6 autoimmune disease 33.3 PDCD1 MBP HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
7 guillain-barre syndrome 32.4 TNFRSF1A MBP HLA-DQB1
8 systemic lupus erythematosus 32.0 TNFRSF1A PDCD1 MIR223 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
9 autoimmune hepatitis 32.0 PDCD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
10 autoimmune disease of central nervous system 31.7 MBP HLA-DRB1 CCR5
11 lichen sclerosus 30.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
12 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy 30.8 TNFRSF1A HLA-DRB1
13 pityriasis rosea 30.7 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
14 primary biliary cirrhosis 30.7 MIR326 MIR223 MIR20A
15 endometriosis 30.4 MIR223 MIR20A MIR145
16 kidney cancer 29.8 MIR20B MIR20A MIR17
17 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 12.8
18 marburg acute multiple sclerosis 12.8
19 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 12.7
20 primary progressive multiple sclerosis 12.7
21 multiple sclerosis 5 12.7
22 tumefactive multiple sclerosis 12.6
23 progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis 12.6
24 multiple sclerosis 2 12.4
25 multiple sclerosis 4 12.4
26 multiple sclerosis-ichthyosis-factor viii deficiency syndrome 12.2
27 neuromyelitis optica 12.2
28 leukodystrophy, demyelinating, adult-onset, autosomal dominant 12.1
29 autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic disease 11.9
30 allergic encephalomyelitis 11.7
31 trigeminal neuralgia 11.7
32 spasticity 11.6
33 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 11.6
34 leber optic atrophy 11.6
35 pars planitis 11.6
36 malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiency 11.5
37 vitamin b12-responsive methylmalonic acidemia 11.5
38 tremor 11.5
39 brown-sequard syndrome 11.5
40 optic nerve disease 11.5
41 cerebral atrophy 11.5
42 dysphagia 11.5
43 paresthesia 11.5
44 intermediate uveitis 11.4
45 pseudobulbar affect 11.4
46 foot drop 11.4
47 balo concentric sclerosis 11.4
48 retinal vasculitis 11.4
49 myoclonus 11.4
50 locked-in syndrome 11.4

Comorbidity relations with Multiple Sclerosis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Neurogenic Bladder Paraplegia
Trigeminal Neuralgia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis:



Diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Multiple Sclerosis

Human phenotypes related to Multiple Sclerosis:

32 (show all 10)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 diplopia 32 HP:0000651
2 emotional lability 32 HP:0000712
3 depressivity 32 HP:0000716
4 spasticity 32 HP:0001257
5 muscle weakness 32 HP:0001324
6 paresthesia 32 HP:0003401
7 urinary incontinence 32 HP:0000020
8 incoordination 32 HP:0002311
9 urinary hesitancy 32 HP:0000019
10 cns demyelination 32 HP:0007305

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Head And Neck Eyes:
diplopia
vision loss, monocular

Neurologic Peripheral Nervous System:
incoordination
weakness
sensory loss
paresthesias

Laboratory Abnormalities:
increased csf immunoglobulin levels
oligoclonal bands in csf
myelin basic protein in csf

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
emotional lability
spasticity
depression
high intensity area in white matter on head mri
cognitive dysfunction
more
Genitourinary Bladder:
incomplete bladder emptying
incontinence
hesitancy

Clinical features from OMIM:

126200

UMLS symptoms related to Multiple Sclerosis:


seizures, tremor, back pain, pain, headache, hemiplegia, syncope, chronic pain, sciatica, vertigo/dizziness, sleeplessness, muscle cramp

Drugs & Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis

DrugBank drugs 16 :

(show all 9)
# Drug Name Indication DrugBank ID
1 Azathioprine For use in rheumatoid arthritis, preventing renal transplant rejection, Crohn's disease, and colitis. DB00993
2 Cannabidiol When used in combination with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the product Sativex, cannabidiol was given a standard marketing authorization (ie. a Notice of Compliance (NOC)) by Health Canada for the following indications: 1) as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have not responded adequately to other therapy and who demonstrate meaningful improvement during an initial trial of therapy [L886]; Due to the need for confirmatory studies to verify the clinical benefit coupled with the promising nature of the clinical evidence, Sativex was also given a Notice of Compliance with Conditions (NOC/c) by Health Canada for the following indications: 1) as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis; 2) as adjunctive analgesic treatment in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain during the highest tolerated dose of strong opioid therapy for persistent background pain [L886]. DB09061
3 Dalfampridine Dalfampridine is a neurofunctional modifier that helps improve walking speed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DB06637
4 Dimethyl fumarate Used in multiple sclerosis patients with relapsing forms. DB08908
5 Fingolimod Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to reduce the frequency of clinical exacerbations and to delay the accumulation of physical disability. DB08868
6 Glatiramer For reduction of the frequency of relapses in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. DB05259
7 Methotrexate Methotrexate oral solution is indicated for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and pediatric polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis.[L7144] Methotrexate injections for subcutaneous use are indicated for severe active rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis.[L7147,L7150] Other formulations are indicated to treat gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens, hydatiform mole, breast cancer, epidermoid cancer of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides, lung cancer, and advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[L7180] It is also used in the maintenance of acute lymphocytic leukemia.[L7180] Methotrexate is also given before treatment with leucovorin to prolong relapse-free survival following surgical removal of a tumour in non-metastatic osteosarcoma.[L7180] DB00563
8 Peginterferon beta-1a For the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. DB09122
9 Teriflunomide Used in the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). DB08880

Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 596)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
acetic acid Approved Phase 4 64-19-7 176
2
Dinoprostone Approved Phase 4 363-24-6 5280360
3
Mitoxantrone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 65271-80-9 4212
4
Nabilone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51022-71-0 5284592
5
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
6
Lubiprostone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 136790-76-6 656719
7
Acyclovir Approved Phase 4 59277-89-3 2022
8
Ranitidine Approved Phase 4 66357-35-5, 66357-59-3 3001055
9
Cetirizine Approved Phase 4 83881-51-0 2678
10
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
11
Titanium dioxide Approved Phase 4 13463-67-7
12
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
13
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
14
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 119141-88-7, 161796-78-7, 161973-10-0 9568614 4594
15
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
16
Oxybutynin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5633-20-5 4634
17
Phylloquinone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84-80-0
18
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
19
Nitrofurantoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 67-20-9 5353830
20
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 738-70-5 5578
21
Cephalexin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 15686-71-2 27447
22
Ocrelizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 637334-45-3
23
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
24
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
25
Suvorexant Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1030377-33-3
26
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
27
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
28
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
29
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
30
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
31
Donepezil Approved Phase 4 120014-06-4 3152
32
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
33
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
34
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
35
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 113665-84-2, 120202-66-6 60606
36
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
37
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
38
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537
39
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
40
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 144034-80-0, 145202-66-0 5078
41
Zolmitriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139264-17-8 441240 60857
42
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
43
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4291-63-8 20279
44
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
45
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
46
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
47
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
48
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
49
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
50
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2284)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Colecalciferol as an Add-on Treatment to Subcutaneously Administered Interferon-beta-1b for Treatment of MS Unknown status NCT01339676 Phase 4 Colecalciferol;Placebo capsules
2 Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on Disease Activity and Progression in Multiple Sclerotic (MS) Patients Unknown status NCT01417273 Phase 4 Drug: placebo
3 A 32-week, Monocentric, Exploratory, Single Arm Study to Assess Immune Function and MRI Disease Activity in Patients With RRMS Transferred From Previous Treatment With Natalizumab to Gilenya® (Fingolimod) Unknown status NCT02325440 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Natalizumab
4 Efficacy of Sustained-release Oral Dalfampridine on Upper Extremity Function in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02259361 Phase 4 Sustained-release oral dalfampridine;Placebo
5 Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on RAR Gene Expression in PBMC Cells in Multiple Sclerotic Patients Unknown status NCT01705457 Phase 4 Dietary Supplement: vitamin A;placebo
6 The Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on Gene Expression of Cytokine Secreted by CD4+ T Lymphocyte in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Unknown status NCT01407211 Phase 4
7 A Multicenter Longitudinal Cross-sectional Pilot Study, to Compare RNFL Thickness Measured by OCT After Treatment With Glatiramer or After no Treatment in Patients With CIS With or Without Optic Neuritis or With Early RRMS Unknown status NCT00910598 Phase 4 glatiramer acetate
8 Once a Month High-dose Methylprednisolone During Wash-out Period Between Natalizumab and Fingolimod Treatments in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomised, Controlled, Double-blind Trial (NTZ2FTY) Unknown status NCT02769689 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone;Placebo;natalizumab (NTZ);fingolimob (FTY)
9 Phase IV, Rater-blinded, Randomized Study, Comparing 250 mg of Betaseron With 20 mg of Copaxone in Patients With the Relapsing-remitting(RR) or CIS Forms of ms Using 3 Tesla(3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) With Triple-dose Gadolinium Unknown status NCT00176592 Phase 4 Betaseron;Copaxone
10 Effects of ACTHAR on Advanced MRI Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity and on Comprehensive Immune Signature During MS Relapses Unknown status NCT03021317 Phase 4 ACTHar
11 Vitamin D Concentrations and Their Effect on Glucose Metabolism in Pediatrics Unknown status NCT01386736 Phase 4 Vitamin D drops;Placebo drops
12 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Antiseptic Bladder Lavage Versus Pulsatile Lavage With Physiologic Serum in Catheterized Patients With Asymptomatic Bacteriuria With Uropathogens. Unknown status NCT01772875 Phase 4
13 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
14 Treatment for Alcohol Dependence With Gabapentin: A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02771925 Phase 4 Gabapentin 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks;Placebo 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks
15 A Clinical Trial of Danhong Injection in Treating Acute Ischemic Stroke Unknown status NCT02152280 Phase 4 Danhong Injection;Normal Saline
16 The Immune and Clinical Impacts of Vitamin D in Patients With Chronic Musculo-skeletal Pain Unknown status NCT01417923 Phase 4 vitamin D
17 Fatigue Outcomes of Copaxone Users in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00267319 Phase 4 Glatiramer acetate
18 A 6-month Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label Study to Investigate Changes in Biomarkers After Initiation of Treatment With 0.5 mg Fingolimod (FTY720) in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01310166 Phase 4 Fingolimod
19 Double-blind, Randomised,Placebo-controlled Trial of Levetiracetam in Central Pain in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00423527 Phase 4 levetiracetam
20 A 1-week, Open-label, Multi-center Study to Explore Conduction Abnormalities During First Dose Administration of Fingolimod in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01585298 Phase 4 FTY720
21 A 4-month, Prospective, Open-label, Multi-center Phase IV Study to Assess Response to Fingolimod Initiation According to Coping Profile in Adult Patients With Highly Active Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in France Completed NCT01420055 Phase 4 fingolimod
22 A Phase IV Multicenter Randomized Study to Assess the Impact of a Patient Support Program (MinSupport Plus) on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Adherence in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Administered Rebif® With the RebiSmart Device Completed NCT01791244 Phase 4 Rebif®
23 Open Label Study to Evaluate the Safety of Copaxone® and to Monitor the Neurologic Course of Disease in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Copaxone Completed NCT00203021 Phase 4 Glatiramer acetate
24 A Multi-centre, Open-label, Non-randomised, Parallel Group Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Fingolimod in Naive Patients Versus Fingolimod in Patients Previously Treated With Interferons or Glatiramer Acetate, Based on the Presence of Relapses in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. Completed NCT01498887 Phase 4 Fingolimod (FTY720)
25 Bladder Management in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Optimizing Practice Patterns Completed NCT01930799 Phase 4
26 Alemtuzumab on Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity and Repair Using Advanced MRI Measures in Subjects With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01395316 Phase 4 Alemtuzumab
27 A Multicenter Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Cesamet™ for the Symptomatic Treatment of Pain in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00381264 Phase 4 Cesamet™ (nabilone)
28 An Open-Label Safety Extension Study of AVONEX® (Interferon Beta-1a) Treatment in Subjects Who Completed Biogen Studies C95-812, C96-823, or C97-830 Completed NCT00915460 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a (Avonex)
29 A 6-month, Randomized, Active Comparator, Open-label, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Patient Outcomes, Safety and Tolerability of (Fingolimod) 0.5 mg/Day in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Therapy Change From Previous Disease Modifying Therapy (DMT) Completed NCT01534182 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Interferon beta - 1a (IFN);Glatiramer acetate (GA)
30 Evaluation of Emotional Disorders During Treatment by Interferon Beta in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT01201343 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a
31 Long-term Follow up of Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Enrolled in the Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label Biobank Study (CFTY720DDE01), to Investigate Changes in Biomarkers After 48 Months of Treatment With 0.5 mg Fingolimod (FTY720) Completed NCT02720107 Phase 4 fingolimod
32 A Randomized, Open-Label Study to Assess the Effects of Tysabri Treatment on Vaccination Response and Lymphocyte Subsets in Subjects With Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00536120 Phase 4
33 An Open-Label, Randomized, Single Cross-Over Study of Isopropyl Alcohol Wipes Versus No Injection Site Preparation on Local Injection Site Reactions Among Persons With Multiple Sclerosis Who Perform Daily Injections of Copaxone® Completed NCT00220922 Phase 4
34 A Pilot Multi-Center, Open-Label, Assessor Blinded, Prospective Profiling Study in MS Subjects Treated With AVONEX®, MS Subjects Naïve to Treatment, and Healthy Control Subjects Completed NCT00913666 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a (Avonex)
35 Prospective Phase IV Clinical Trial on Effectiveness of Rebif Treatment of CIS and RMS Patients in Romania Using Electronic Device RebiSmart™ Completed NCT02254304 Phase 4 Rebif
36 An Open Label, Prospective Parallel Cohort Study Comparing A 90-day Copaxone® Adherence Enhancement Program Among Persons With Multiple Sclerosis Who Participate in Shared Solutions® Alone or in Partnership With Their MS Center Completed NCT00240006 Phase 4
37 Multicentre, Single Arm, Open, Phase IV Study To Evaluate Immunogenicity And Safety Of Subcutaneous r-hIFN Beta-1a (Rebif®) Using Clone 484-39 In The Treatment Of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00367484 Phase 4
38 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Blinded, Parallel-Group Study of AVONEX Compared With AVONEX in Combination With Oral Methotrexate, Intravenous Methylprednisolone, or Both in Subjects With Relapsing Remitting MS Who Have Breakthrough Disease on AVONEX Monotherapy. Completed NCT00112034 Phase 4 Methotrexate;IV methylprednisolone
39 CONFIDENCE: A Multinational, Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel Group, Open-Label Study to Assess Medication Satisfaction in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Treated With Subcutaneous Injections of Copaxone(R) (Glatiramer Acetate) 40 mg/mL Three Times a Week Compared to 20 mg/mL Daily Completed NCT02499900 Phase 4 Copaxone®
40 A 6-month, Randomized, Active Comparator, Open-label, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Patient OutComes, Safety and Tolerability of Fingolimod (FTY720) 0.5 mg/Day in Patients With Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Candidates for MS Therapy Change From Previous Disease Modifying Therapy (EPOC) Completed NCT01216072 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Standard MS DMTs
41 A Prospective, Open-label, Non-randomized, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy in RUSsian RRMS Patients on One Year Treatment With Natalizumab (TYSabri®). Completed NCT02142205 Phase 4
42 A Multicenter, Open-Label, Single-Arm Study to Evaluate Gastrointestinal Tolerability in Subjects With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Dimethyl Fumarate (TOLERATE) Completed NCT02125604 Phase 4 dimethyl fumarate
43 Effects of Fingolimod (Gilenya®) on Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT02373098 Phase 4 Fingolimod 0.5 mg
44 An Open Label Trial of Safety and Efficacy of Combination Therapy With Interferon-B-1a and Oral Doxycycline in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Completed NCT00246324 Phase 4 Interferon beta 1a, oral doxycycline
45 A Twenty-four Week, Two Arm, Pilot Trial to Evaluate Remyelination/ Demyelination, Gray Matter Volume and Iron Deposition in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Immune Status of Subjects With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Treated With Rebif® 44 mcg Subcutaneously (sc) Three Times a Week (Tiw) Compared to a Healthy Control Group Completed NCT01085318 Phase 4 Rebif
46 Phase IV, Multicenter, Open Label, Randomized Study of Rebif® 44 mcg Administered Three Times Per Week by Subcutaneous Injection Compared With Copaxone® 20 mg Administered Daily by Subcutaneous Injection in the Treatment of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00078338 Phase 4 Rebif®;Copaxone®
47 A 6-month, Randomized, Active Comparator, Open-label, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Patient Outcomes, Safety and Tolerability of Fingolimod (FTY720) 0.5 mg/Day in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Candidates for MS Therapy Change From Previous Disease Modifying Therapy (EPOC) Completed NCT01317004 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Standard MS DMT
48 A Randomized Controlled Double-blind Cross-over Trial of Dalfampridine ER for Effect on Ambulatory Activity in People With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01356940 Phase 4 dalfampridine ER;placebo
49 Evaluation of the Correlation Between the MS Functional Composite Index and Two Quality of Life Scales (MS54 and AMS Quality of Life) in Relapsing MS Patients Treated With Interferon Beta-1a (AVONEX®) Completed NCT00534261 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a
50 A Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Aricept® in Memory-Impaired Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Phase IV Demonstration of Functional MRI (fMRI) as a Surrogate Marker of Brain Activity Associated With Improvement in Memory Function Completed NCT00315367 Phase 4 Donepezil HCI (drug)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Multiple Sclerosis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Azathioprine
Azathioprine
Baclofen
Cannabidiol
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE CALCIUM
Cladribine
COBALAMIN CONCENTRATE
Cyclophosphamide
Daclizumab
Dalfampridine
Dantrolene
Dantrolene Sodium
Dimethyl fumarate
Fingolimod
Glatiramer
Hydroxocobalamin
HYDROXOCOBALAMIN ACETATE
Interferon beta-1a
interferon beta-1b
mecobalamin
Methotrexate
Mitoxantrone
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
natalizumab
Peginterferon beta-1a
Teriflunomide
Vitamin B 12

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Multiple Sclerosis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Multiple Sclerosis:
Autologous bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived stromal cells for multiple sclerosis
Epiblast stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells for multiple sclerosis
FCRx, bioengineered hematopoietic stem cells for immunological tolerance
Hematopoietic stem cells for multiple sclerosis
MultiStem, bone marrow-derived cells for neurological disorders
NU211-01/NU215-02, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
NurOwn, mesenchymal stem cells secreting NTF for neurodegenerative diseases
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells for multiple sclerosis
Tcelna, autologous T-cell immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis
Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for teatment of multiple sclerosis
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Multiple Sclerosis:
Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family) PMIDs: 19378207
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22277374
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22236384 22277374 21366911
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells PMIDs: 21946668
Facilitating cells PMIDs: 17150368
Bone marrow-derived adherent progenitor cells (MultiStem) PMIDs: 23205020 20637752 23020860 21175285 21248119
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 20682053
Astrocyte-like cells PMIDs: 19603590 19127447
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22638856
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells PMIDs: 19363151
Myelin-reactive T-cells PMIDs: 18465664 21563876 19230777
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)

Cochrane evidence based reviews: multiple sclerosis

Genetic Tests for Multiple Sclerosis

Genetic tests related to Multiple Sclerosis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Multiple Sclerosis Modifier of Disease Progression 29

Anatomical Context for Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Multiple Sclerosis:

41
Brain, T Cells, Testes, Spinal Cord, Bone, B Cells, Monocytes
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Multiple Sclerosis:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Neural Tube Cortical Sub Ventricular Zone Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Bone Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Limb Pelvic Girdle Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
4 Placenta Chorionic Villus Chorionic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
5 Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
6 Spinal Cord Spinal Cord White Matter Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Affected by disease
7 Brain Forebrain White Matter Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Affected by disease
8 Brain Forebrain White Matter Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
9 Neural Tube Medial Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
10 Neural Tube dP4 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
11 Neural Tube Motor Neural Progenitor Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
12 Neural Tube Lateral Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
13 Neural Tube dP3 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
14 Neural Tube Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
15 Neural Tube dP5 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
16 Neural Tube Anterior Entopeduncular Area Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
17 Spinal Cord Spinal Cord White Matter Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Multiple Sclerosis

Articles related to Multiple Sclerosis:

(show top 50) (show all 31383)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis identified by a genomewide study. 9 38 8 71
17660530 2007
2
CC-chemokine receptor 5 polymorphism and age of onset in familial multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group. 9 38 8 71
10803840 2000
3
A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis. 9 8 71
15912506 2005
4
A mutated CCR5 gene may have favorable prognostic implications in MS. 9 8 71
12874407 2003
5
APOE epsilon4 and the cognitive genetics of multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
20479360 2010
6
The role of the CD58 locus in multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
19237575 2009
7
Cystatin C in cerebrospinal fluid and multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
16900522 2007
8
Cleavage of cystatin C is not associated with multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
17006926 2007
9
A second major histocompatibility complex susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
17252545 2007
10
A controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
12510038 2003
11
Lower levels of N-acetylaspartate in multiple sclerosis patients with the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele. 9 38 8
12533090 2003
12
Association of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E region with susceptibility to and progression of multiple sclerosis. 9 38 8
11836653 2002
13
No linkage between multiple sclerosis and the T cell receptor alpha chain locus. 9 38 8
7931419 1994
14
Genetic susceptibility in familial multiple sclerosis not linked to the myelin basic protein gene. 9 38 8
7683738 1993
15
No evidence for a role of rare CYP27B1 functional variations in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
23483640 2013
16
No evidence of association between mutant alleles of the CYP27B1 gene and multiple sclerosis. 38 8
23444327 2013
17
Potassium channel KIR4.1 as an immune target in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
22784115 2012
18
Independent replication of STAT3 association with multiple sclerosis risk in a large German case-control sample. 38 8
22095036 2012
19
Rare variants in the CYP27B1 gene are associated with multiple sclerosis. 38 8
22190362 2011
20
Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
21833088 2011
21
Interferon-β inhibits toll-like receptor 9 processing in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
21061396 2010
22
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, HLA-DRB1, and the risk of multiple sclerosis. 38 8
20697062 2010
23
Upregulation of K2P5.1 potassium channels in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
20582984 2010
24
Silencing Nogo-A promotes functional recovery in demyelinating disease. 9 8
20437585 2010
25
Genome, epigenome and RNA sequences of monozygotic twins discordant for multiple sclerosis. 38 8
20428171 2010
26
A rare variant of the TYK2 gene is confirmed to be associated with multiple sclerosis. 38 8
19888296 2010
27
What role for genetics in the prediction of multiple sclerosis? 38 8
20186855 2010
28
Replication analysis identifies TYK2 as a multiple sclerosis susceptibility factor. 38 8
19293837 2009
29
Apolipoprotein genotype does not influence MS severity, cognition, or brain atrophy. 9 8
19786693 2009
30
Genome-wide association study identifies new multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci on chromosomes 12 and 20. 38 8
19525955 2009
31
Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis in multiplex families. 38 8
19506219 2009
32
Genome-wide association analysis of susceptibility and clinical phenotype in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
19010793 2009
33
Epigenetics in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: difference in transgenerational risk localizes to the major histocompatibility complex. 38 8
19098025 2009
34
Multiple sclerosis and the TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation: clinical characteristics of 21 cases. 38 8
19029521 2008
35
Opposing effects of HLA class I molecules in tuning autoreactive CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis. 38 8
18953350 2008
36
HLA-DRB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0408 are strongly associated with the development of antibodies against interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. 9 8
18656179 2008
37
The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis. 38 8
18461312 2008
38
Vitamin D-dependent rickets as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis. 38 8
18541802 2008
39
Childhood sun exposure influences risk of multiple sclerosis in monozygotic twins. 38 8
17646631 2007
40
Protective and therapeutic role for alphaB-crystallin in autoimmune demyelination. 9 8
17568699 2007
41
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. 38 8
17179460 2006
42
Functional epistasis on a common MHC haplotype associated with multiple sclerosis. 38 8
17006452 2006
43
CD24 Ala/Val polymorphism and multiple sclerosis. 38 8
16631259 2006
44
Cleavage of cystatin C in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. 9 8
16437581 2006
45
A second-generation genomic screen for multiple sclerosis. 38 8
15494893 2004
46
PTPRC (CD45) C77G mutation does not contribute to multiple sclerosis susceptibility in Sardinian patients. 9 8
15372250 2004
47
Association of APOE polymorp