Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Multiple Sclerosis:

Name: Multiple Sclerosis 57 12 73 20 43 53 72 36 54 6 42 44 15 37 17 70 32
Ms 57 20 43 72
Multiple Sclerosis, Disease Progression, Modifier of 57 13
Multiple Sclerosis Modifier of Disease Progression 29 6
Multiple Sclerosis, Susceptibility to, 1 57 6
Disseminated Sclerosis 57 43
Multiple Sclerosis, Susceptibility to 57
Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility to 39
Generalized Multiple Sclerosis 12
Multiple Sclerosis Variant 58
Multiple Sclerosis 1 57
Insular Sclerosis 12



57 (Updated 20-May-2021)

onset 20-55 years of age
women affected more than men (3:2)
association with the hla-drb1*1501-dqb1*0602 haplotype has been repeatedly demonstrated in high-risk (northern european) populations.


multiple sclerosis:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2377
OMIM® 57 126200
OMIM Phenotypic Series 57 PS126200
KEGG 36 H01490
ICD9CM 34 340
MeSH 44 D009103
NCIt 50 C3243
SNOMED-CT 67 155023009
ICD10 32 G35
Orphanet 58 ORPHA228145
MedGen 41 C1868685
UMLS 70 C0026769

Summaries for Multiple Sclerosis

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage (lesions) on the brain and spinal cord. These lesions are associated with destruction of the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses (the myelin sheath) and damage to nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs, in this case tissues of the nervous system.Multiple sclerosis usually begins in early adulthood, between ages 20 and 40. The symptoms vary widely, and affected individuals can experience one or more effects of nervous system damage. Multiple sclerosis often causes sensory disturbances in the limbs, including a prickling or tingling sensation (paresthesia), numbness, pain, and itching. Some people experience Lhermitte sign, which is an electrical shock-like sensation that runs down the back and into the limbs. This sensation usually occurs when the head is bent forward. Problems with muscle control are common in people with multiple sclerosis. Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty walking, or poor bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is also associated with vision problems, such as blurred or double vision or partial or complete vision loss. Infections that cause fever can make the symptoms worse.There are several forms of multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing MS. The most common is the relapsing-remitting form, which affects approximately 80 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. Individuals with this form of the condition have periods during which they experience symptoms, called clinical attacks, followed by periods without any symptoms (remission). The triggers of clinical attacks and remissions are unknown. After about 10 years, relapsing-remitting MS usually develops into another form of the disorder called secondary progressive MS. In this form, there are no remissions, and symptoms of the condition continually worsen.Primary progressive MS is the next most common form, affecting approximately 10 to 20 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. This form is characterized by constant symptoms that worsen over time, with no clinical attacks or remissions. Primary progressive MS typically begins later than the other forms, around age 40.Progressive relapsing MS is a rare form of multiple sclerosis that initially appears like primary progressive MS, with constant symptoms. However, people with progressive relapsing MS also experience clinical attacks of more severe symptoms.

MalaCards based summary : Multiple Sclerosis, also known as ms, is related to optic neuritis and pediatric multiple sclerosis, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and back pain. An important gene associated with Multiple Sclerosis is HLA-DRB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR Beta 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cell adhesion molecules and MicroRNAs in cancer. The drugs Suvorexant and Diclofenac have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Neural Tube and Limb, and related phenotypes are spasticity and diplopia

Disease Ontology : 12 A demyelinating disease that involves damage to the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord resulting in demyelination and scarring.

GARD : 20 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system, specifically the brain and the spinal cord. The disorder is characterized by destruction of the myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers and promotes the transmission of nerve impulses, and damage to nerve cells. The symptoms vary widely from person to person, and may include sensory disturbances in the limbs, problems with muscle control, tremors, muscle stiffness ( spasticity ), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness, difficulty walking, poor bladder control, and vision problems. Most patients have periods during which they have symptoms (clinical attacks). The clinical attacks are typically followed by periods without any symptoms ( remission ). After several years, the symptoms worsen continuously. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder but the exact cause is unknown. Risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis include genetic factors like changes in the HLA-DRB1 gene and in the IL7R gene and environmental factors, such as exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D, and smoking. The goal of treatment of MS is to decrease attacks and the inflammation within the central nervous system.

OMIM® : 57 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with various degrees of axonal damage. MS affects mainly young adults with predominance for females. The disorder often leads to substantial disability (summary by Bomprezzi et al., 2003). (126200) (Updated 20-May-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down or blocks messages between your brain and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble with coordination and balance Sensations such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles" Thinking and memory problems No one knows what causes MS. It may be an autoimmune disease, which happens when your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins between the ages of 20 and 40. Usually, the disease is mild, but some people lose the ability to write, speak, or walk. There is no specific test for MS. Doctors use a medical history, physical exam, neurological exam, MRI, and other tests to diagnose it. There is no cure for MS, but medicines may slow it down and help control symptoms. Physical and occupational therapy may also help. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NINDS : 53 An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) can range from relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating, as communication between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.  Many investigators believe MS to be an autoimmune disease -- one in which the body, through its immune system, launches a defensive attack against its own tissues. In the case of MS, it is the nerve-insulating myelin that comes under assault. Such assaults may be linked to an unknown environmental trigger, perhaps a virus. Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40; the initial symptom of MS is often blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in one eye.  Most MS patients experience muscle weakness in their extremities and difficulty with coordination and balance.  These symptoms may be severe enough to impair walking or even standing. In the worst cases, MS can produce partial or complete paralysis.  Most people with MS also exhibit paresthesias, transitory abnormal sensory feelings such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles" sensations.  Some may also experience pain.  Speech impediments, tremors, and dizziness are other frequent complaints. Occasionally, people with MS have hearing loss. Approximately half of all people with MS experience cognitive impairments such as difficulties with concentration, attention, memory, and poor judgment, but such symptoms are usually mild and are frequently overlooked.  Depression is another common feature of MS.

KEGG : 36 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. This disease typically strikes young adults, especially women. There are four types of MS according to their relapsing or progressive pattern that include relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and progressive relapsing (PRMS). In most patients, the disease has a relapsing-remitting course during the first years. Within 10 years, approximately 50% of patients progress to SPMS. The aetiology of MS is not well understood, but it is likely multifactorial, combining both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the literature on the risk factors for MS has grown substantially. They indicate that a combination of a genetic predisposition, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels is involved. Authorized first-line treatments are considered equally effective, and include interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. They are primarily directed against inflammation, and might fail to adequately control disease activity in some patients. In that case, it has been recommended to switch these patients early to a therapy of higher efficacy. Currently, 13 different drugs with ten different active components are licensed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) for the treatment of MS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Multiple sclerosis: A multifactorial, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Sclerotic lesions are characterized by perivascular infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes and appear as indurated areas in pathologic specimens (sclerosis in plaques). The pathological mechanism is regarded as an autoimmune attack of the myelin sheath, mediated by both cellular and humoral immunity. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia and bladder dysfunction. Genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility to the disease.

Wikipedia : 73 Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a demyelinating disease in... more...

Related Diseases for Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases in the Multiple Sclerosis family:

Multiple Sclerosis 2 Multiple Sclerosis 3
Multiple Sclerosis 4 Multiple Sclerosis 5
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1657)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 optic neuritis 33.3 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
2 pediatric multiple sclerosis 33.2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
3 hypersomnia 32.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
4 herpes zoster 31.8 PDCD1 HLA-DRB1 CCR5
5 htlv-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis 31.6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
6 autoimmune hepatitis 31.6 PDCD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
7 pemphigoid 31.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
8 type 1 diabetes mellitus 31.5 PDCD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
9 central nervous system disease 31.4 MIR223 MIR17 MIR145 MIR142 CCR5
10 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 31.2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
11 disease by infectious agent 31.2 MIR223 MIR17 MIR142 CCR5
12 psoriasis 31.1 MIR326 MIR20A MIR17 MIR142 HLA-DRB1
13 sarcoidosis 1 31.1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
14 nervous system disease 31.1 MIR223 MIR20A MIR17 MIR145 MIR142
15 immune deficiency disease 31.0 PDCD1 MIR223 MIR17 MIR142 HLA-DQB1 CCR5
16 autoimmune disease of central nervous system 30.9 MIR223 MIR142 HLA-DRB1
17 primary biliary cholangitis 30.9 PDCD1 MIR326 MIR223 MIR20A MIR17 HLA-DRB1
18 diabetes mellitus 30.8 PDCD1 MIR223 MIR20A MIR17 MIR145 HLA-DRB1
19 connective tissue disease 30.8 MIR223 MIR17 MIR145 MIR142 HLA-DRB1
20 autoimmune disease of the nervous system 30.8 MIR223 MIR142 HLA-DRB1
21 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 30.6 MIR223 MIR17 MIR142 CCR5
22 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 30.6 PDCD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
23 retinal vascular disease 30.5 MIR20B MIR20A MIR17
24 primary adrenal insufficiency 30.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
25 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 30.5 MIR223 MIR20A MIR17 MIR145 MIR142 CCR5
26 autoimmune hepatitis type 1 30.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
27 pityriasis rosea 30.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
28 endometriosis 30.4 MIR223 MIR20A MIR145 MIR142
29 eye disease 30.3 MIR223 MIR20B MIR20A MIR17 MIR142
30 diffuse large b-cell lymphoma 30.0 PDCD1 MIR17 MIR145 MIR142
31 arteries, anomalies of 29.9 MIR223 MIR17 MIR145 MIR142
32 inherited metabolic disorder 29.8 MIR20B MIR17 MIR142
33 breast disease 29.7 MIR20A MIR17 MIR145 MIR142
34 intestinal disease 29.6 MIR223 MIR20A MIR17 MIR145 MIR142
35 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 11.9
36 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 11.7
37 primary progressive multiple sclerosis 11.7
38 multiple sclerosis 5 11.6
39 multiple sclerosis 3 11.6
40 neuromyelitis optica 11.6
41 marburg acute multiple sclerosis 11.6
42 balo concentric sclerosis 11.6
43 progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis 11.5
44 allergic encephalomyelitis 11.4
45 leukodystrophy, demyelinating, adult-onset, autosomal dominant 11.4
46 multiple sclerosis 2 11.3
47 multiple sclerosis 4 11.3
48 spasticity 11.3
49 trigeminal neuralgia 11.3
50 autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic disease 11.3

Comorbidity relations with Multiple Sclerosis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Neurogenic Bladder Paraplegia
Trigeminal Neuralgia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis:

Diseases related to Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Multiple Sclerosis

Human phenotypes related to Multiple Sclerosis:

31 (show all 10)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 spasticity 31 HP:0001257
2 diplopia 31 HP:0000651
3 emotional lability 31 HP:0000712
4 depressivity 31 HP:0000716
5 muscle weakness 31 HP:0001324
6 paresthesia 31 HP:0003401
7 urinary incontinence 31 HP:0000020
8 urinary hesitancy 31 HP:0000019
9 incoordination 31 HP:0002311
10 cns demyelination 31 HP:0007305

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
emotional lability
high intensity area in white matter on head mri
cognitive dysfunction
Genitourinary Bladder:
urinary incontinence
urinary hesitancy
incomplete bladder emptying

Laboratory Abnormalities:
increased csf immunoglobulin levels
oligoclonal bands in csf
myelin basic protein in csf

Head And Neck Eyes:
vision loss, monocular

Neurologic Peripheral Nervous System:
sensory loss

Clinical features from OMIM®:

126200 (Updated 20-May-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Multiple Sclerosis:

seizures; tremor; back pain; headache; syncope; hemiplegia; pain; chronic pain; sciatica; vertigo/dizziness; sleeplessness; muscle cramp

Drugs & Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis

Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 511)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Suvorexant Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1030377-33-3
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
4-Aminopyridine Approved Phase 4 504-24-5 1727
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
alemtuzumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216503-57-0
Vitamin K1 Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84-80-0 5284607
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
Cetirizine Approved Phase 4 83881-51-0 2678
Titanium dioxide Approved Phase 4 13463-67-7
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 161796-78-7, 161973-10-0, 119141-88-7 9568614 4594
Lubiprostone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 136790-76-6 656719
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
Oxybutynin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5633-20-5 4634
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
Mirabegron Approved Phase 4 223673-61-8 9865528
Nabilone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51022-71-0 5284592
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68693-11-8 4236
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 144034-80-0, 145202-66-0 5078
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Zolmitriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139264-17-8 441240 60857
Ocrelizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 637334-45-3
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4291-63-8 20279
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0 6013
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
Simethicone Approved Phase 4 8050-81-5
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2308)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on RAR Gene Expression in PBMC Cells in Multiple Sclerotic Patients Unknown status NCT01705457 Phase 4 Dietary Supplement: vitamin A;placebo
2 The Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on Gene Expression of Cytokine Secreted by CD4+ T Lymphocyte in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Unknown status NCT01407211 Phase 4
3 A Multicenter Longitudinal Cross-sectional Pilot Study, to Compare RNFL Thickness Measured by OCT After Treatment With Glatiramer or After no Treatment in Patients With CIS With or Without Optic Neuritis or With Early RRMS Unknown status NCT00910598 Phase 4 glatiramer acetate
4 Alemtuzumab in Autoimmune Inflammatory Neurodegeneration: Mechanisms of Action and Neuroprotective Potential Unknown status NCT02419378 Phase 4 Alemtuzumab
5 Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on Disease Activity and Progression in Multiple Sclerotic (MS) Patients Unknown status NCT01417273 Phase 4 Drug: placebo
6 A 32-week, Monocentric, Exploratory, Single Arm Study to Assess Immune Function and MRI Disease Activity in Patients With RRMS Transferred From Previous Treatment With Natalizumab to Gilenya® (Fingolimod) Unknown status NCT02325440 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Natalizumab
7 Colecalciferol as an Add-on Treatment to Subcutaneously Administered Interferon-beta-1b for Treatment of MS Unknown status NCT01339676 Phase 4 Colecalciferol;Placebo capsules
8 Once a Month High-dose Methylprednisolone During Wash-out Period Between Natalizumab and Fingolimod Treatments in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomised, Controlled, Double-blind Trial (NTZ2FTY) Unknown status NCT02769689 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone;Placebo;natalizumab (NTZ);fingolimob (FTY)
9 Efficacy of Sustained-release Oral Dalfampridine on Upper Extremity Function in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02259361 Phase 4 Sustained-release oral dalfampridine;Placebo
10 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
11 Effects of ACTHAR on Advanced MRI Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity and on Comprehensive Immune Signature During MS Relapses Unknown status NCT03021317 Phase 4 ACTHar
12 Phase IV, Rater-blinded, Randomized Study, Comparing 250 mg of Betaseron With 20 mg of Copaxone in Patients With the Relapsing-remitting(RR) or CIS Forms of ms Using 3 Tesla(3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) With Triple-dose Gadolinium Unknown status NCT00176592 Phase 4 Betaseron;Copaxone
13 A Double-blind, Crossover, Placebo-controlled Study to Compare the Effects of Nighttime Administration of Suvorexant in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue and Insomnia Unknown status NCT03110315 Phase 4 Suvorexant;Placebo
14 Investigating Indirect Mechanism of Neuroprotection of Tecfidera® (Dimethyl Fumarate) in RRMS and Progressive Patients Unknown status NCT03092544 Phase 4 dimethyl fumarate
15 Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel to Reduce Injection Site Discomfort in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Taking Glatiramer Acetate: A Randomized Controlled Double- Blind Crossover Trial Completed NCT01454791 Phase 4 diclofenac sodium topical gel
16 Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Trial to Compare the Clinical and Radiological Efficacy of Equivalent Doses of Methylprednisolone Administered Orally or Intravenously in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis During Relapse Completed NCT00753792 Phase 4 methylprednisolone;methylprednisolone;Placebo
17 Memantine for Spasticity in MS Patients Completed NCT00638027 Phase 4 placebo;memantine
18 Treatment of Pendular Nystagmus With Gabapentin and Memantine in Patients With Oculopalatal Tremor: a Controled Open-label Study Completed NCT02466191 Phase 4 Memantine;Gabapentin
19 Double-blind, Randomised,Placebo-controlled Trial of Levetiracetam in Central Pain in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00423527 Phase 4 levetiracetam
20 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind Study With a Safety Extension Period to Evaluate the Effect of Aspirin on Flushing Events in Subjects With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Tecfidera® (Dimethyl Fumarate) Delayed-Release Capsules Completed NCT02090413 Phase 4 dimethyl fumarate;acetylsalicylic acid;ASA-Placebo
21 Funktionelle Evaluation Des Autonomen Nervensystems im Zusammenhang Mit Der Erstmaligen Einnahme Von 0,5mg Fingolimod (Gilenya) Bei Patienten Mit schubförmig Verlaufender Multipler Sklerose Completed NCT02048072 Phase 4 Gilenya
22 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Incobotulinumtoxin Type A for the Functional Improvement of Lower Extremity Spasticity in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01968902 Phase 4
23 Long-term Follow-up at 10 Years of Patients Enrolled in the Fingolimod Phase II Program in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Completed NCT02307838 Phase 4
24 A 6-month, Randomized, Active Comparator, Open-label, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Patient Outcomes, Safety and Tolerability of (Fingolimod) 0.5 mg/Day in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Therapy Change From Previous Disease Modifying Therapy (DMT) Completed NCT01534182 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Interferon beta - 1a (IFN);Glatiramer acetate (GA)
25 BENEFIT 11 a Long-term Follow-up Study of the BENEFIT (Betaferon/Betaseron in Newly Emerging Multiple Sclerosis for Initial Treatment, 304747), BENEFIT Follow-up (305207) Studies and BENEFIT Extension (311129) Study to Further Evaluate the Progress of Patients With First Demyelinating Event Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01795872 Phase 4
26 Long-term Follow up of Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Enrolled in the Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label Biobank Study (CFTY720DDE01), to Investigate Changes in Biomarkers After 48 Months of Treatment With 0.5 mg Fingolimod (FTY720) Completed NCT02720107 Phase 4 fingolimod
27 A 12-month, Prospective, Randomized, Active-controlled, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Patient Retention of Fingolimod vs. Approved First-line Disease Modifying Therapies in Adults With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (PREFERMS) Completed NCT01623596 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Disease Modifying therapy
28 A Multi-centre, Double Blind, Randomised, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group Study Investigating Simvastatin as an Add-on Treatment IM Administered Interferon-beta-1a for the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00492765 Phase 4 Interferon-beta-1a;Simvastatin;Placebo
29 The Effect of Tecfidera® (Dimethyl Fumarate, BG00012) on the Gut Microbiota as a Causal Factor for Gastro Intestinal Associated Adverse Events. Completed NCT02471560 Phase 4 dimethyl fumarate;injectable MS DMT
30 A 6-month, Randomized, Active Comparator, Open-label, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Patient Outcomes, Safety and Tolerability of Fingolimod (FTY720) 0.5 mg/Day in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Candidates for MS Therapy Change From Previous Disease Modifying Therapy (EPOC) Completed NCT01317004 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Standard MS DMT
31 A 6-month Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label Study to Investigate Changes in Biomarkers After Initiation of Treatment With 0.5 mg Fingolimod (FTY720) in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01310166 Phase 4 Fingolimod
32 The Study of the Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Immune System and Th1/Th2 Balance in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01225289 Phase 4 Placebo
33 Evaluation of Emotional Disorders During Treatment by Interferon Beta in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT01201343 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a
34 Evaluation of the Correlation Between the MS Functional Composite Index and Two Quality of Life Scales (MS54 and AMS Quality of Life) in Relapsing MS Patients Treated With Interferon Beta-1a (AVONEX®) Completed NCT00534261 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a
35 A 3-year Multi-center Study to Describe the Long Term Changes of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Parameters in Patients Under Treatment With Gilenya® Completed NCT01705236 Phase 4 Fingolimod
36 A Multicentre, Open Label, Non-Comparative Trial Investigating the Recovering of INF-Beta Efficacy in Breakthrough Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Neutralizing Interferon-Beta Antibodies Completed NCT00492466 Phase 4 Interferon-beta-1a;methylprednisolone
37 Multicenter Interventional Phase IV Study for the Assessment of the Effects on Patient's Satisfaction of Plegridy (Pre-filled Pen) in Subjects With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Unsatisfied With Other Injectable Subcutaneous Interferons (PLATINUM) Completed NCT02587065 Phase 4 peginterferon beta-1a
38 A 4-month, Prospective, Open-label, Multi-center Phase IV Study to Assess Response to Fingolimod Initiation According to Coping Profile in Adult Patients With Highly Active Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in France Completed NCT01420055 Phase 4 fingolimod
39 Alemtuzumab on Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity and Repair Using Advanced MRI Measures in Subjects With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01395316 Phase 4 Alemtuzumab
40 Phase IV, Multicenter, Open Label, Randomized Study of Rebif® 44mcg Administered Three Times Per Week by Subcutaneous Injection Compared With no Treatment in the Therapy of Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis After Mitoxantrone Completed NCT01142466 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1a (Rebif)
41 Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT03385356 Phase 4 Vitamin D
42 A Prospective, Open-label, Non-randomized, Clinical Trial to Determine if Natalizumab (Tysabri®) Improves Ambulatory Measures in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Patients "TIMER" Study Completed NCT00871780 Phase 4 BG00002 (natalizumab)
43 A Multi-Centre, Open Label Study to Investigate the Recovery of IFN-beta Efficacy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Neutralising IFN-beta Antibodies and Reduced Bioavailability Completed NCT00493116 Phase 4 Interferon-beta-1a;methylprednisolone
44 CONFIDENCE: A Multinational, Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel Group, Open-Label Study to Assess Medication Satisfaction in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Treated With Subcutaneous Injections of Copaxone(R) (Glatiramer Acetate) 40 mg/mL Three Times a Week Compared to 20 mg/mL Daily Completed NCT02499900 Phase 4 Copaxone®
45 NAPS-MS: NAtalizumab Effects on Parameters of Sleep in Patients With Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis Experiencing Fatigue or Sleepiness Completed NCT01591551 Phase 4 Natalizumab (Tysabri)
46 A 24-week, Multicenter, Exploratory, Two Arm Study to Assess the Effect of Dimethyl Fumarate on Immune-Modulatory Action on T Cells in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (DIMAT-MS) Completed NCT02461069 Phase 4 Dimethyl fumarate
47 A 18-month, Open-label, Rater-blinded, Randomized, Multi-center, Active-controlled, Parallel-group Pilot Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Fingolimod in Comparison to Interferon Beta 1b in Treating the Cognitive Symptoms Associated to Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis and to Assess Possible Relationship of These Effects to Regional Brain Atrophy Completed NCT01333501 Phase 4 Fingolimod;Interferon beta 1b
48 De-escalation After Natalizumab Treatment With Interferon-beta-1b in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01144052 Phase 4 interferon beta-1b;Natalizumab
49 Effects of Fingolimod (Gilenya®) on Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT02373098 Phase 4 Fingolimod 0.5 mg
50 A Long-term Follow-up Study for Multiple Sclerosis Patients Who Have Completed the Alemtuzumab Extension Study (CAMMS03409) Completed NCT02255656 Phase 4 alemtuzumab GZ402673

Search NIH Clinical Center for Multiple Sclerosis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Dantrolene Sodium
Interferon beta-1a
interferon beta-1b
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
Vitamin B 12

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Multiple Sclerosis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Multiple Sclerosis:
Autologous bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Bone marrow-derived stromal cells for multiple sclerosis
Epiblast stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells for multiple sclerosis
FCRx, bioengineered hematopoietic stem cells for immunological tolerance
Hematopoietic stem cells for multiple sclerosis
MultiStem, bone marrow-derived cells for neurological disorders
NU211-01/NU215-02, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
NurOwn, mesenchymal stem cells secreting NTF for neurodegenerative diseases
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells for multiple sclerosis
Tcelna, autologous T-cell immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis
Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for teatment of multiple sclerosis
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Multiple Sclerosis:
Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family) PMIDs: 19378207
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22277374
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22277374 22236384 21366911
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells PMIDs: 21946668
Facilitating cells PMIDs: 17150368
Bone marrow-derived adherent progenitor cells (MultiStem) PMIDs: 23205020 20637752 23020860 21175285 21248119
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 20682053
Astrocyte-like cells PMIDs: 19603590 19127447
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 22638856
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells PMIDs: 19363151
Myelin-reactive T-cells PMIDs: 18465664 21563876 19230777
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)

Cochrane evidence based reviews: multiple sclerosis

Genetic Tests for Multiple Sclerosis

Genetic tests related to Multiple Sclerosis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Multiple Sclerosis Modifier of Disease Progression 29

Anatomical Context for Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Multiple Sclerosis:

Brain, Spinal Cord, T Cells, Bone, Bone Marrow, B Cells, Eye
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Multiple Sclerosis:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Neural Tube Cortical Sub Ventricular Zone Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Limb Pelvic Girdle Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Bone Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
4 Placenta Chorionic Villus Chorionic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
5 Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
6 Spinal Cord Spinal Cord White Matter Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Affected by disease
7 Brain Forebrain White Matter Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Affected by disease
8 Brain Forebrain White Matter Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
9 Neural Tube Motor Neural Progenitor Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
10 Neural Tube Lateral Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
11 Neural Tube dP3 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
12 Neural Tube Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
13 Neural Tube dP5 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
14 Neural Tube Medial Ganglionic Eminence Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
15 Neural Tube dP4 Neural Domain Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
16 Neural Tube Anterior Entopeduncular Area Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
17 Spinal Cord Spinal Cord White Matter Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Multiple Sclerosis

Articles related to Multiple Sclerosis:

(show top 50) (show all 31592)
# Title Authors PMID Year
CC-chemokine receptor 5 polymorphism and age of onset in familial multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group. 61 54 6 57
10803840 2000
Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis identified by a genomewide study. 57 6 54
17660530 2007
A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis. 6 57 54
15912506 2005
A mutated CCR5 gene may have favorable prognostic implications in MS. 6 54 57
12874407 2003
APOE epsilon4 and the cognitive genetics of multiple sclerosis. 61 57 54
20479360 2010
PTPRC (CD45) C77G mutation does not contribute to multiple sclerosis susceptibility in Sardinian patients. 61 54 57
15372250 2004
Lower levels of N-acetylaspartate in multiple sclerosis patients with the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele. 57 54 61
12533090 2003
Nuclear Receptor NR1H3 in Familial Multiple Sclerosis. 61 6
27253448 2016
No evidence of association between mutant alleles of the CYP27B1 gene and multiple sclerosis. 57 61
23444327 2013
No evidence for a role of rare CYP27B1 functional variations in multiple sclerosis. 57 61
23483640 2013
Potassium channel KIR4.1 as an immune target in multiple sclerosis. 61 57
22784115 2012
Independent replication of STAT3 association with multiple sclerosis risk in a large German case-control sample. 61 57
22095036 2012
Rare variants in the CYP27B1 gene are associated with multiple sclerosis. 57 61
22190362 2011
Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. 57 61
21833088 2011
Interferon-β inhibits toll-like receptor 9 processing in multiple sclerosis. 61 57
21061396 2010
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, HLA-DRB1, and the risk of multiple sclerosis. 57 61
20697062 2010
Upregulation of K2P5.1 potassium channels in multiple sclerosis. 61 57
20582984 2010
The multiple sclerosis whole blood mRNA transcriptome and genetic associations indicate dysregulation of specific T cell pathways in pathogenesis. 57 61
20190274 2010
A rare variant of the TYK2 gene is confirmed to be associated with multiple sclerosis. 61 57
19888296 2010
Silencing Nogo-A promotes functional recovery in demyelinating disease. 54 57
20437585 2010
Genome, epigenome and RNA sequences of monozygotic twins discordant for multiple sclerosis. 57 61
20428171 2010
Comprehensive follow-up of the first genome-wide association study of multiple sclerosis identifies KIF21B and TMEM39A as susceptibility loci. 61 57
20007504 2010
Genome-wide association study in a high-risk isolate for multiple sclerosis reveals associated variants in STAT3 gene. 61 57
20159113 2010
What role for genetics in the prediction of multiple sclerosis? 57 61
20186855 2010
Apolipoprotein genotype does not influence MS severity, cognition, or brain atrophy. 54 57
19786693 2009
Genome-wide scan of 500,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms among responders and nonresponders to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. 57 61
19667218 2009
Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis in multiplex families. 57 61
19506219 2009
The role of the CD58 locus in multiple sclerosis. 54 57
19237575 2009
HLA-DRB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0408 are strongly associated with the development of antibodies against interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. 57 54
18656179 2008
Cleavage of cystatin C is not associated with multiple sclerosis. 57 54
17006926 2007
Cystatin C in cerebrospinal fluid and multiple sclerosis. 57 54
16900522 2007
Protective and therapeutic role for alphaB-crystallin in autoimmune demyelination. 54 57
17568699 2007
A second major histocompatibility complex susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosis. 54 57
17252545 2007
Cleavage of cystatin C in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. 57 54
16437581 2006
Timing of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: population based study. 61 57
15585537 2005
A second-generation genomic screen for multiple sclerosis. 61 57
15494893 2004
An extended genome scan in 442 Canadian multiple sclerosis-affected sibships: a report from the Canadian Collaborative Study Group. 61 57
15069025 2004
Association of APOE polymorphisms with disease severity in MS is limited to women. 54 57
15007140 2004
Mapping multiple sclerosis susceptibility to the HLA-DR locus in African Americans. 61 57
14669136 2004
Twin concordance and sibling recurrence rates in multiple sclerosis. 57 61
14569025 2003
Gene expression profile in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: identifying pathways relevant to disease. 57 61
12915464 2003
HLA-DR2 dose effect on susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and influence on disease course. 61 57
12557126 2003
A controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. 54 57
12510038 2003
A functional and structural basis for TCR cross-reactivity in multiple sclerosis. 57 61
12244309 2002
Multiple sclerosis: re-expression of a developmental pathway that restricts oligodendrocyte maturation. 61 57
12357247 2002
Fine mapping of a multiple sclerosis locus to 2.5 Mb on chromosome 17q22-q24. 57 61
12217954 2002
Multiple susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis. 57 61
12217953 2002
Down-regulation of survivin expression in T lymphocytes after interferon beta-1a treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis. 61 57
12117359 2002
Association of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E region with susceptibility to and progression of multiple sclerosis. 57 54
11836653 2002
Confirmation of a gene for multiple sclerosis (MS) to chromosome region 19q13.3. 57 61
12150212 2002